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Nishi-Tokyo-shi, Japan

Aim: To clarify whether the effects of statin treatment on plaque regression vary according to the presence or absence of polyvascular disease (PVD) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Methods: 307 patients with ACS who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention for the culprit lesion at 33 centers were treated with atorvastatin or pitavastatin. Noncoronary atherosclerosis was defined as coexistent, clinically recognized arterial disease other than coronary artery disease (CAD) (cerebral, aortic, or lower extremity). Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) was performed to assess non-culprit coronary atherosclerosis at baseline and at 8-12 months follow-up. Serial IVUS examinations were obtained in 252 patients. Atheroma volume and percent change in atheroma volume of the target plaque was assessed. Results: Patients of the CAD+PVD (n=19) were older (68 vs. 62 years, p=0.02), had lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels at baseline (116 vs. 134mg/dL, p=0.03) than those of the CAD-only group (n=233), whereas LDL-C levels at follow-up were similar (81 vs. 83mg/dL). Although the baseline plaque volume was similar in the two groups (59 vs. 57mm 3), patients of the CAD+PVD group showed milder regression of atherosclerosis than those of the CAD-only group (-8.9% vs. -18.2%, p=0.005). This difference remained significant even after adjustment for coronary risk factors including age and serum LDL-C (p=0.047). Conclusions: Statin treatment results in milder regression of coronary atherosclerosis in CAD patients with polyvascular disease compared to those with CAD only. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Background: The Japan Assessment of Pitavastatin and Atorvastatin in Acute Coronary Syndrome (JAPAN-ACS) trial has found that early aggressive statin therapy in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) significantly reduces the plaque volume (PV) of non-culprit coronary lesions. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate clinical factors that have an impact on plaque regression using statin therapy. Methods and Results: Serial intravascular ultrasound observations over 8-12 months were performed in 252 ACS patients receiving pitavastatin or atorvastatin. Linear regression analysis identified the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and PV at baseline as inhibiting factors, and serum remnant-like particle-cholesterol level at baseline as a significant factor significantly affecting the degree of plaque regression. Significant correlation between % change of PV and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level was found in patients with DM (n=73, P<0.05, r=0.4), whereas there was no significant correlation between the 2 parameters in patients without DM (n=178). Conclusions: The regression of coronary plaque induced by statin therapy after ACS was weaker in diabetic patients than their counterparts. Moreover, vigorous reduction of the LDL-C levels might induce a greater degree of plaque regression in ACS patients with DM.

Arai H.,Kyoto University | Hiro T.,Nihon University | Kimura T.,Kyoto University | Morimoto T.,Kyoto University | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis | Year: 2010

Aim: We have shown that aggressive lipid lowering by pitavastatin and atorvastatin results in marked regression of atherosclerotic coronary lesions after acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The purpose of this study was to address the association of lipid levels after statin therapy with regression of atherosclerotic coronary lesions and major cardiovascular events in patients after ACS. Methods: JAPAN-ACS is a prospective, randomized open-label study performed at 33 centers in Japan. Patients with ACS undergoing intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-guided percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were randomly assigned to receive either 4 mg/day pitavastatin or 20 mg/day atorvastatin within 72 hours after PCI. IVUS image was obtained in 251 patients, including 73 diabetic patients. Lipid profiles at the end of the study were divided into quartiles and the association with the percent change in non-culprit coronary plaque volume (PV) was assessed in total and diabetic patients. We also studied whether baseline and follow-up levels of HDL-cholesterol are associated with restenosis after PCI. Results: Decreasing LDL-cholesterol, non-HDL-cholesterol, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, apolipoprotein B quartiles were associated with a progressively smaller plaque burden in total and diabetic patients. In diabetic patients, further reduction of these parameters was associated with a significantly greater reduction in PV. We also found that patients with lower HDL-cholesterol had a significantly higher incidence of target lesion revascularization. Conclusions: Early intensive statin therapy in patients after ACS results in remarkable regression of coronary PV. Diabetic patients can have a benefit with more intensive therapy to achieve a lower target level in Japanese.

