Gaibulloev K.,Kazakhstan Institute of Management |
Sandler T.,University of Texas at Dallas |
Santifort C.,University of Texas at Dallas
Global Policy | Year: 2012
The 'war on terror' has focused exclusively on transnational terrorism since the hijackings of 9/11. Based on almost 40years of data, this article shows that domestic terrorism poses a much greater threat to the world community. Thus, this focus needs to be reconsidered, especially because recent research shows that domestic terrorism spills over into transnational terrorism. This article also argues that homeland security and the dominance of religious fundamentalist terrorists are making the hardest-to-defend targets - private parties - the target of choice since 1999. Moreover, terrorists are increasingly favoring attacking people over property. Even though terrorism murders relatively few people, it poses a supreme collective action problem for the world community. Policy Implications: • The war on terror needs to focus on more than just transnational terrorism, because domestic terrorism poses a greater threat in terms of lives and property loss than transnational terrorism. This is also true because domestic terrorism tends to spill over into transnational terrorism as local terrorists seek greater world recognition. • For transnational terrorism, enhanced defensive counterterrorism precautions and the increasing dominance of religious fundamentalist terrorists have made the hardest-to-defend targets - private parties - the terrorists' target of choice since 1999. • The changing targeting of transnational and domestic terrorists has made public places - shopping malls, department stores, public squares and public transport - likely attack venues. For domestic terrorism, private parties have been the prime target since 1981. Targeting differences between domestic and transnational terrorism can inform the allocation of homeland security resources. • For all target types, there is an increased targeting of people over property, which makes defensive homeland security measures more challenging. As defensive action becomes more difficult and costly, more resources must be put into proactive measures that dismantle terrorist groups and their infrastructure. • For transnational terrorism, the need for proactive measures raises a collective action problem because prime-target nations are more likely to act, with other nations taking a free ride against a common terrorist threat. With the spillover of domestic terrorism into transnational terrorism, there is also a collective action problem arising with respect to the fight against domestic terrorism. • Policy makers must keep the risks and consequences in mind and not overspend on defensive efforts that attempt to shift potential terrorist attacks abroad. © 2011 London School of Economics and Political Science and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Seruga J.,Australian Catholic University |
Hwang H.J.,Kazakhstan Institute of Management
Studies in Computational Intelligence | Year: 2012
Advanced information technologies and the Internet have resulted in the emergence of the phenomenon of processing in the clouds (cloud computing - CC). A general definition of processing in the clouds is "access to a resource on the Internet outside the company firewall. " This work is an introduction to a rapid development inweb application functionality going beyond the traditional concept of Web 2.0 applications. The new applications of cloud computing bring mobility and are delivered to all possible devices designed to interface with the user, ranging from PCs to smart phones. The aim of this review is to investigate the potential of these new solutions to combine the advantages of desktop applications (speed, ergonomics, user friendliness, access to local resources) and web applications (mobility, accessibility, scalability). © 2012 Springer-Verlag GmbH Berlin Heidelberg.
Hwang H.J.,Kazakhstan Institute of Management
International Journal of Multimedia and Ubiquitous Engineering | Year: 2011
Taking advantages of the Internet and the widely available Web applications, Web Based Instruction(WBI) has been getting more attention from many researchers regarding the scope and capability for improving learning effectiveness. Reasons of the rapid growth of WBI can be seen from; it promotes distance learning economically, it enables learners to attend clasess at their homes or offices, and it provides delivery medium, content provider and subject matter in one package for the convenience of use. It is apparent that WBI can easily overcome the constraint of time and space more efficiently compared to the traditional learning method. The previous WBI system informed the results of study to students after lectures and tests are given. The uniform test didn't allow the teacher to recognize the student's evaluation according to the level of the student's ability and it couldn't be a reason to change a teaching method. This paper discusses how WBI and Component Development Process can be integrated to design the Learning Evaluation(LE) component which assists instructors to choose an appropriate teaching method. The paper illustrates LE component for supporting instructors by demonstrating the test results of pre-test step by step including results of post-test after analyzing the evaluation of the tests. Component Development Process(CDP) is used in designing LE component for WBI.
Landis D.,Kazakhstan Institute of Management |
Umolu J.,Open Doors Special Education Center |
Mancha S.,Reading Association of Nigeria
Reading Teacher | Year: 2010
This article describes two educational settings in Nigeria where teachers adapted a language experience approach for reading and writing instruction. The first setting is a professional development workshop for public school teachers of students in grades 16. The second setting includes two groups of students with special needs: a grade 6 class and a grade 7 class. In each location, an important goal is to provide interesting and appropriate reading materials for students learning to read in a foreign language. Our discussion also explores previous research and recommendations related to language experience. We conclude by discussing three powerful benefits from a Language Experience Approach for reading instruction that bridge cultural and linguistic differences. © 2010 International Reading Association, Inc.
Hwang H.J.,Kazakhstan Institute of Management |
Tak J.I.,Catholic University of Daegu |
Nah S.Y.,Catholic University of Daegu
International Journal of Software Engineering and its Applications | Year: 2011
This study is designed with an eye toward possible solutions for potential threats from Rootkits and more traditional malware. The survey data were collected from 371 students of five korea and three Kazakhstan universities to compare their knowledge and experience with various forms of malware. They provide an empirical assessment of the cross-cultural similarities and differences between students in the two countries. The variables examined include knowledge of computer viruses, spyware, and rootkits as well as perceptions of the damage that can result from various computer malware. While the two groups are similar with respect to their relative familiarity of rootkits compared with that of spyware and viruses, and in terms of how they perceive the malware knowledge of their peers, they exhibit significant differences in self-reported perceptions of rootkit familiarity. Korean. students report higher levels for all tested malware types, including the fictional "Trilobyte" virus. These comparisons reveal that little is known about rootkits today. However, this study can bring awareness of Rootkits and promote to seek for possible solutions for Rootkits and other malwares attacks.