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Shah B.,Kadi Sarva Vishwavidyalaya University | Deshpande S.,Kb Institute Of Pharmaceutical Education And Research
Value in Health Regional Issues | Year: 2014

Objective: To assess the influence of diabetes on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and identify predictors of health status at 1-year follow-up after an acute coronary event. Methods: A prospective cohort study in patients diagnosed with CAD at a tertiary care hospital from India. The EuroQol five-dimensional (EQ-5D) questionnaire was administered at 1-year follow-up. Multivariate stepwise liner regression was used to assess predictors of EQ visual analogue scale (VAS) and EQ-5D questionnaire utility scores. Respondents reporting problems on the EQ-5D questionnaire were stratified by the presence of diabetes at baseline for comparison. Results: Of 960 (30% diabetic) patients with CAD enrolled in a main study cohort, 306 (76% males, 21% diabetic) responded to the HRQOL questionnaire at 1 year. Diabetic patients reported more difficulties/problems than did nondiabetic patients for EQ-5D questionnaire dimensions (mobility, 12.3% vs. 4.1%, P = 0.03; usual activities, 56.9% vs. 41.3%, P = 0.03; pain/discomfort, 50.8% vs. 17.8%, P < 0.001; anxiety/depression, 33.8% vs. 14.9%, P < 0.001), except for self-care (12.3% vs. 17.5%, P = 0.35). Mean ± SD EQ VAS and EQ-5D questionnaire utility scores were significantly lower for patients with CAD with diabetes versus those without diabetes (0.75 ± 0.15 vs. 0.83 ± 0.15, P = 0.0002, and 67.8 ± 8.8 vs. 73.6 ± 5.4, P = 0.0001, respectively). Presence of diabetes, use of beta-blockers on discharge, and treatment strategy significantly influenced the VAS score, whereas myocardial infarction as final diagnosis and the presence of prior CHF predicted worse EQ-5D questionnaire utility scores. Conclusions: The poorer HRQOL as assessed by the EQ-5D questionnaire among patients with CAD who had diabetes highlights the need of individualized treatment programs to improve outcomes in this most vulnerable population. © 2014 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Source

Dhanesha N.,Cadila Healthcare Ltd. | Joharapurkar A.,Cadila Healthcare Ltd. | Shah G.,Kb Institute Of Pharmaceutical Education And Research | Kshirsagar S.,Cadila Healthcare Ltd. | And 4 more authors.
European Journal of Pharmacology | Year: 2013

The glucokinase activators improve the fasting as well as postprandial glucose control and are important investigational drugs for the treatment of diabetes. However, recent studies have implicated that continuous activation of glucokinase with a small molecule activator can increase hepatic triglycerides and the long term glucose control is not achieved. In this study, we investigated the effect of combination of glucokinase activator (GKA, Piragliatin) with GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin-4 (Ex-4) in male db/db mice. Twelve weeks combination treatment in the db/db mice resulted in a significant decrease in body weight gain, food consumption, random glucose and %HbA1c. The decrease in serum glucose and % HbA1c in combination group was more profound and significantly different than that of individual treatment (GKA or Ex-4) group. GKA treatment increased hepatic triglycerides, whereas combination of Ex-4 with GKA attenuated hepatic steatosis. The combination of GKA with Ex-4 reduced the hepatic lipid accumulation, improved the insulin sensitivity, and reduced hepatic glucose production in db/db mice. Overall, our data indicate that combination of GKA and GLP-1 receptor agonist Ex-4 improves glucose homeostasis, shows antiobesity activity, without causing harmful side effects like fatty liver. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Dhanesha N.,Cadila Healthcare Ltd. | Joharapurkar A.,Cadila Healthcare Ltd. | Shah G.,Kb Institute Of Pharmaceutical Education And Research | Kshirsagar S.,Cadila Healthcare Ltd. | And 3 more authors.
Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology | Year: 2012