Kawashiri M.-A.,Kanazawa University | Yamagishi M.,Kanazawa University | Sakamoto T.,Saiseikai Kumamoto Hospital | Takayama T.,Nihon University | And 6 more authors.
Cardiovascular Therapeutics | Year: 2013

Background: Previous studies have demonstrated that intensive lipid lowering using rosuvastatin results in regression of coronary plaques. However, few data exist regarding lipid profiles over time, drug tolerability, and the effects of prior use of lipid lowering agents in patients on rosuvastatin treatment. Therefore, we studied these matters in a subanalysis of the Coronary Atherosclerosis Study Measuring Effects of Rosuvastatin Using Intravascular Ultrasound in Japanese Subjects (COSMOS). Methods: Rosuvastatin was titrated for 76 weeks to attain LDL-C < 80 mg/dL in 213 Japanese dyslipidemic patients with CAD. Clinic visits were scheduled for every 4 weeks during the 76-week study period. Changes over time in lipid parameters, changes in those according to prior lipid-lowering therapy, and changes in those according to baseline lipid levels were evaluated in this subanalysis. Results: Overall, 126 patients completed the study. The mean rosuvastatin dose at the last observation carried forward was 16.9 mg (range, 2.5-20 mg). Rosuvastatin significantly increased HDL-C, lowered LDL-C, and improved the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio (all, P < 0.0001). Increases in serum HDL-C levels were significantly greater in patients with HDL-C < 40 mg/dL than in those with HDL-C ≥ 40 mg/dL at baseline (P = 0.0005). The estimated glomerular filtration rate increased significantly by 2.84 ± 9.01 mL/min/1.73 m2 (P < 0.0001). Of 166 adverse events in 74 patients, 113 events in 54 patients were laboratory values beyond the normal range. Conclusion: Rosuvastatin significantly improved lipid profiles, with an acceptable safety profile, contributing to plaque regression in Japanese patients with CAD. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Daida H.,Juntendo University | Takayama T.,Nihon University | Hiro T.,Nihon University | Yamagishi M.,Kanazawa University | And 4 more authors.
Cardiovascular Diabetology | Year: 2012

Background: The incidence of cardiac events is higher in patients with diabetes than in people without diabetes. The Coronary Atherosclerosis Study Measuring Effects of Rosuvastatin Using Intravascular Ultrasound in Japanese Subjects (COSMOS) demonstrated significant plaque regression in Japanese patients with chronic coronary disease after 76 weeks of rosuvastatin (2.5 mg once daily, up-titrated to a maximum of 20 mg/day to achieve LDL cholesterol <80 mg/dl).Methods: In this subanalysis of COSMOS, we examined the association between HbA1c and plaque regression in 40 patients with HbA1c ≥6.5% (high group) and 86 patients with HbA1c <6.5% (low group).Results: In multivariate analyses, HbA1c and plaque volume at baseline were major determinants of plaque regression. LDL cholesterol decreased by 37% and 39% in the high and low groups, respectively, while HDL cholesterol increased by 16% and 22%, respectively. The reduction in plaque volume was significantly (p = 0.04) greater in the low group (from 71.0 ± 39.9 to 64.7 ± 34.7 mm3) than in the high group (from 74.3 ± 34.2 to 71.4 ± 32.3 mm3). Vessel volume increased in the high group but not in the low group (change from baseline: +4.2% vs -0.8%, p = 0.02). Change in plaque volume was significantly correlated with baseline HbA1c.Conclusions: Despite similar improvements in lipid levels, plaque regression was less pronounced in patients with high HbA1c levels compared with those with low levels. Tight glucose control during statin therapy may enhance plaque regression in patients with stable coronary disease.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, Identifier NCT00329160. © 2012 Daida et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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