Akhmetova I.G.,Kazan State Power Engineering University |
Chichirova N.D.,Kazan State Power Engineering University
Thermal Engineering | Year: 2016
Heat supply is the most energy-consuming sector of the economy. Approximately 30% of all used primary fuel-and-energy resources is spent on municipal heat-supply needs. One of the key indicators of activity of heat-supply organizations is the reliability of an energy facility. The reliability index of a heat supply organization is of interest to potential investors for assessing risks when investing in projects. The reliability indices established by the federal legislation are actually reduced to a single numerical factor, which depends on the number of heat-supply outages in connection with disturbances in operation of heat networks and the volume of their resource recovery in the calculation year. This factor is rather subjective and may change in a wide range during several years. A technique is proposed for evaluating the reliability of heat-supply organizations with the use of the simple additive weighting (SAW) method. The technique for integrated-index determination satisfies the following conditions: the reliability level of the evaluated heat-supply system is represented maximum fully and objectively; the information used for the reliability-index evaluation is easily available (is located on the Internet in accordance with demands of data-disclosure standards). For reliability estimation of heat-supply organizations, the following indicators were selected: the wear of equipment of thermal energy sources, the wear of heat networks, the number of outages of supply of thermal energy (heat carrier due to technological disturbances on heat networks per 1 km of heat networks), the number of outages of supply of thermal energy (heat carrier due to technologic disturbances on thermal energy sources per 1 Gcal/h of installed power), the share of expenditures in the cost of thermal energy aimed at recovery of the resource (renewal of fixed assets), coefficient of renewal of fixed assets, and a coefficient of fixed asset retirement. A versatile program is developed and the analysis of heat-supply organizations is performed by the example of the Republic of Tatarstan. The assessment system is based on construction of comparative ratings of heat-supply organizations. A rating is the assessment of reliability of the organization, is characterized by a numerical value, and makes it possible to compare organizations engaged in the same kind of activity between each other. © 2016, Pleiades Publishing, Inc.
Agishev R.R.,Kazan State Power Engineering University
Quantum Electronics | Year: 2017
Within the framework of generalisation of different approaches to the modelling of atmospheric lidars, the methodology capabilities for dimensionless-parametric analysis are expanded. The developed approach simplifies the analysis of the signal-to-noise ratio and potential capabilities of existing and newly developed monitoring systems with a wide variability of atmospheric and optical conditions and a great variety of modern lidars. Its applicability to the problems of remote atmospheric sensing, environmental monitoring and lidar navigation in providing the eye safety, noise immunity and reliability is discussed. © 2017 Kvantovaya Elektronika and Turpion Ltd.
Nikolaeva L.A.,Kazan State Power Engineering University |
Iskhakova R.Y.,Kazan State Power Engineering University
Thermal Engineering | Year: 2017
Sewage and circulating water from oil of thermal power plants (TPP) generated in fuel-oil shops during washing of electrical equipment and its running into the storm drainage system from the industrial site has been considered in the paper. It has been suggested to use the carbonate sludge of water treatment modified with hydrophobing emulsion as a sorption material for waste and circulating water treatment in thermal power plants. The carbonate sludge is waste accumulated in clarifiers at the stage of natural water pretreatment. General technical characteristics of the sludge, such as moisture, bulk density, total pore volume, ash, etc., have been determined. It has been found that the sludge without additional treatment is a hydrophilic material that has low adsorption capacity and wettability with nonpolar compounds. Therefore, the sludge is treated with organosilicon compounds to reduce the moisture capacity and increase its floatation. Several types of sorption materials based on the carbonate sludge subjected to surface and volume hydrophobization have been developed. During the volume treatment, the hydrophobing compound has been introduced into the material along with the plastifier. In case of the surface treatment, heat-treated granules have been soaked into hydrophobing emulsion. It has been shown that surface hydrophobization is most economically advantageous, because it reduces the consumption of water-repelling agent, wherein the total pore volume and sorption capacity during surface hydrophobization increase by 45 and 25% compared to that during volume hydrophobization. Based on the obtained results, the most effective sorption material has been chosen. To produce this material, it is necessary to sequentially carry out mixing of carbonate sludge with the binder, granulation, calcination, impregnation with a waterrepellent emulsion, and drying of the finished material. The suggested technology to produce the material and use it as a sorbent allows efficient wastewater treatment from oil as well as reduction of anthropogenic pressure on the environment and economic costs of the station for nature protection measures. © 2017, Pleiades Publishing, Inc.
