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Ilyina R.Y.,Kazan State Medical Academy | Pasynkova O.O.,Republican Psychiatric Clinical Hospital Named After Vm Bekhterev | Ziganshina L.E.,Kazan Federal University
International Journal of Risk and Safety in Medicine | Year: 2013

Background: Neuroleptic induced extrapyramidal disorders are often presented in a form of orofacial hyperkinesias and dystonia. Rational use of neuroleptic drugs requires individualised approach to a patient, however simple criteria for determining individual, 'personalised' dosage regimen have not been fully developed for routine practice in resource-limited hospital settings. Objective: To study the tonus of tongue muscles as a measure of orofacial dystonia and the total hepatic oxidative capacity as a potential predictor of excessive vulnerability to neuroleptic-induced dystonia in psychiatric patients. Methods: We measured the maximal force of the tongue manoeuvre (F, g/cm 2), the total (integral) hepatic oxidative capacity by the antipyrine-test and used chlorpromazine equivalent to calculate the total daily neuroleptic load in 283 psychiatric patients and 30 healthy volunteers. Results: The tonus of tongue muscles depends on the total daily neuroleptic dose and the length of antipsychotic treatment. The higher the total daily neuroleptic dose and the longer the treatment history, the greater the tongue muscles' tonus is. The tongue muscles' tonus was greater in patients with low rate of oxidative antipyrine metabolism. Antidepressants contributed to the increased tonus of the tongue muscles in 'slow metabolisers' of antipyrine. Conclusions: The simple and cheap measurements of total hepatic oxidative capacity and of muscle tonus of the tongue could be used to predict and manage neuroleptic-induced adverse reactions. © 2013-IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Kazan State Medical Academy and Republic clinical neurology center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Zhurnal nevrologii i psikhiatrii imeni S.S. Korsakova | Year: 2017

To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Cerebrolysin (EVER Neuro Pharma GmbH, Austria) in the treatment of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) in stage of relapse regression.The study involved 40 patients with remitting MS (McDonald criteria 2010) in stage of MS relapse regression after pulse therapy with methylprednisolone 1000 mg/day 5. Patients randomized into 2 groups: group 1 (G1, n=20) received cerebrolysin 20 ml per 200 ml of 0.9% NaCl solution 1 times per day 10; Group 2 (G2, n=20) - only 200 ml 0.9% NaCl solution on analogical scheme. All patients before and 3-4 weeks after the treatment were carried out assessment of vital signs, routine laboratory tests, tests of cognitive-motor functions (SDMT), visual acuity (LCAT), a comprehensive neurophysiological examinations (CNE). 4 patients in the G1 with presence of previously identified G+ lesions (G+L) were conducted MRI of brain after 3-4 weeks after treatment.In G1 the average age of the patients was 27.35 (5.65) years, the ratio of M/F - 40/60%, the duration of the disease 29.9 (11.01) months, the EDSS in relapse stage - 3.5 [2.0; 4.5] points. The average age of patients in G2 was 26.65 (4.93) years, the ratio of M/F - 35/65%, the duration of the disease - 30.25 (11.98) months, the EDSS in relapse stage - 3.0 [1.5; 4.5] points. Clinical relapse of MS was categorized into groups as follows: optic neuritis (15% vs. 30%; p=0.26), stem dysfunction (15% vs. 25%; p=0.43), hemispheric dysfunction (50% vs. 35%; p=0.34), transverse myelitis (20% vs. 10%; p=0.38). 17 patients (85%) in G1 and 18 patients (90%) in G2 completed a full course of treatment. In both groups showed significant regression estimation EDSS (2.0 [1.75; 2.5] vs. 2.5 [1.75; 2.5]), while significant intergroup differences were not found (p=0.665). In G1 was noted more pronounced dynamics of performance improved in testing MSFC and SDMT (p=0.038 and p=0.026, respectively). Significant intergroup differences in the dynamics of improvement VCAT values were not found (p=0.658). Also in G1 was revealed greater regression of total variance in the CNE than G2 (70.59% vs. 27.78%, p=0.028), while in almost all cases the previously identified neurophysiological abnormalities are not completely regressed. In addition to G1 was marked a tendency to reduce of progressive deterioration of CNE indicators (10% vs. 30%; p=0.228). On MRI cerebrolysin treatment was not associated with an increase of G+L (G+L number before treatment in 4 patients - 14, after treatment - 12), which indicates a potential anti-inducing effect of the drug on the intrathecal inflammation in MS.Cerebrolysin positive role in the stimulation of remyelination process in MS has been confirmed by CNE and the selected treatment regimen has demonstrated its safety. Effect of the drug appear to be due to its composition: so according to a group of authors found that investigated the drug contained fragments of tubulin, actin and myelin basic protein, all of which is necessary to ensure non-specific trophic regenerated CNS myelin sheath.


