Kazan, Russia
Kazan, Russia

Kazan Federal University федеральный университет; Tatar Cyrillic: Казан федераль университеты, Latin: Qazan federal universitetı) is located in Kazan, Tatarstan, Russia. It was established in 2010 on the basis of the former Kazan State University, originally founded in 1804 as Kazan Imperial University.Kazan University is the second oldest of the current Russian universities. The famous mathematician Nikolai Ivanovich Lobachevsky was its rector from 1827 until 1846. In 1925, the university was renamed in honour of its most famous alumnus, Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov . Kazan University is known as "the birthplace of organic chemistry" due to works of Aleksandr Butlerov, Vladimir Markovnikov, Aleksandr Arbuzov, and the birthplace of Electron Spin Resonance due to work of Evgeny Zavoisky.Kazan's oldest part of the university building contains three classical portals along its white facade from the original 1822 construction. Included with this building is the First Boys' Gymnasium and the private residence of Prince Tenichev that was given to the university at the time of its founding. From 1832 through 1841, architect M. Korinfsky constructed the rest of the buildings. These included the Anatomy Theatre, the Library, the Chemistry and Physics Laboratories and the Observatory, completed the University complex and gave it its neo-classical look. The building of the Chemistry Faculty was constructed in 1954 by the students themselves.On October 21, 2009, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev signed an executive order that would establish a new Volga Federal University on the basis of Kazan State University. The federal university project was realized in early 2010 on the basis of Kazan State University, with the accession of the Tatar State University of Humanities and Education and the Kazan State Finance and Economics Institute . The university's first rector is Ilshat Rafkatovich Gafurov, formerly the mayor of Elabuga. The current president is Myakzyum Salakhov. Wikipedia.

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News Article | May 19, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic debilitating inflammatory disease targeting the brain. The pathogenesis of MS remains largely unknown. It is believed that brain tissue damage is due to immune cells targeting and breaking up the myelin basic protein (MBP), which is essential for nerve cells function. The majority of brain lesions is found near small veins and has prominent immune cells (lymphocytes and macrophages) infiltration, supporting the hypothesis of the brain lesions to be due to leukocyte damage to neurons. Clinical data as well as evidence collected using animal model of MS suggests that leukocytes cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and localize in brain lesions. However, it is still unclear whether inflammation in the brain is initiated within the CNS or is the result of leukocyte migration across the BBB driven by systemic inflammation. International team led by Dr Svetlana Khaiboullina, the Leading Scientist at the Nevada Center for Biomedical Research, USA, Professor Albert Rizvanov, Chief Researcher at the Institute of Fundamental Medicine and Biology of Kazan Federal University, Russia, and Dr Timur Khaibullin, Republican Clinical Neurological Center, Kazan, Russia, presented novel data on cytokine activation in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. This data suggests a central role for interferon gamma (IFNγ) in brain inflammation in MS. Authors propose that high serum IFNγ could activate astrocytes triggering production of a novel subset of chemokines establishing an inflammatory milieu and promoting migration of autoreactive encephalitic T lymphocytes into the brain. The study was approved by the ethical committee, supported by the Ministry of Healthcare of Tatarstan and published in Frontiers in Immunology, 18 May 2017. . Researchers state that collected data supports the hypothesis of activation of specific subset of cytokines regulating Th1 and Th17 type immune response in MS. However, the most interesting finding was that the CSF and serum cytokine profiles differ in MS. Authors have shown an increased IFNγ and IL12(p40) levels in CSF suggesting upregulation of Th1 leukocytes in the brain, while a high level of IL17 was found in serum, indicating Th17 leukocytes activation in the circulation. The research was funded by the University's Competitiveness Program (Project 5-100).