Ermakova E.,Russian Academy of Sciences |
Zuev Y.,Kazan State Power Engineering University
Journal of Membrane Biology | Year: 2017
Plant defensins are a part of the innate immune system of plants that acts against a broad range of pathogens. Many plant defensins, including pine defensins, show strong antifungal activity that is associated with their ability to penetrate into the fungal cell membrane. However, the exact molecular mechanism of their action remains poorly defined. To obtain insight into the mechanism of protein–membrane interaction, we applied a coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation to study the interaction of pine defensin with two model membranes: the first consisted of zwitterion-neutral POPC molecules and the second was composed of combined anionic POPG and POPC. The simulations show that defensin does not form stable complexes with the neutral membrane but does interact with the combined POPG/POPC membrane. In the latter case, defensin attaches to the membrane surface by interacting with lipid polar heads without deep penetration into the hydrophobic tail zone. Electrostatic interactions are a driving force of the complex formation, which determines the orientation of the protein relative to the bilayer surface. Two favorable orientations of defensin are detected where the defensin molecule orients either perpendicular or parallel to the membrane plane. Being positively charged, pine defensin induces changes in the lipid distribution along the membrane, resulting in the formation of zones with different electrostatic potentials that can cause deformation or distortion of the membrane. Pine defensin is a representative of plant defensins, and hence the results of this study can be applied to other members of the family. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media New York
Minullin R.G.,Kazan State Power Engineering University
Russian Electrical Engineering | Year: 2017
Experimental material on detection of breaks and short circuits in electric-power lines (EPLs) obtained by the location method over a number of years is summarized. The features of location diagnostics of overhead EPLs with treelike (6–10 kV) and linear (35 kV or greater) topologies are considered. The methodologies of recognition of location-probing reflectograms with indication of the type and position of an EPL fault are described. The techniques of extraction of reflected location signals against a background of technological interference present in the high-frequency path of a high-voltage EPL are considered. © 2017, Allerton Press, Inc.
Yakimov N.D.,Kazan State Power Engineering University |
Kacimov A.R.,Sultan Qaboos University
International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics | Year: 2017
An analytical solution is obtained for 2-D steady Darcian flow under and through a cutoff wall partially obstructing a homogeneous isotropic foundation of a dam. The wall is leaky; that is, flow across it depends on the ratio of hydraulic conductivity of the wall and the wall thickness that results in the third-type (Robin) boundary condition along the wall, as compared with the Terzaghi problem for an impermeable wall. The Laplace equation for the hydraulic head is meshlessly solved in a non-standard flow tube. A Fredholm equation of the second kind is obtained for the intensity of leakage across the wall. The equation is tackled numerically, by adjusted successive iterations. Flow characteristics (total Darcian discharge and its components through the wall and the window between the wall top and horizontal bedrock, stream function, head distribution, and Darcian velocity along the wall and tailwater bed) are obtained for various conductivity ratios, head drops across the structure, thicknesses of the foundation, and the degree of its blockage by the wall. Comparisons with the Terzaghi limit of an impermeable wall show that for common wall materials and thicknesses, the leakage may constitute tens of percent of the discharge under the dam. The through-flow hydraulic gradients on a vertical wall face (Robin's boundary condition) as well as the exit gradients along a horizontal tailwater boundary (Dirichlet's boundary condition) acting for decades have deleterious impacts on dam stability because of potential heaving, piping, and mechanical–chemical suffusion. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Petrova N.,Kazan State Power Engineering University |
Hanada H.,Japan National Astronomical Observatory
Planetary and Space Science | Year: 2012