Arleevskaya M.I.,Kazan State Medical Academy | Gabdoulkhakova A.G.,Kazan State Medical Academy | Filina Y.V.,Kazan State Medical Academy | Miftakhova R.R.,Skåne University Hospital | And 2 more authors.
BMJ open | Year: 2014

OBJECTIVES: The role of infection in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has not been determined. We aimed to document the infectious burden and some aspects of antibacterial immunity in a large and prospective cohort study of RA patients in the early and late stages of the disease and in their relatives predisposed to RA.SETTING: Clinical and laboratory examination of all individuals enrolled in the study was performed in the Republican Clinical Hospital, Kazan, Russia.PARTICIPANTS: 376 patients with RA, 251 healthy first-degree relatives and 227 healthy controls without a family history of autoimmune disease (all females) were examined twice annually over more than 10 years.PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The following parameters were investigated: type, duration and frequency of infections, bacterial colonisation and serum levels of IgG to bacteria, serum levels of total Ig, plasma cytokine levels, granulocyte reactive oxygen species production, lysozyme activity and phagocytosis.RESULTS: There were no significant differences in infection rate between healthy controls (median 14 days/year) and RA patients (13). However, infection rates were higher (p<0.001) in healthy relatives (53) and early stage patients (62), which groups also showed heavy bacterial skin colonisation. In contrast, late stage patients had fewer infection days (12; p<0.001) than healthy controls, although bacterial colonisation was still heavy. Phagocyte function and antibacterial antibody generation, together with compensatory cytokine production, were observed to be subnormal in the healthy relatives as well as in RA patients.CONCLUSIONS: We observed a marked increase in overall infections at the time of RA onset, and signs of a defective antibacterial defence mechanism, contrasting with fewer infections in the late RA stage. It can be speculated that frequent early infections initiate a compensatory immune hyper-reactivity which reduces the infection load while stimulating the development of RA in predisposed individuals. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.


Ziganshina L.E.,Kazan State Medical Academy | Abakumova T.,Kazan State Medical Academy | Kuchaeva A.,Kazan State Medical Academy
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND: Cerebrolysin is a mixture of low-molecular-weight peptides and amino acids derived from pigs' brain tissue which has proposed neuroprotective and neurotrophic properties. It is widely used in the treatment of acute ischaemic stroke in Russia and China. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and risks of cerebrolysin for treating acute ischaemic stroke. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (February 2009), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library Issue 1, 2009), MEDLINE (1966 to February 2009), EMBASE (1974 to February 2009), LILACS (1982 to February 2009), Science Citation Index (1940 to February 2009), SIGLE Archive (1980 to March 2005), and a number of relevant Russian Databases (1988 to February 2009). We also searched reference lists, ongoing trials registers and conference proceedings. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials comparing cerebrolysin with placebo or no treatment in patients with acute ischaemic stroke. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Three review authors independently applied the inclusion criteria, assessed trial quality and extracted the data. MAIN RESULTS: We included one trial involving 146 participants. There was no difference in death (6/78 in the cerebrolysin group versus 6/68 in the placebo group; risk ratio (RR) 0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.29 to 2.58) or in the total number of adverse events (16.4% versus 10.3%; RR 1.62, 95% CI 0.69 to 3.82) between the treatment and control groups. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is not enough evidence to evaluate the effect of cerebrolysin on survival and dependency in people with acute ischaemic stroke. High-quality and large-scale randomised controlled trials may help to gain a better understanding of the potential value of cerebrolysin in acute ischaemic stroke.