News Article | May 16, 2017
Site: www.sciencemag.org

After Paolo Macchiarini’s star fell in Sweden, the Italian surgeon still had a place to shine: Russia. The Karolinska Institute (KI) in Stockholm fired him in March 2016 for multiple ethical violations, including "breach of KI’s fundamental values" and "scientific negligence." But Russia had long showered Macchiarini with funding and opportunities to perform his experimental surgeries to implant artificial tracheas, and it allowed him to stay. Now, a year later, his Russian refuge has ended as well. On 30 March, it became clear that the Russian Science Foundation (RSF) would not renew its funding for Macchiarini’s work, which now focuses on the esophagus rather than the trachea. The decision came 9 days after Nature Communications retracted a paper by Macchiarini that documented successful esophagus transplantations in rats. Minutes of a meeting made public last week show that Kazan Federal University (KFU), Macchiarini’s current employer, decided to end his research project there on 20 April, effectively firing him. “They have probably realized that it’s all based on nothing but hot air,” says Pierre Delaere of the University of Leuven in Belgium, one of the first to criticize Macchiarini’s work. Yet despite a passionate plea by four Swedish doctors who blew the whistle on Macchiarini’s work at Karolinska in 2014, Russian authorities appear to have no plans to launch a misconduct investigation of his work in Russia. Macchiarini has not said publicly what he plans to do next, and did not respond to an interview request from Science. Once considered a pioneer of regenerative surgery, Macchiarini aimed to give patients whose tracheas had been damaged a new windpipe. “Seeded” with stem cells, it was supposed to grow into a new, fully functional organ. (He initially used donor tracheas as a basis, but later switched to an artificial scaffold.) But he has been accused of painting a false picture of his patients in scientific papers, several of which have been retracted; operating without ethical approval; and lying on his CV. At least six of the eight artificial trachea recipients have died. In Sweden, where the case has plunged science into a crisis, investigations continue into allegations including involuntary manslaughter. Macchiarini’s parallel life in Russia began in February 2010, when he conducted a master class in regenerative surgery at the invitation of Mikhail Batin, president of the Science for Life Extension Foundation (SLEF), which aims to make “radical extension of life a Russian national goal,” according to its website. Eight months later, Macchiarini agreed to do a trachea transplantation, in tandem with surgeon Vladimir Parshin at the Boris Petrovsky Research National Center for Surgery in Moscow. Glowing television coverage quickly made Macchiarini a scientific star. SLEF then helped secure a $2.6 million “megagrant” from the Russian government, aimed at luring foreign talent, and additional funding from Kuban State Medical University (KSMU), a well-known medical school in Krasnodar, some 1400 kilometers south of Moscow. Macchiarini carried out four artificial trachea transplantations at Krasnodar Regional Hospital No. 1. In 2014, his work was featured in a permanent exhibition about Russia’s scientific and technological prowess at the Polytechnic Museum in Moscow. But dramatic footage of one Russian patient eventually triggered Macchiarini’s downfall in Sweden. Experimenten, a three-part documentary broadcast in January 2016, claimed that the patient, Yulia Tuulik, didn’t have a life-threatening condition; her trachea had been damaged in a car accident, but she was able to breathe through a stoma. Macchiarini and his colleagues presented Tuulik’s operation as a medical triumph at a press conference. But her trachea later collapsed, and she received a replacement, which didn’t work well either; she died in 2014. Two other Krasnodar patients have died as well; the only survivor had his transplant removed. After Experimenten aired in Sweden and a few publications about Macchiarini appeared in the Russian press, an audit by the Federal Service for Supervision of Healthcare of the Krasnodar hospital revealed that he had operated without a Russian medical license and had filed no documentation about the materials in the artificial windpipe with the state register. The hospital was ordered to correct those violations, but no sanctions were imposed. Macchiarini’s defenders have interpreted the criticism as an attack on Russia; a January article on a portal for Russian doctors, for instance, suggested that Macchiarini had come under fire in Sweden because of the success of the laboratory he founded in Krasnodar. “I’m … outraged not so much by criticism of myself, as by criticism of the conditions and standards of research in Russia,” Macchiarini himself told the website Lenta.ru. Even before Macchiarini’s megagrant ended, RSF provided him with a new grant for some $1 million annually to develop a tissue-engineered esophagus and test it in nonhuman primates. In 2016, Macchiarini asked RSF to transfer the grant from KSMU to KFU, 800 kilometers east of Moscow in Tatarstan. Since then he has worked out of the limelight. But KFU soon grew uneasy. In a December 2016 newspaper interview, KFU Rector Ilshat Gafurov said that Macchiarini would not carry out operations at KFU as long as he did not have the required papers, and would not even see patients. According to RSF’s website, Macchiarini has given 10 baboons small pieces of artificial esophagus at the Research Institute of Medical Primatology in Sochi, a city on the Black Sea; all supposedly recovered. Data from the experiment have not been published, but KFU “can guarantee that the results, whatever they may be, will reflect the real state of affairs, will be truthful,” a spokesperson for the university says. Last December, the four original whistle-blowers in Sweden sent several Russian government agencies a 57-page petition asking for a criminal investigation of Macchiarini because he “systematically falsified, omitted or glorified” data from his operations in Sweden to obtain an ethical approval for his work in Krasnodar. None of the agencies has responded, says one of the authors, Matthias Corbascio of Karolinska University Hospital. Corbascio welcomes Macchiarini’s dismissal but says it should only be the beginning: “We hope that a police investigation is initiated in Russia and that Macchiarini will face criminal charges.” (A spokesperson for the Russian health ministry says it has never received the document.) Macchiarini’s Russian patients or their relatives could sue the Krasnodar hospital, says Alexander Saversky, president of the Russian League for the Protection of Patients, if there is strong suspicion that the operations did more harm than good. So far, nobody has done that. There’s no point, Natalia Tuulik, Yulia’s mother, told a newspaper: “The court will not return my daughter to me.”

