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Moraczewski K.,Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz
Polymer Testing | Year: 2014

The effect of multiple (up to 10 times) injection molding of poly(ε-caprolactone) on its mechanical properties, Charpy impact strength, melt flow rate, phase transition temperature and degradation temperature is presented. It was found that the tensile strength at break, impact strength and degradation temperature slightly decreased, while the melt flow rate steadily increased with raising of the number of the injection molding cycles. Variation of the number of these cycles mostly influenced the crystallization temperature. The melting point, enthalpy of crystallization, enthalpy of melting and crystallinity did not vary with the number of injection moldings. The presented results indicate that poly(ε-caprolactone) technological waste is suitable to be reused as an additive to a neat polymer. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Papuzinski A.,Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz
Problemy Ekorozwoju | Year: 2011

This article presents an evaluation of the chances for and the implementation of sustainable development within the context of relevant philosophical literature. The starting point of the discussion is presentation of the diver-gent views among various authors regarding this question, and examination of the reasons for these differences. What emerges is that these are the result of differences in what is understood as sustainable development, especially in the axiological value of the content of this concept. Consequently, two postulates for conducting research into the philosophical literature of this nature are formulated. The first involves starting the analysis with the identification of the philosophical and axiological options in the version of sustainable development under analysis. The second postulate is to restrict the application of the empirical- analytical perspective to only those cases in which it is possible taking into consideration the value system embodied in the society and identifying the relevant social entity for the implementation of the system. Next, the constitutive features of a philosophy of sustainable development as a normative theory are outlined. This role is played by the Socratic imperative of the primacy of the theoretical mind over the practical. Therefore, the same line as in philosophical tradition can be drawn between a philosophy of sustainable development and projects for the improvement of life that propagate concrete cultural, religious or ideological ideals. Finally, such projects are juxtaposed against the version of sustainable development that belongs to the conceptual achievements of the UN. It is noted that its inherent axiology is based on general considerations which are a result of extensive political negotiations and social acceptance. The article concludes with an attempt to reconstruct this axiology. Source


Rytlewski P.,Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz
Surface and Coatings Technology | Year: 2014

This article presents the results of laser-assisted metallization of polyurethane coatings containing 5wt.% of Cu(acac)2 and 15wt.% of copper(II) oxide (CuO) or copper(II) hydroxide (Cu(OH)2). Thus, two different coating compositions were compared with regard to becoming active after laser irradiation for direct electroless metallization. Coatings were irradiated with ArF excimer laser using various numbers of laser pulses at a constant fluence of 100mJ/cm2, and then electroless metallized with copper. Surface properties resulting from laser irradiation were evaluated mainly based on surface morphology, chemical alterations and general optical assessment of deposited copper layers. It was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and optical imaging. It was found that surface layer of the coatings containing Cu(OH)2 could be activated, and thus copper plated at lower energy dose of laser radiation as compared to the coatings containing CuO. It resulted from more efficient laser ablation and formation of metallic copper on the coating surface. Empirical model for the change of copper content resulting from laser radiation and practical conclusions on the applicability of the coatings is presented in this work. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source


Prokopowicz P.,Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2013

The publication shows the way of implementing arithmetic operations on fuzzy numbers based on Ordered Fuzzy Numbers calculation model [12], [13], [14]. This model allows to perform calculations on fuzzy numbers in a way that the outcomes meet the same criteria as the outcomes of calculations on real numbers. In this text, to the four basic operations with Ordered Fuzzy Numbers, a logarithm and exponentiation was added. Several examples of the calculations are included, the results of which are obvious and typical of real numbers but not achievable with the use of conventional computational methods for fuzzy numbers. From these examples one can see that the use of Ordered Fuzzy Numbers allows to obtain outcomes for real numbers in spite of using the fuzzy values. © 2013 Springer-Verlag. Source


Chybicki I.J.,Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz
Journal of Heredity | Year: 2013

Measuring genetic structure of pollen gametes has become the standard approach in studies on plant mating system and pollen flow. However, the popular statistical procedure, TwoGener, provides the point estimate of the pollen pool heterogeneity based on AMOVA, implying any statistical tests regarding pollen pool structure to be based on permutation procedures. In this article, the Bayesian approach was developed based on the Dirichlet-multinomial model (the so-called F-model). Computer simulations revealed the applicability of the Bayesian method in the analysis of pollen pool heterogeneity. Compared with TwoGener, the Bayesian method appeared to have better statistical properties when estimating the inverse of heterogeneity index, mostly due to the relatively high accuracy of the Bayesian estimate when the actual heterogeneity is low. Hence, the Bayesian approach may be preferred, for example, when the effective number of pollen parents is to be assessed. Other applications and potential further developments of the Bayesian method are also briefly discussed. © The American Genetic Association. 2013. All rights reserved. Source

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