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Kazan, Russia

Kazan Federal University федеральный университет; Tatar Cyrillic: Казан федераль университеты, Latin: Qazan federal universitetı) is located in Kazan, Tatarstan, Russia. It was established in 2010 on the basis of the former Kazan State University, originally founded in 1804 as Kazan Imperial University.Kazan University is the second oldest of the current Russian universities. The famous mathematician Nikolai Ivanovich Lobachevsky was its rector from 1827 until 1846. In 1925, the university was renamed in honour of its most famous alumnus, Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov . Kazan University is known as "the birthplace of organic chemistry" due to works of Aleksandr Butlerov, Vladimir Markovnikov, Aleksandr Arbuzov, and the birthplace of Electron Spin Resonance due to work of Evgeny Zavoisky.Kazan's oldest part of the university building contains three classical portals along its white facade from the original 1822 construction. Included with this building is the First Boys' Gymnasium and the private residence of Prince Tenichev that was given to the university at the time of its founding. From 1832 through 1841, architect M. Korinfsky constructed the rest of the buildings. These included the Anatomy Theatre, the Library, the Chemistry and Physics Laboratories and the Observatory, completed the University complex and gave it its neo-classical look. The building of the Chemistry Faculty was constructed in 1954 by the students themselves.On October 21, 2009, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev signed an executive order that would establish a new Volga Federal University on the basis of Kazan State University. The federal university project was realized in early 2010 on the basis of Kazan State University, with the accession of the Tatar State University of Humanities and Education and the Kazan State Finance and Economics Institute . The university's first rector is Ilshat Rafkatovich Gafurov, formerly the mayor of Elabuga. The current president is Myakzyum Salakhov. Wikipedia.

Popov V.A.,Kazan Federal University
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2010

A new model describing the dark sector of the universe is established. The model involves Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) as dark energy (DE) and an excited state above it as dark matter (DM). The condensate is assumed to have a negative pressure and is embodied as an exotic fluid with Chaplygin equation of state. Excitations are described as a quasiparticle gas. It is shown that the model is not in disagreement with the current observations of the cosmic acceleration. The model predicts increase of the effective cosmological constant and a complete disappearance of the matter at the far future. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Ziganshina L.E.,Kazan Federal University
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

Currently the World Health Organization only recommend fluoroquinolones for people with presumed drug-sensitive tuberculosis (TB) who cannot take standard first-line drugs. However, use of fluoroquinolones could shorten the length of treatment and improve other outcomes in these people. This review summarises the effects of fluoroquinolones in first-line regimens in people with presumed drug-sensitive TB. To assess fluoroquinolones as substitute or additional components in antituberculous drug regimens for drug-sensitive TB. We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 1); MEDLINE; EMBASE; LILACS; Science Citation Index; Databases of Russian Publications; and metaRegister of Controlled Trials up to 6 March 2013. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of antituberculous regimens based on rifampicin and pyrazinamide and containing fluoroquinolones in people with presumed drug-sensitive pulmonary TB. Two authors independently applied inclusion criteria, assessed the risk of bias in the trials, and extracted data. We used the risk ratio (RR) for dichotomous data and the fixed-effect model when it was appropriate to combine data and no heterogeneity was present. We assessed the quality of evidence using the GRADE approach. We identified five RCTs (1330 participants) that met the inclusion criteria. None of the included trials examined regimens of less than six months duration. Fluoroquinolones added to standard regimensA single trial (174 participants) added levofloxacin to the standard first-line regimen. Relapse and treatment failure were not reported. For death, sputum conversion, and adverse events we are uncertain if there is an effect (one trial, 174 participants, very low quality evidence for all three outcomes). Fluoroquinolones substituted for ethambutol in standard regimens Three trials (723 participants) substituted ethambutol with moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin, and ofloxacin into the standard first-line regimen. For relapse, we are uncertain if there is an effect (one trial, 170 participants, very low quality evidence). No trials reported on treatment failure. For death, sputum culture conversion at eight weeks, or serious adverse events we do not know if there was an effect (three trials, 723 participants, very low quality evidence for all three outcomes). Fluoroquinolones substituted for isoniazid in standard regimens A single trial (433 participants) substituted moxifloxacin for isoniazid. Treatment failure and relapse were not reported. For death, sputum culture conversion, or serious adverse events the substitution may have little or no difference (one trial, 433 participants, low quality evidence for all three outcomes). Fluoroquinolines in four month regimensSix trials are currently in progress testing shorter regimens with fluoroquinolones. Ofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and gatifloxacin have been tested in RCTs of standard first-line regimens based on rifampicin and pyrazinamide for treating drug-sensitive TB. There is insufficient evidence to be clear whether addition or substitution of fluoroquinolones for ethambutol or isoniazid in the first-line regimen reduces death or relapse, or increases culture conversion at eight weeks. Much larger trials with fluoroquinolones in short course regimens of four months are currently in progress.

Vinogradov A.,Kazan Federal University
Advanced Engineering Materials | Year: 2015

Investigations of the behavior of ultrafine-grained (UFG) materials manufactured by severe plastic deformation (SPD) have been greatly motivated by the expectations that they may have unique properties as well as by the desire to understand the fundamental mechanisms underlying the specific properties associated with extreme grain refinement. Although the concurrent improvement of both strength and ductility is possible via SPD, the most commonly observed high strength of UFG materials is paired with a very limited uniform elongation. Based on the dislocation kinetics and its relation with the Considère instability, an attempt is made to provide a unified view for the hardening behaviour and early macroscopic strain localization. © 2015 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Kirshin I.A.,Kazan Federal University
Life Science Journal | Year: 2014

In the given article we've developed and substantiated a model of the long-term trend of the knowledge adding process, based on the method of the production function and algebraic properties of information. We demonstrate that in terms of the increasing returns, networking specifics of production and knowledge proliferation, we face exponential growth of knowledge generation and accumulation. The development of technologies of knowledge accumulation, processing and transmission are viewed in the context of common regularities of phasic technological evolution. The given model offers the analytical kit that enables one to prognosticate the dynamics of knowledge adding effectiveness.

Eliseev A.V.,Kazan Federal University
Global and Planetary Change | Year: 2015

Tropospheric sulphate aerosols (TSAs) may oxidise the photosynthesising tissues if they are taken up by plants. A parameterisation of this impact of tropospheric sulphate aerosols (TSAs) on the terrestrial gross primary production is suggested. This parameterisation is implemented into the global Earth system model developed at the A.M. Obukhov Institute of the Atmospheric Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP RAS CM). With this coupled model, the simulations are performed which are forced by common anthropogenic and natural climate forcings based on historical reconstructions followed by the RCP 8.5 scenario. The model response to sulphate aerosol loading is subdivided into the climatic (related to the influence of TSA on the radiative transport in the atmosphere) and ecological (related to the toxic influence of sulphate aerosol on terrestrial plants) impacts. We found that the former basically dominates over the latter on a global scale and modifies the responses of the global vegetation and soil carbon stocks to external forcings by 10%. At a regional scale, however, ecological impact may be as much important as the climatic one. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

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