Kazan, Russia
Kazan, Russia

Kazan Federal University федеральный университет; Tatar Cyrillic: Казан федераль университеты, Latin: Qazan federal universitetı) is located in Kazan, Tatarstan, Russia. It was established in 2010 on the basis of the former Kazan State University, originally founded in 1804 as Kazan Imperial University.Kazan University is the second oldest of the current Russian universities. The famous mathematician Nikolai Ivanovich Lobachevsky was its rector from 1827 until 1846. In 1925, the university was renamed in honour of its most famous alumnus, Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov . Kazan University is known as "the birthplace of organic chemistry" due to works of Aleksandr Butlerov, Vladimir Markovnikov, Aleksandr Arbuzov, and the birthplace of Electron Spin Resonance due to work of Evgeny Zavoisky.Kazan's oldest part of the university building contains three classical portals along its white facade from the original 1822 construction. Included with this building is the First Boys' Gymnasium and the private residence of Prince Tenichev that was given to the university at the time of its founding. From 1832 through 1841, architect M. Korinfsky constructed the rest of the buildings. These included the Anatomy Theatre, the Library, the Chemistry and Physics Laboratories and the Observatory, completed the University complex and gave it its neo-classical look. The building of the Chemistry Faculty was constructed in 1954 by the students themselves.On October 21, 2009, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev signed an executive order that would establish a new Volga Federal University on the basis of Kazan State University. The federal university project was realized in early 2010 on the basis of Kazan State University, with the accession of the Tatar State University of Humanities and Education and the Kazan State Finance and Economics Institute . The university's first rector is Ilshat Rafkatovich Gafurov, formerly the mayor of Elabuga. The current president is Myakzyum Salakhov. Wikipedia.

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News Article | February 23, 2017
Site: www.materialstoday.com

Researchers at Rice University and Kazan Federal University in Russia have developed a new material that can extract radioactivity from water and so could help purify the hundreds of millions of gallons of contaminated water stored after the Fukushima nuclear plant accident. The researchers report in a paper in Carbon that their oxidatively-modified carbon (OMC) material is inexpensive and highly efficient at absorbing radioactive metal cations, including cesium and strontium. These toxic elements were released into the environment when the Fukushima plant melted down after an earthquake and tsunami in March 2011. OMC can easily trap common radioactive elements found in water floods from oil extraction, such as uranium, thorium and radium, said Rice chemist James Tour. He led the project with Ayrat Dimiev, a former postdoctoral researcher in his lab and now a research professor at Kazan Federal University. The material makes good use of the porous nature of two specific sources of carbon. One is an inexpensive, coke-derived powder known as C-seal F, which is used by the oil industry as an additive to drilling fluids. The other is a naturally-occurring, carbon-heavy mineral called shungite, which is found mainly in Russia. Tour and researchers at Lomonosov Moscow State University had already demonstrated a method to remove radionuclides from water using graphene oxide as a sorbent, as reported last year in Solvent Extraction and Ion Exchange. But this new research suggests OMC is easier and far less expensive to process. OMC is made up of carbon particles that are 10–80µm wide. Treating these particles with oxidizing chemicals increases their surface area and ‘decorates’ them with the oxygen molecules needed to adsorb the toxic metals. While graphene oxide excelled at removing strontium, the two types of OMC were better at extracting cesium, which Tour said has been the hardest element to remove from water stored at Fukushima. The OMC was also much easier and less expensive to synthesize and use in a standard filtration system, he said. "We know we can use graphene oxide to trap the light radioactive elements of relevance to the Fukushima clean-up, namely cesium and strontium," Tour said. "But in the second study, we learned we can move from graphene oxide, which remains more expensive and harder to make, to really cheap oxidized coke and related carbons to trap these elements." While other materials used for remediation of radioactive waste need to be stored with the waste they capture, carbon presents a distinct advantage. "Carbon that has captured the elements can be burned in a nuclear incinerator, leaving only a very small amount of radioactive ash that's much easier to store," Tour said. "Just passing contaminated water through OMC filters will extract the radioactive elements and permit safe discharge to the ocean," he added. "This could be a major advance for the clean-up effort at Fukushima." The two flavors of OMC particles – one from coke-derived carbon and the other from shungite – look like balls of crumpled paper, or roses with highly irregular petals. The researchers tested them by mixing the sorbents with contaminated water and by conducting column filtration, a standard process in which fluid is pumped or pulled by gravity through a filter to remove contaminants. For the mixing test, the researchers dispersed nonradioactive isotopes of strontium and cesium in spring water, added OMC and stirred for two hours. After filtering out the sorbent, they analyzed the particles left in the water. OMC1 (from coke) proved best at removing both cesium and strontium from contaminated water, with its performance getting significantly better with increasing concentrations of the sorbent. A maximum 800 milligrams of OMC1 removed about 83% of cesium and 68% of strontium from 100 milliliters of water. OMC2 (from shungite) at the same concentration adsorbed 70% of cesium and 47% of strontium. The researchers were surprised to see that plain shungite particles extracted almost as much cesium as its oxidized counterpart. "Interestingly, plain shungite was used by local people for water purification from ancient times," Dimiev said. "But we have increased its efficiency many times, as well as revealed the factors behind its effectiveness." In column filtration tests, which involved flowing 1400 milliliters of contaminated water through an OMC filter in 100-milliliter amounts, the filter removed nearly 93% of cesium and 92% of strontium in a single pass. The researchers were able to contain and isolate contaminants trapped in the filter material. This story is adapted from material from Rice University, with editorial changes made by Materials Today. The views expressed in this article do not necessarily represent those of Elsevier. Link to original source.