1. One of the major causes of metabolic syndrome is elevated 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1) in the liver and adipose tissue. High 11β-HSD1 expression contributes significantly to the diabetic phenotype in db/db mice. The purpose of the present study was to test the effect of the pharmacological inhibition of 11β-HSD1 inhibition by carbenoxolone in db/db mice, a genetic model of diabetes. 2. Inhibition of 11β-HSD1 by carbenoxolone was evaluated in liver homogenates obtained from untreated mice. At 0.4, 0.8, 1.6 and 3.2μmol/L, carbenoxolone reduced the conversion of cortisone to cortisol by 21%, 48%, 82% and 95%, respectively. 3. In another series of experiments in which female db/db mice were dosed orally with carbenoxolone (10, 25 and 50mg/kg, twice daily) for 10days, dose-dependent decreases were observed in 11β-HSD1 activity in the brain, adipose and liver. In the case of 10mg/kg carbenoxolone, the effects were not significant. In addition, the bodyweight of female db/db mice was reduced by 10% and 13% following treatment with 10 and 50mg/kg carbenoxolone, respectively. Carbenoxolone treatment dose-dependently improved fat mass, energy expenditure, the serum lipid profile, serum leptin and insulin and glucose tolerance. Furthermore, 50mg/kg carbenoxolone reduced both phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) activity in the liver by 75% and 52%, respectively. These decreases were associated with increased glucokinase protein expression and activity in the liver. 4. Carbenoxolone inhibition of 11β-HSD1 in the liver, adipose and brain significantly improves the symptoms of metabolic syndrome in db/db mice. These improvements can be attributed to increased energy expenditure, decreased activity of the gluconeogenic enzymes PEPCK and G6Pase in the liver and improved glucokinase function in the liver and pancreas. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd. Source

Saiyed M.M.,Kb Institute Of Pharmaceutical Education And Research | Lalwani T.,Kb Institute Of Pharmaceutical Education And Research | Rana D.,Smt NHL Municipal Medical College
International Journal of Risk and Safety in Medicine | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND: The lack of specific medicines and labeling recommendations for the pediatric population is a long-standing problem. Using data from an observational study of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) among pediatric inpatients, we aimed to test the hypothesis that off-label status is a risk factor for ADRs. METHODS: A prospective intensive surveillance was conducted at a pediatric ward of a public teaching hospital. Adverse events to labeled and off-label use were assessed for incidence, severity and predictors. A multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression model used to assess off-label use is a risk factor for ADR occurring. RESULTS: Off-label and labeled use were responsible for 34 (67%) and 17 (33%) ADRs respectively. Medicines which lacked complete pediatric labeling had the greatest odds for ADRs (9.21% of medicines in this category were implicated, OR 2.84 (95% CI 1.37-7.09). Number of off-label medicines given to patient significantly increased the hazard of an ADR (hazard ratio (HR) 1.28, 95% CI 0.43-3.78, P = 0.002). Number of medicines given also significantly increased the hazard (HR 1.2, 95% CI 0.80-1.71, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Use of off-label medicines were more likely to be implicated in an ADR than labeled medicines. This off-label use would be acceptable if evidence of potential benefits outweighs ADRs risk. © 2015 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved. Source

Patel V.J.,Zydus Research Center | Patel V.J.,Kb Institute Of Pharmaceutical Education And Research | Joharapurkar A.A.,Zydus Research Center | Shah G.B.,Kb Institute Of Pharmaceutical Education And Research | Jain M.R.,Zydus Research Center
Current Diabetes Reviews | Year: 2014

Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), is a hormone secreted by small intestine. Consumption of food or glucose stimulates synthesis and secretion of GLP-1 in the bloodstream, which in turn stimulates insulin secretion from pancreas and delays gastric emptying. Owing to the favorable spectrum of effects on reduction of hyperglycemia and body weight, GLP-1 mimetics are intensely pursued as therapies for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Even after intensive control of hyperglycemia, the propensity for cardiovascular disease cannot be totally negated in diabetic patients. A major reason for the cardiovascular disease risk in diabetic patients is underlying dyslipidemia, also termed as diabetic dyslipidemia. It is characterized by high concentrations of triglycerides and LDL cholesterol, and lowered HDL cholesterol in plasma, which are associated with hyperglycemia. Increased insulin resistance gives rise to increased free fatty acids in bloodstream, which is the main reason for the lipid changes appearing in diabetic dyslipidemia. The secondary complications like atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases may be predicted with the blood concentrations of triglycerides and cholesterol, due to the correlation proven in clinic. Hence, new drugs that target diabetic dyslipidemia will always be useful in therapy. Apart from its actions on body weight and glucose, GLP-1 can also regulate cholesterol and triglycerides by numerous ways. Acute and long term treatment with either GLP-1 or its stable analogs reduced fasting as well as postprandial lipids in healthy as well as T2DM patients. GLP-1R signaling reduces VLDL-TG production rate from liver, reduces hepatic TG content by modulating key enzymes of lipid metabolism in liver, and impairs hepatocyte de novo lipogenesis and b-oxidation. GLP-1 can also modulate reverse cholesterol transport. Apart from these direct effects on lipid metabolism, GLP-1 also reduces atherosclerotic events by inhibiting expression of atherogenic inflammatory mediators, suppressing smooth muscle cell proliferation and stimulating NO production. This review mainly deliberates the association of GLP-1 in lipid regulation via lipid absorption, hepatic cholesterol metabolism, reverse cholesterol transport and progression of atherosclerosis. © 2014 Bentham Science Publishers. Source

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