Fakhrullin R.F.,Kazan Federal University | Lvov Y.M.,Louisiana Tech University
ACS Nano | Year: 2012

Figure Persented: Layer-by-layer encapsulation of living biological cells and other microorganisms via sequential adsorption of oppositely charged functional nanoscale components is a promising instrument for engineering cells with enhanced properties and artificial microorganisms. Such nanoarchitectural shells assembled in mild aqueous conditions provide cells with additional abilities, widening their functionality and applications in artificial spore formation, whole-cell biosensors, and fabrication of three-dimensional multicellular clusters. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Krivenko S.,Kazan Federal University
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2012

With a model of the d1(t 2g)-electron antiferromagnetic Mott insulator a competition of two typical interactions for orbital states of the t 2g-triplet levels has been investigated: The on-site electronic coupling with a local crystal field (LCF) tends orbitals to order, while the intersite superexchange (SE) induces their fluctuations. Both interactions coexist in perovskites: The LCF is induced by GdFeO 3-type structural deformations. In turn, the SE originates from virtual electronic hoppings, allowed by the Pauli principle, between nonorthogonal orbital states of adjacent sites. The dependence of the state of the orbitals (namely, a dispersion of their excitations and the quadrupole polarization) on a relation between the energy Δ of the triplet level splitting, caused by the D 3d-symmetry LCF, and the exchange energy J SE is analyzed. Two qualitatively different regimes of the collective orbital behavior have been established: the induced order and fast fluctuations. It has been found that a crossover between them occurs when Δ comes close to J SE, and in the parameter region about ΔJ SE the order and fluctuations affect the wave function in a comparable extent. Previous approaches based on either of the interactions fail in this window. The present study identifies validity ranges of the former theories, embracing the physics of the orbitals by the unified description. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Popov V.A.,Kazan Federal University
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2010

A new model describing the dark sector of the universe is established. The model involves Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) as dark energy (DE) and an excited state above it as dark matter (DM). The condensate is assumed to have a negative pressure and is embodied as an exotic fluid with Chaplygin equation of state. Excitations are described as a quasiparticle gas. It is shown that the model is not in disagreement with the current observations of the cosmic acceleration. The model predicts increase of the effective cosmological constant and a complete disappearance of the matter at the far future. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

In this paper we obtain the expression for the self-force in the model with the Lagrangian containing additional terms, quadratic in Maxwell tensor derivatives (so-called Bopp-Podolsky electrodynamics). Features of this force are analyzed for various limiting cases. When a charged particle moves along straight line with a uniform acceleration, an explicit formula is found. In the framework of the considered model, an observable renormalized particle mass is shown to depend on its acceleration. This dependence allows, in principle, to extract experimentally a value of the particle bare mass. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Vinogradov A.,Kazan Federal University
Advanced Engineering Materials | Year: 2015

Investigations of the behavior of ultrafine-grained (UFG) materials manufactured by severe plastic deformation (SPD) have been greatly motivated by the expectations that they may have unique properties as well as by the desire to understand the fundamental mechanisms underlying the specific properties associated with extreme grain refinement. Although the concurrent improvement of both strength and ductility is possible via SPD, the most commonly observed high strength of UFG materials is paired with a very limited uniform elongation. Based on the dislocation kinetics and its relation with the Considère instability, an attempt is made to provide a unified view for the hardening behaviour and early macroscopic strain localization. © 2015 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Ziganshina L.E.,Kazan Federal University
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

