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Martinez R.,Catalonia Technology Center of Telecomunications | Casellas R.,Catalonia Technology Center of Telecomunications | Munoz R.,Catalonia Technology Center of Telecomunications | Tsuritani T.,KDDI R and D Laboratories Inc.
Journal of Lightwave Technology | Year: 2010

In the evolution from opaque networks, using 3R regenerators and OEO conversions for every wavelength channel, towards transparent networks, relying on end-to-end all-optical connections, translucent networks is considered as an intermediate step. A translucent network is a cost-efficient infrastructure between opaque and transparent networks, that aims at attaining an adequate trade-off between network construction cost (i.e., due to the high cost of 3R regenerators) and the service provisioning performance (i.e., end-to-end optical signal quality). This article addresses the dynamic provisioning of connections within a GMPLS-enabled translucent wavelength switched optical network with sparse 3R regenerators. To this end, translucent-oriented GMPLS protocol extensions are proposed to, on the one hand, disseminate required per node regenerator availability and OSNR-related link and node attributes and, on the other hand, allocate regenerator resources when setting up connections. An on-line OSNR-based impairment-aware RWA algorithm is devised to compute routes aiming at satisfying two constraints: the wavelength continuity constraint and the end-to-end optical signal quality. If either constraint cannot be satisfied, available regenerators along the route are used. To the best of our knowledge, the novelty and progress of this work is that, for the first time, both the proposed translucent GMPLS protocol enhancements and the performance of the RWA algorithm are combined within an experimental control plane network scenario (CTTC's ADRENALINE testbed). This allows validating and evaluating the feasibility of the described translucent GMPLS routing strategy when being potentially deployed into real WSON networks. Several configurations with numbers of 3R regenerators and wavelength channels per link, are experimentally evaluated and compared mainly in terms of the connection blocking probability. Although concrete details about the measured average setup delay are also discussed. © 2010 IEEE.

Konishi S.,KDDI R and D Laboratories Inc.
IEICE Transactions on Communications | Year: 2013

We have seen a rapid increase in mobile data traffic in cellular networks, especially in densely populated areas called "hotspots." In order to deal with this trend, heterogeneous networks (HetNet) are attracting much attention as a method of effectively accommodating such traffic increases using the Long Term Evolution (LTE)-Advanced system in the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP). This paper first presents an overview of HetNet, where various wireless nodes can be deployed over the coverage area formed by macro base stations (BSs). Next, various evaluation results are provided for HetNet, where pico BSs ("Pico-BSs") are deployed over the coverage area of macro BSs ("Macro-BSs"). Then, this paper presents a comprehensive analysis, not only of the effect of overlaying Pico-BSs but also a detailed analyses of the techniques called "cell range expansion (CRE)" and "enhanced inter-cell interference coordination (eICIC)" for facilitating the offloading of user terminals (UEs) from Macro-BSs to Pico-BSs and mitigating interference, respectively, for both downlink and uplink. Noteworthy outcomes found through the comprehensive study are that CRE provides throughput improvements for uplinks, especially for UE connected to Pico-BSs. In addition, this paper demonstrates that CRE contributes to improving downlink throughput especially for low traffic loads. The outcome regarding eICIC is that eICIC provides improvements in total throughput, in spite of the fact that eICIC causes unfairness between UE connected to the Pico-BSs and those with Macro-BSs. Copyright © 2013 The Institute of Electronics.

Minamikawa A.,KDDI R and D Laboratories Inc. | Yokoyama H.,KDDI R and D Laboratories Inc.
Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, CSCW | Year: 2011

In this paper, we investigate personality estimation from Japanese weblog text. Among various personality types, we focus on Egogram, which has been used in Transactional Analysis and is strongly related to the communicative behavior of individuals. Estimation is performed using the Multinomial Naïve Bayes classifier with some feature words that are selected based on the information gain. The validity of this approach was evaluated with real weblog text of 551 subjects. The results show that our approach achieved 12-25% improvement from baseline. The feature words selected for the estimation are strongly correlated with the characteristics of Egogram. Copyright 2011 ACM.

Igarashi K.,KDDI R and D Laboratories Inc. | Igarashi K.,Osaka University | Souma D.,KDDI R and D Laboratories Inc. | Tsuritani T.,KDDI R and D Laboratories Inc. | Morita I.,KDDI R and D Laboratories Inc.
Optics Express | Year: 2014

We numerically and experimentally evaluate the performance of higher-order mode conversion based on phase plates for 10-mode fibers (10MFs). The phase plates have the phase jump of π between multiple planes, which match the phase patterns of linearly polarized (LP) modes of 10MF. First, we numerically investigate the effects of the fabrication errors such as the phase-difference error and the slope in the phase jump of the phase plate. The simulation results for the mode conversion to LP11 indicate that such errors make the spatial pattern of the converted beam asymmetric. In order to maintain the symmetric pattern, the phase-difference error is required to be less than ± 2%, and the ratio of the slope width to the input beam waist should be suppressed to be less than 0.05. Next, we calculate the coupling power efficiencies of the excitation of LP modes in 10MF when the converted beams after the phase plate are launched into 10MF using a lens. As the calculation results, highly accurate adjustment of the input beam waist is required to suppress the crosstalk due to coupling of undesirable LP modes by less than -20 dB. For mode excitation of LP11 or LP12, crosstalk of more than -20 dB is not avoidable even if the input beam waist is carefully adjusted. In contrast, the crosstalk for the mode excitation of LP21 or LP31 is easily suppressed to be less than -20 dB without careful adjustment of the input beam waist. These results suggest that phase plates are not applicable to mode conversion to LP11 and LP12 in 10MF while they are suitable for conversion to LP02, LP21 and LP31. Finally, we experimentally demonstrate conversion from LP01 to LP21 and LP31 modes in 10MF using phase plates. We obtain nearly ideal LP21 and LP31 modes with the small crosstalk due to the coupling of the other undesirable LP modes. © 2014 Optical Society of America.

Liu L.,KDDI R and D Laboratories Inc. | Tsuritani T.,KDDI R and D Laboratories Inc. | Morita I.,KDDI R and D Laboratories Inc. | Guo H.,Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications | Wu J.,Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications
Optics Express | Year: 2011

OpenFlow, as an open-source protocol for network virtualization, is also widely regarded as a promising control plane technique for heterogeneous networks. But the utilization of the OpenFlow protocol to control a wavelength switched optical network has not been investigated. In this paper, for the first time, we experimentally present a proof-of-concept demonstration of OpenFlow-based wavelength path control for lightpath provisioning in transparent optical networks. We propose two different approaches (sequential and delayed approaches) for lightpath setup and two different approaches (active and passive approaches) for lightpath release by using the OpenFlow protocol. The overall feasibility of these approaches is experimentally validated and the network performances are quantitatively evaluated. More importantly, all the proposed methodologies are demonstrated and evaluated on a real transparent optical network testbed with both OpenFlow-based control plane and data plane, which allows their feasibility and effectiveness to be verified, and valuable insights of the proposed solutions to be obtained for deploying into real OpenFlow controlled optical networks. © 2011 Optical Society of America.

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