Kazan, Russia

Based primarily in Kazan, Tatarstan, Russia, the Kazan State Medical University is a federal university made up of seven faculties.Kazan State Medical University is a multifunctionaland multi-eveled state institution ofhigher learning in medicine. It meets bothpersonal and social needs in acquiringeducation in medicine, in developing biomedicaland clinical science, as well asbroadening scientific knowledge of medicalscience.Kazan State Medical University functions on the basis of self-governance andbelongs to the system of Higher Education andScientific Research of the Ministry of Health ofRussia. The highest body or KSMU selfgovernanceis academic with university’sregulations.On March 6, 1994, the university was issuedwith a license number 16 G – 235 by the StateCommittee of Russian Federation of HigherEducation which grants the right to performactivities in the field of professional education.Under the auspices of Kazan State MedicalUniversity there work a pharmaceutical andtwo medical colleges in Kazan, one medicalcollege Mary EI Republic, lycee and biomedicalclasses on the secondary schoolbasis. This complex educational system in theframe work of the university provides thecontinuous higher education of medicine.Kazan State Medical University carries on anaimed preparation of experts in different fieldsof medicine for 10 republics, Povolzhie andUral regions.According to the results of a rating of medicalschools, KSMU takes the 16 place among 86other universities. Founded in 1814, KSMU was the second university institution to be founded in Kazan, the third medical university institution in the Russia. Wikipedia.

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Mendelevich E.G.,Kazan State Medical University
Nevrologiya, Neiropsikhiatriya, Psikhosomatika | Year: 2017

Dementia is an etiologically heterogeneous syndrome, the traditional evaluation of the severity of which is based on the degree of cognitive activity reduction and on impairments in functional abilities. In addition to cognitive impairment (CI), non-cognitive neuropsychiatric disorders, the prevalence of which is as high as 50-100%, form the clinical picture of dementia. Non-cognitive impairment is appreciably correlated with the severity, course, and poorest outcome of dementia. Non-cognitive neuropsychiatric impairment is characterized by different symptoms, which is associated with the heterogeneity of dementia. The main symptoms include aggression, agitation, wandering, hoarding, sexual disinhibition, apathy, depression, and anxiety. The paper considers the main clusters of neuropsychiatric disorders and their clinical manifestations. It provides data on the combination treatment of CI and non-cognitive disorders in dementia.

Principles of the combination of chemically complementary grades of Eudragit® copolymers in peroral, matrix, and reservoir types of solid dosage forms with modified release [tablets, microspheres, (micro)pellets] and their manufacturing technology (including film coatings) are considered. Modified drug release is achieved due to the interaction between reactive groups of copolymer pairs, which controls the drug release process both inside matrices and within multilayers or combined coatings. Analysis of these processes has key significance for developing (meth)acrylate polycomplexes, which could be synthesized in both aqueous and organic media, as new classes of drug carriers for constructing modern peroral drug delivery systems. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

Ziganshin B.A.,Kazan State Medical University | Elefteriades J.A.,Yale University
Heart | Year: 2014

Thoracoabdominal aneurysm of the aorta (TAAA) is a morbid condition, the treatment of which can be associated with high mortality and complication rates, as well as prolonged length of hospital stay. Currently, three approaches to treatment of TAAAs exist: open, endovascular and hybrid repair. Over the past three decades, a significant decrease in postoperative mortality and paraplegia rates has been achieved due to effective application of such treatment adjuncts as left heart bypass, cerebrospinal fluid drainage, application of hypothermia and neuromonitoring, thereby making surgical treatment of TAAAs increasingly safer for the patient. In this report, we review indications and current approaches to surgical management of TAAAs, as well as the factors that influence the efficacy of this type of treatment.

Petrov A.M.,Kazan State Medical University
Uspekhi fiziologicheskikh nauk | Year: 2013

Traditionally, membrane protein molecules that form ion channels, transporters, pumps, signaling complexes, machine of exo- and endocytosis is assigned as the main players of the cellular processes. Recently, the findings that indicate the importance of lipids in regulating of cell physiology are accumulated. Attention is attracting to cholesterol molecule because it can directly interact with different proteins and together with sphingolipids to form membrane microdomains (lipid rafts). Many receptors (for neurotransmitters, hormones, growth factors), signaling proteins and proteins involved in vesicular and ion transport are concentrated in the lipid rafts. Changes in stability and structure of rafts cause dramatic cellular dysfunction. In the review the current views on lipid variants that make up the biological membrane, the distribution of cholesterol, the organization and the formation of lipid rafts and caveolae are described. Accent is made on researches that focus on the significance of lipid rafts in the extra- and intracellular signaling, neurotransmitters release, receptor and ion channels function at the excitable cells.

Mukhamedyarov M.A.,Kazan State Medical University
Uspekhi fiziologicheskikh nauk | Year: 2013

Beta-amyloid peptide (betaAP) is a product of proteolytic cleavage of wide-spread transmembrane amyloid precursor protein. Betaap is physiological oligopeptide, which is present in biological fluids and tissues of healthy human organism at picomolar concentrations. However, excessive production, polymerization and accumulation of betaAP in tissues (first in neural tissue) underlie the pathogenesis of a number of neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer's disease and others). Although the presence of insoluble deposits of fibrillar betaAP (senile plaques) is a characteristic histopathological sign of Alzheimer's disease, soluble betaAP oligomers (dimers, trimers, etc.) possess most neurotoxicity. Soluble betaAP induces mitochondrial dysfunction, increased production of reactive oxygen species in neurons, disorganization of cell plasma membranes, disturbances of ion transport across cell membranes, impairment of synaptic transmission and long-term synaptic plasticity, etc. Recently a lot of attention is paid to possible peripheral effects of betaAP, related to its toxic influence on excitable structures of neuromuscular apparatus and cardiovascular system. At current review we represented state-of-art views on the processes of production and aggregation of betaAP in organism, cellular and molecular mechanisms of betaAP influence on physiological functions of excitable cells, the role of betaAP in pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer's disease and others), as well as the results of our own studies in this field.