Currently the World Health Organization only recommend fluoroquinolones for people with presumed drug-sensitive tuberculosis (TB) who cannot take standard first-line drugs. However, use of fluoroquinolones could shorten the length of treatment and improve other outcomes in these people. This review summarises the effects of fluoroquinolones in first-line regimens in people with presumed drug-sensitive TB. To assess fluoroquinolones as substitute or additional components in antituberculous drug regimens for drug-sensitive TB. We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 1); MEDLINE; EMBASE; LILACS; Science Citation Index; Databases of Russian Publications; and metaRegister of Controlled Trials up to 6 March 2013. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of antituberculous regimens based on rifampicin and pyrazinamide and containing fluoroquinolones in people with presumed drug-sensitive pulmonary TB. Two authors independently applied inclusion criteria, assessed the risk of bias in the trials, and extracted data. We used the risk ratio (RR) for dichotomous data and the fixed-effect model when it was appropriate to combine data and no heterogeneity was present. We assessed the quality of evidence using the GRADE approach. We identified five RCTs (1330 participants) that met the inclusion criteria. None of the included trials examined regimens of less than six months duration. Fluoroquinolones added to standard regimensA single trial (174 participants) added levofloxacin to the standard first-line regimen. Relapse and treatment failure were not reported. For death, sputum conversion, and adverse events we are uncertain if there is an effect (one trial, 174 participants, very low quality evidence for all three outcomes). Fluoroquinolones substituted for ethambutol in standard regimens Three trials (723 participants) substituted ethambutol with moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin, and ofloxacin into the standard first-line regimen. For relapse, we are uncertain if there is an effect (one trial, 170 participants, very low quality evidence). No trials reported on treatment failure. For death, sputum culture conversion at eight weeks, or serious adverse events we do not know if there was an effect (three trials, 723 participants, very low quality evidence for all three outcomes). Fluoroquinolones substituted for isoniazid in standard regimens A single trial (433 participants) substituted moxifloxacin for isoniazid. Treatment failure and relapse were not reported. For death, sputum culture conversion, or serious adverse events the substitution may have little or no difference (one trial, 433 participants, low quality evidence for all three outcomes). Fluoroquinolines in four month regimensSix trials are currently in progress testing shorter regimens with fluoroquinolones. Ofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and gatifloxacin have been tested in RCTs of standard first-line regimens based on rifampicin and pyrazinamide for treating drug-sensitive TB. There is insufficient evidence to be clear whether addition or substitution of fluoroquinolones for ethambutol or isoniazid in the first-line regimen reduces death or relapse, or increases culture conversion at eight weeks. Much larger trials with fluoroquinolones in short course regimens of four months are currently in progress.

Kirshin I.A.,Kazan Federal University
Life Science Journal | Year: 2014

In the given article we've developed and substantiated a model of the long-term trend of the knowledge adding process, based on the method of the production function and algebraic properties of information. We demonstrate that in terms of the increasing returns, networking specifics of production and knowledge proliferation, we face exponential growth of knowledge generation and accumulation. The development of technologies of knowledge accumulation, processing and transmission are viewed in the context of common regularities of phasic technological evolution. The given model offers the analytical kit that enables one to prognosticate the dynamics of knowledge adding effectiveness.

Khusnutdinov N.R.,Kazan Federal University
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2011

The van der Waals interaction energy of an atom with an infinitely thin sphere with finite conductivity is investigated in the framework of the hydrodynamic approach. Thin sphere models the fullerene. We put the sphere into a spherical cavity inside the infinite dielectric media then calculate the energy of vacuum fluctuations in the context of the ζ-function approach. The interaction energy for a single atom is obtained from this expression in the limit of the rare media. The Casimir-Polder expression for an atom and plate is recovered in the limit of the infinite radius of the sphere. Assuming a finite radius of the sphere, the interaction energy of an atom falls down to a third power of distance between the atom and sphere for short distances and to a seventh power for large distances from the sphere. Numerically the interaction energy is 3.8eV for the hydrogen atom placed on the surface of the sphere with parameters of fullerene C60. We also show that the polarizability of fullerene is merely a cube of its radius. © 2011 American Physical Society.

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