Yagudin R.K.,Kazan State Medical Academy | Yagudin K.F.,Municipal Polyclinic No 8
Vestnik otorinolaringologii | Year: 2016

The objective of the present study was to estimate the long-term results of the closure of large laryngeal and tracheal stomas with the use of the polypropylene mesh. The study included 33 adult patients presenting with extensive laryngeal and tracheal stomas. A total of 34 surgical interventions were performed for alloplastic correction of these defects. The complete closure of the tracheal and laryngeal defects with the incorporation of the prosthesis and restoration of respiration was achieved in 88.2% of the alloplastic procedures. The long-term follow-up of the treated patients (median: 75 months) failed to reveal any signs of mesh rejection. Moreover, none of the patients reported an appreciable feeling of discomfort at the site of mesh localization. Thus, the results of the study indicate that the alloplastic correction of laryngeal and tracheal stomas with the implantation of the modern mesh prostheses from polypropylene monofilaments provides the safe and reliable alternative to autoplastic surgery. Low rigidity of the modern prosthetic meshes ensures good immediate results of implant survival in the absence of long-term complications associated with the durable presence of the polypropylene mesh on the neck.Abstract available from the publisher.


Filina J.V.,Kazan State Medical Academy | Gabdoulkhakova A.G.,Kazan State Medical Academy | Safronova V.G.,Russian Academy of Sciences
Cellular Signalling | Year: 2014

Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) express the high and low affinity receptors to formylated peptides (mFPR1 and mFPR2 in mice, accordingly). RhoA/ROCK (Rho activated kinase) pathway is crucial for cell motility and oxidase activity regulated via FPRs. There are contradictory data on RhoA-mediated regulation of NADPH oxidase activity in phagocytes. We have shown divergent Rho GTPases signaling via mFPR1 and mFPR2 to NADPH oxidase in PMNs from inflammatory site. The present study was aimed to find out the role of RhoA/ROCK in the respiratory burst activated via mFPR1 and mFPR2 in the bone marrow PMNs. Different kinetics of RhoA activation were detected with 0.1. μM fMLF and 1. μM WKYMVM operating via mFPR1 and mFPR2, accordingly. RhoA was translocated in fMLF-activated cells towards the cell center and juxtamembrane space versus uniform allocation in the resting cells. Specific inhibition of RhoA by CT04, Rho inhibitor I, weakly depressed the respiratory burst induced via mFPR1, but significantly increased the one induced via mFPR2. Inhibition of ROCK, the main effector of RhoA, by Y27632 led to the same effect on the respiratory burst. Regulation of mFPR2-induced respiratory response by ROCK was impossible under the cytoskeleton disruption by cytochalasin D, whereas it persisted in the case of mFPR1 activation. Thus we suggest RhoA to be one of the regulatory and signal transduction components in the respiratory burst through FPRs in the mouse bone marrow PMNs. Both mFPR1 and mFPR2 binding with a ligand trigger the activation of RhoA. FPR1 signaling through RhoA/ROCK increases NADPH-oxidase activity. But in FPR2 action RhoA/ROCK together with cytoskeleton-linked systems down-regulates NADPH-oxidase. This mechanism could restrain the reactive oxygen species dependent damage of own tissues during the chemotaxis of PMNs and in the resting cells. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Gumarova L.S.,Kazan State Medical Academy | Bodrova R.A.,Kazan State Medical Academy
Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psihiatrii imeni S.S. Korsakova | Year: 2016