Mendelevich V.D.,Kazan State Medical University
Harm Reduction Journal | Year: 2011

This article provides an overview of a sociological study of the views of 338 drug addiction treatment professionals. A comparison is drawn between the bioethical approaches of Russian and foreign experts from 18 countries. It is concluded that the bioethical priorities of Russian and foreign experts differ significantly. Differences involve attitudes toward confidentiality, informed consent, compulsory treatment, opioid agonist therapy, mandatory testing of students for psychoactive substances, the prevention of mental patients from having children, harm reduction programs (needle and syringe exchange), euthanasia, and abortion. It is proposed that the cardinal dissimilarity between models for providing drug treatment in the Russian Federation versus the majority of the countries of the world stems from differing bioethical attitudes among drug addiction treatment experts. © 2011 Mendelevich; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Petrov A.M.,Kazan State Medical University | Yakovleva A.A.,Kazan State Medical University | Zefirov A.L.,Kazan State Medical University
Journal of Physiology | Year: 2014

Using electrophysiological and optical techniques,we studied the mechanisms bywhich cholesterol depletion stimulates spontaneous transmitter release by exocytosis at the frog neuromuscular junction. We found that methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MCD, 10 mM)-mediated exhaustion of cholesterol resulted in the enhancement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which was prevented by the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin. An increase in ROS levels occurred both extra- and intracellularly, and it was associated with lipid peroxidation in synaptic regions. Cholesterol depletion provoked a rise in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration, which was diminished by NAC and transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) channel blockers (ruthenium red and capsazepine). By contrast, the MCD-induced rise in [Ca2+]i remained unaffected if Ca2+ release from endoplasmic stores was blocked by TMB8 (8-(diethylamino)octyl-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate hydrochloride). The effects of cholesterol depletion on spontaneous release and exocytosis were significantly reduced by the antioxidant, intracellular Ca2+ chelation with BAPTA-AM and blockers of TRPV channels. Bath application of the calcineurin antagonist cyclosporine A blocked MCD-induced enhancement of spontaneous release/exocytosis, whereas okadaic acid, an inhibitor of phosphatases PP1 and PP2A, had no effect. Thus, our findings indicate that enhancement of spontaneous exocytosis induced by cholesterol depletion may depend on ROS generation, leading to an influx of Ca2+ via TRPV channels and, subsequently, activation of calcineurin. ©2014 The Physiological Society.

Moustafine R.I.,Kazan State Medical University
Russian Journal of General Chemistry | Year: 2014

Research on polymer-polymer combinations of chemically complementary Eudragit types together with complex physicochemical and pharmaceutical assessments of (meth)acrylate polycomplexes is a new direction in assessing the prospects for their use as a modern tool to design modified-release oral drug delivery systems. © 2014 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

Fedotovskaya O.N.,St Petersburg Research Institute Of Physical Culture | Mustafina L.J.,Kazan State Medical University | Popov D.V.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Vinogradova O.L.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Ahmetov I.I.,St Petersburg Research Institute Of Physical Culture
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance | Year: 2014

Purpose: In red skeletal muscle, monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) is required for lactate to enter the myocytes for oxidation. The A1470T polymorphism (rs1049434) in the MCT1 gene was shown to be associated with lactate transport rates in human skeletal muscles. The aim of the study was to compare genotype and allele frequencies of the MCT1 gene polymorphism in 323 Russian athletes and 467 nonathletic controls and to investigate the association of the MCT1 gene A1470T polymorphism with maximal oxygen consumption and maximal lactate concentration in rowers (n = 79). Methods: Genotyping for the A1470T MCT1 polymorphism was performed by PCR-RFLP method. Physiological measurements of 79 Russian rowers of national competitive standard were determined during an incremental test to exhaustion on a rowing ergometer. Results: Frequencies of the A allele (71.8% vs 62.5%, P < .0001) and AA genotype (59.8% vs 39.4%, P < .0001) were significantly higher in endurance-oriented athletes (n = 142) than in the control group. Mean blood lactate concentration was higher in male rowers with the T allele (AT+TT 10.26 ± 1.89 mmol/L, AA 8.75 ± 1.69 mmol/L, P = .005). Conclusions: MCT1 gene A1470T polymorphism is associated with endurance athlete status and blood lactate level after intensive exercise. © 2014 Human Kinetics, Inc.

Ivanova N.A.,Ivanovo State Textile Academy | Philipchenko A.B.,Kazan State Medical University
Applied Surface Science | Year: 2012

A simple method to design the superhydrophobic anti-bacterial textile for biomedical applications was developed. For the coating formulation the spraying of nanoparticles dispersion over the textile sample was applied, allowing the way to get multiscale textured layer on a top of cotton fabric. The anti-bacterial functionality of coating is supported by using chitosan-based nanoparticles. In our approach the fabrication of nanoparticles was based on electrostatic interaction between amine group of chitosan and negatively charged fluoroanion. It was demonstrated that the relative number of fluoroanions per elementary unit of chitosan plays the crucial role in the structure of aggregates in the coating and its wettability as well as in durability of coatings in contact with aqueous media. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

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