Fakhrullin R.F.,Kazan Federal University | Lvov Y.M.,Louisiana Tech University
ACS Nano | Year: 2012

Figure Persented: Layer-by-layer encapsulation of living biological cells and other microorganisms via sequential adsorption of oppositely charged functional nanoscale components is a promising instrument for engineering cells with enhanced properties and artificial microorganisms. Such nanoarchitectural shells assembled in mild aqueous conditions provide cells with additional abilities, widening their functionality and applications in artificial spore formation, whole-cell biosensors, and fabrication of three-dimensional multicellular clusters. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Shamov G.A.,University of Manitoba | Shamov G.A.,Kazan Federal University
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2011

A potentially trianionic expanded porphyrin ligand, sapphyrin does not form a 1:1 complex with the uranyl cation. However, in the presence of methanol, a complex of uranyl and meso-methoxy-substituted iso-sapphyrin is formed [Burrel et al.J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun. 1991, 24, 1710 ]. Here we performed a relativistic DFT study on the thermodynamics and the possible mechanism of the reaction. Our results have shown that (1) the reason for the failure of sapphyrin to stabilize its 1:1 uranyl complex is the highly basic character of the trianionic form of ligand that is hard to achieve in solution, (2) a driving force for the reaction lies in the better affinity of the methanol-substituted (and isomerized) ligand dianion to the uranyl cation, compared with the unsubstituted sapphyrin dianion, and (3) for the single-stage synchronous methanol addition pathways explored in this work, there is a path corresponding to noninnocent uranium behavior, via a neutral, triplet U(IV) intermediate complex. However, if the solvation effects were taken into account, this pathway would be unfavorable compared with singlet U(VI) pathways involving anionic intermediate complexes. The later pathway can be described as classical oxidative nucleophilic substitution of hydrogen in an aromatic system. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Krivenko S.,Kazan Federal University
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2012

With a model of the d1(t 2g)-electron antiferromagnetic Mott insulator a competition of two typical interactions for orbital states of the t 2g-triplet levels has been investigated: The on-site electronic coupling with a local crystal field (LCF) tends orbitals to order, while the intersite superexchange (SE) induces their fluctuations. Both interactions coexist in perovskites: The LCF is induced by GdFeO 3-type structural deformations. In turn, the SE originates from virtual electronic hoppings, allowed by the Pauli principle, between nonorthogonal orbital states of adjacent sites. The dependence of the state of the orbitals (namely, a dispersion of their excitations and the quadrupole polarization) on a relation between the energy Δ of the triplet level splitting, caused by the D 3d-symmetry LCF, and the exchange energy J SE is analyzed. Two qualitatively different regimes of the collective orbital behavior have been established: the induced order and fast fluctuations. It has been found that a crossover between them occurs when Δ comes close to J SE, and in the parameter region about ΔJ SE the order and fluctuations affect the wave function in a comparable extent. Previous approaches based on either of the interactions fail in this window. The present study identifies validity ranges of the former theories, embracing the physics of the orbitals by the unified description. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Popov V.A.,Kazan Federal University
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2010

A new model describing the dark sector of the universe is established. The model involves Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) as dark energy (DE) and an excited state above it as dark matter (DM). The condensate is assumed to have a negative pressure and is embodied as an exotic fluid with Chaplygin equation of state. Excitations are described as a quasiparticle gas. It is shown that the model is not in disagreement with the current observations of the cosmic acceleration. The model predicts increase of the effective cosmological constant and a complete disappearance of the matter at the far future. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

In this paper we obtain the expression for the self-force in the model with the Lagrangian containing additional terms, quadratic in Maxwell tensor derivatives (so-called Bopp-Podolsky electrodynamics). Features of this force are analyzed for various limiting cases. When a charged particle moves along straight line with a uniform acceleration, an explicit formula is found. In the framework of the considered model, an observable renormalized particle mass is shown to depend on its acceleration. This dependence allows, in principle, to extract experimentally a value of the particle bare mass. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Vinogradov A.,Kazan Federal University
Advanced Engineering Materials | Year: 2015