A brief description of targets and problems of the future Japanese project ILOM (In situ Lunar Orientation Measurement), which is planned to be realized as one of kinds of observations of lunar rotation at the second stage of SELENE-2 mission, is given in the article. One of the important elements of the project is placing of a small optical telescope on the lunar surface with the purpose to detect the lunar physical libration with high accuracy of 0.001 arc sec. Computer simulation of the future observations is being done with the purpose of their optimisation: effective placement of measuring system on the lunar surface and formation of scheduling of observations for monitoring the physical libration of the Moon. The results of the first stage of the simulation are presented in the paper. At this stage the software for the selection of stars and reduction of their coordinates onto the period of observations is developed, the tracks for the selected stars are constructed and analysed, their sensitivity to the internal characteristics of the lunar body, in the first place, to the selenopotential coefficients, is tested. Analyses of simulated stellar tracks observable from the lunar surface (in a polar zone) revealed a difference from daily parallels of stars in comparison with ground based observations. During one lunar day equal to 27.3 terrestrial days, a star moves along a spiral. In dependence on the longitude of the star, these spirals can be untwisted or twisted. In the latter case a star can describe a loop in the sky of the Moon during the observation period. The reason of such unusual astrometry phenomenon is the combination of the slow rotation of the Moon as compared with the Earth and the fast precession motion of the lunar pole (in comparison with precession motion of a terrestrial pole). Due to the physical libration the shifts of all tracks will be observed towards direction opposite the Earth. The tracks are sensitive to gravity model of the Moon and are different even for the most accurate modern gravity field models - LP150Q (Konopliv, 2000) and SGM100h (Matsumoto et al.; 2010). © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Zakirova Z.K.,Kazan State Power Engineering University
Bulletin of the Lebedev Physics Institute | Year: 2015
In this note we continue studying the 6-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian space V6(gij) with signature [+ +−−−−], which admits projective motions, i. e. continuous transformation groups preserving geodesics. We find a generic defining function of projective motion in the 6-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian space of the special type. © 2015, Allerton Press, Inc.
Laptev A.G.,Kazan State Power Engineering University |
Lapteva E.A.,Kazan State Power Engineering University
Thermal Engineering | Year: 2016
Different approaches to simulation of momentum, mass, and energy transfer in packed beds are considered. The mathematical model of heat and mass transfer in a wetted packed bed for turbulent gas flow and laminar wave counter flow of the fluid film in sprinkler units of a water-cooling tower is presented. The packed bed is represented as the set of equivalent channels with correction to twisting. The idea put forward by P. Kapitsa on representation of waves on the interphase film surface as elements of the surface roughness in interaction with the gas flow is used. The temperature and moisture content profiles are found from the solution of differential equations of heat and mass transfer written for the equivalent channel with the volume heat and mass source. The equations for calculation of the average coefficients of heat emission and mass exchange in regular and irregular beds with different contact elements, as well as the expression for calculation of the average turbulent exchange coefficient are presented. The given formulas determine these coefficients for the known hydraulic resistance of the packed bed element. The results of solution of the system of equations are presented, and the water temperature profiles are shown for different sprinkler units in industrial water-cooling towers. The comparison with experimental data on thermal efficiency of the cooling tower is made; this allows one to determine the temperature of the cooled water at the output. The technical solutions on increasing the cooling tower performance by equalization of the air velocity profile at the input and creation of an additional phase contact region using irregular elements “Inzhekhim” are considered. © 2016, Pleiades Publishing, Inc.
Dvoenosova G.A.,Kazan State Power Engineering University
Scientific and Technical Information Processing | Year: 2015
In view of the different opinions of documentologists about documents we believe that the debate about this entity is not over yet. The document is a unique social phenomenon that deserves separate in-depth study. Attempts to combine it with the book in one object of scientific knowledge have not yet been successful: they have not been theoretically substantiated and practically justified. The purpose of this paper is to show the differences between the book and the document as different social phenomena. © 2015, Allerton Press, Inc.