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and spinal cord injury (SCI) are most common causes of death and disability in young patients. Metabolic changes occur immediately after the acute injury of the central nervous system. However hypermetabolic response in SCI is less pronounced compared to that in TBI that could be explained by the weakness of denervated muscles and hypodynamia. Following SCI, the level of resting energy expenditure is lower comparison to that calculated using the Harris—Benedict formula. Indirect calorimetry corresponded to class II (B) medical evidence, is recommended as a method for assessment of energy expenditure in the acute stage of TBI and SCI as well as in their consequences. Nutritional support is favorable and safe and therefore, it should be used as soon as possible. Many studies provide evidence that nutritional support leads to the replenishment of energy expenditure, reduce catabolic processes and nitrogen loss thus minimizing the risk of complications that in future decrease the extent of disability and increase quality-of-life of patients with the consequences of central nervous system injuries. © 2016, Media Sphera. All rights reserved.


Gataullin A.M.,Kazan State Power Engineering University | Ovchinnikov A.V.,Kazan State Medical Academy
Biomedical Engineering | Year: 2012

The 16-channel detection of evoked potentials (EP) is deteriorated by superposition of curves, which often occurs in spite of scaling along the time and amplitude axes. This problem is inherent in data transfer between neuro-cartographers from different manufacturers and can be solved using the LabView design platform, which allows individual EP records to be visualized by varying the time scale of data presentation. A similar approach can be applied to EEG. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Shirshikov F.V.,Kazan Federal University | Cherepnev G.V.,Kazan State Medical Academy | Ilinskaya O.N.,Kazan Federal University | Kalacheva N.V.,Kazan Federal University
Medical Hypotheses | Year: 2013

The exact mechanism by which cytotoxic ribonucleases reach the cytosol of tumor cells remains unclear. The interaction of ribonucleases with a lipid bilayer is involved in the translocation of ribonucleases across the endosomal membrane. Here, we aimed to study the hydropathy character of toxic antitumor ribonucleases (bovine seminal ribonuclease and binase) and two non-toxic ribonucleases (bovine pancreatic ribonuclease and human pancreatic ribonuclease) by sliding-window hydrophobicity analysis. Comparative hydropathy plot analysis of the non-toxic pancreatic ribonucleases and their toxic variants was also performed. The data obtained indicate that some cytotoxic ribonucleases have a hydrophobic segment, which is sterically available for the hydrophobic interaction with a tumor cell membrane and endosomal membrane. After dissociation, subunits of dimeric ribonucleases are probably capable of thermodynamically favorable interaction with the interfacial region of a lipid bilayer. Remarkably the hydrophobic segment is not identified in the amino acid sequences of non-toxic ribonucleases. The paper describes the hydrophobic properties of toxic RNases that are essential for both the model of a lipid-protein interaction and the cytotoxicity mechanism unraveling. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Kazan State Medical Academy and Kazan Federal University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Molekuliarnaia biologiia | Year: 2017

The gene transcription of guanyl-specific ribonucleases (RNases), which provide available phosphate to cells of Bacillus, is controlled by the signal transduction system PhoP-PhoR. However, the biosynthesis of B. circulans RNase does not depend on the signal-transduction regulatory proteins of Pho regulon. It has been found that raising the salt molar concentration in culture medium increases the level of extracellular guanyl-specific ribonuclease Bci synthesized by B. circulans. Sequences homologous to the binding sites of the regulatory protein DegU were found in RNase Bci promoter. The functioning of the DegS-DegU signal transduction system is stimulated by a high salt concentration. Using a strain of B. subtilis that is defective in the DegU regulatory protein, we have shown that the DegS-DegU system participates in the regulation of RNase Bci expression under salt stress.

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