Investigations of the behavior of ultrafine-grained (UFG) materials manufactured by severe plastic deformation (SPD) have been greatly motivated by the expectations that they may have unique properties as well as by the desire to understand the fundamental mechanisms underlying the specific properties associated with extreme grain refinement. Although the concurrent improvement of both strength and ductility is possible via SPD, the most commonly observed high strength of UFG materials is paired with a very limited uniform elongation. Based on the dislocation kinetics and its relation with the Considère instability, an attempt is made to provide a unified view for the hardening behaviour and early macroscopic strain localization. © 2015 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Ziganshina L.E.,Kazan Federal University
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

Currently the World Health Organization only recommend fluoroquinolones for people with presumed drug-sensitive tuberculosis (TB) who cannot take standard first-line drugs. However, use of fluoroquinolones could shorten the length of treatment and improve other outcomes in these people. This review summarises the effects of fluoroquinolones in first-line regimens in people with presumed drug-sensitive TB. To assess fluoroquinolones as substitute or additional components in antituberculous drug regimens for drug-sensitive TB. We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 1); MEDLINE; EMBASE; LILACS; Science Citation Index; Databases of Russian Publications; and metaRegister of Controlled Trials up to 6 March 2013. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of antituberculous regimens based on rifampicin and pyrazinamide and containing fluoroquinolones in people with presumed drug-sensitive pulmonary TB. Two authors independently applied inclusion criteria, assessed the risk of bias in the trials, and extracted data. We used the risk ratio (RR) for dichotomous data and the fixed-effect model when it was appropriate to combine data and no heterogeneity was present. We assessed the quality of evidence using the GRADE approach. We identified five RCTs (1330 participants) that met the inclusion criteria. None of the included trials examined regimens of less than six months duration. Fluoroquinolones added to standard regimensA single trial (174 participants) added levofloxacin to the standard first-line regimen. Relapse and treatment failure were not reported. For death, sputum conversion, and adverse events we are uncertain if there is an effect (one trial, 174 participants, very low quality evidence for all three outcomes). Fluoroquinolones substituted for ethambutol in standard regimens Three trials (723 participants) substituted ethambutol with moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin, and ofloxacin into the standard first-line regimen. For relapse, we are uncertain if there is an effect (one trial, 170 participants, very low quality evidence). No trials reported on treatment failure. For death, sputum culture conversion at eight weeks, or serious adverse events we do not know if there was an effect (three trials, 723 participants, very low quality evidence for all three outcomes). Fluoroquinolones substituted for isoniazid in standard regimens A single trial (433 participants) substituted moxifloxacin for isoniazid. Treatment failure and relapse were not reported. For death, sputum culture conversion, or serious adverse events the substitution may have little or no difference (one trial, 433 participants, low quality evidence for all three outcomes). Fluoroquinolines in four month regimensSix trials are currently in progress testing shorter regimens with fluoroquinolones. Ofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and gatifloxacin have been tested in RCTs of standard first-line regimens based on rifampicin and pyrazinamide for treating drug-sensitive TB. There is insufficient evidence to be clear whether addition or substitution of fluoroquinolones for ethambutol or isoniazid in the first-line regimen reduces death or relapse, or increases culture conversion at eight weeks. Much larger trials with fluoroquinolones in short course regimens of four months are currently in progress.

Kirshin I.A.,Kazan Federal University
Life Science Journal | Year: 2014

In the given article we've developed and substantiated a model of the long-term trend of the knowledge adding process, based on the method of the production function and algebraic properties of information. We demonstrate that in terms of the increasing returns, networking specifics of production and knowledge proliferation, we face exponential growth of knowledge generation and accumulation. The development of technologies of knowledge accumulation, processing and transmission are viewed in the context of common regularities of phasic technological evolution. The given model offers the analytical kit that enables one to prognosticate the dynamics of knowledge adding effectiveness.

Khusnutdinov N.R.,Kazan Federal University
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2011

The van der Waals interaction energy of an atom with an infinitely thin sphere with finite conductivity is investigated in the framework of the hydrodynamic approach. Thin sphere models the fullerene. We put the sphere into a spherical cavity inside the infinite dielectric media then calculate the energy of vacuum fluctuations in the context of the ζ-function approach. The interaction energy for a single atom is obtained from this expression in the limit of the rare media. The Casimir-Polder expression for an atom and plate is recovered in the limit of the infinite radius of the sphere. Assuming a finite radius of the sphere, the interaction energy of an atom falls down to a third power of distance between the atom and sphere for short distances and to a seventh power for large distances from the sphere. Numerically the interaction energy is 3.8eV for the hydrogen atom placed on the surface of the sphere with parameters of fullerene C60. We also show that the polarizability of fullerene is merely a cube of its radius. © 2011 American Physical Society.

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