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Bradley E.L.,UK Environment Agency | Stammati A.,Instituto Superiore Of Sanita | Salkinoja-Salonen M.,University of Helsinki | Andersson M.,University of Helsinki | And 14 more authors.
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2010

This paper describes the use of a suite of extraction procedures applicable to the assessment of the in vitro toxicity of paper/board samples intended for food-contact applications. The sample is extracted with ethanol, water, or exposed to modified polyphenylene oxide (Tenax®) for fatty, non-fatty and dry food applications, respectively. The water extracts are directly suitable for safety assessment using in vitro bioassays. The ethanol extracts of the paper/board and of the exposed Tenax require pre-concentration to give acceptable sensitivity. This is because the in vitro bioassays can tolerate only a small percentage of added organic solvent before the solvent itself inhibits. The extraction procedures have been selected such that they mimic the foreseeable conditions of use with foods and that they are also fully compatible with the battery of in vitro biological assays for the safety assessment of the total migrate. The application of the extraction protocols is illustrated by the results for one of the many paper/board samples provided by the BIOSAFEPAPER project industrial platform members. The assessment indicated that this sample should not be considered as suitable for use with fatty foodstuffs but was suitable for dry and non-fatty foods. Information subsequently received from the manufacturer revealed that this was a non-food-grade product included in the project to test the capabilities of the bioassay procedures. The selection criteria for the test conditions and the suite of methods developed have been prepared in Comite Europeen de Normalisation (CEN) format and is currently being progressed by CEN/TC172 as a European Standard. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.

Honkalampi-Hamalainen U.,University of Eastern Finland | Bradley E.L.,Central Science Laboratory | Castle L.,Central Science Laboratory | Severin I.,University of Burgundy | And 13 more authors.
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2010

In vitro toxicological tests have been proposed as an approach to complement the chemical safety assessment of food contact materials, particularly those with a complex or unknown chemical composition such as paper and board. Among the concerns raised regarding the applicability of in vitro tests are the effects of interference of the extractables on the outcome of the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity tests applied and the role of known compounds present in chemically complex materials, such as paper and board, either as constituents or contaminants. To answer these questions, a series of experiments were performed to assess the role of natural substances (wood extracts, resin acids), some additives (diisopropylnaphthalene, phthalates, acrylamide, fluorescent whitening agents) and contaminants (2,4-diaminotoluene, benzo[a]pyrene) in the toxicological profile of paper and board. These substances were individually tested or used to spike actual paper and board extracts. The toxic concentrations of diisopropylnaphthalenes and phthalates were compared with those actually detected in paper and board extracts showing conspicuous toxicity. According to the results of the spiking experiments, the extracts did not affect the toxicity of tested chemicals nor was there any significant metabolic interference in the cases where two compounds were used in tests involving xenobiotic metabolism by the target cells. While the identified substances apparently have a role in the cytotoxicity of some of the project samples, their presence does not explain the total toxicological profile of the extracts. In conclusion, in vitro toxicological testing can have a role in the safety assessment of chemically complex materials in detecting potentially harmful activities not predictable by chemical analysis alone. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.

Vaha-Nissi M.,KCL Science and Consulting | Vaha-Nissi M.,VTT Technical Research Center of Finland | Hilden S.,KCL Science and Consulting | Hilden S.,BTG | Aikala M.,KCL Science and Consulting
Powder Technology | Year: 2016

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using highly filled powders as electrostatically applied paper coatings. Powders prepared by two different methods were suitable for electrostatic deposition and they attached to the paper surface with a grounded backing. Pressing at elevated temperatures turned out to be a crucial process step for improving the adhesive and cohesive strengths of the powder coating layer on paper. Limited mechanical interlocking with the base paper and an uneven pressure profile were factors impairing the surface strength of the coated paper. On the other hand, factors such as higher polymer content, higher pressing temperature, pre-heating the paper prior to coating, and increasing the number of hot roll nips increased adhesion between the coating and the base paper. Powder coatings as such had uneven thickness, and they displayed a relatively broad pore size distribution. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Vaha-Nissi M.,KCL Science and Consulting
Powder Technology | Year: 2015

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using highly filled powders with 100 parts per weight of calcium carbonate and 10 parts per weight of polymer, acting as binder, as electrostatically applied paper coatings. Such powders prepared by different methods were evaluated as being suitable for electrostatic coating. Powders compacted at elevated temperatures demonstrated cohesion superior to that of calcium carbonate, and at best similar to that of aqueous coatings. Cohesion, porosity and thus absorption properties of compacted powders were affected by the powder preparation method, compaction process, and powder composition. Powders containing semicrystalline polymer turned out to be the most interesting for further testing. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

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