Kazakh Scientific Center for Quarantine and Zoonotic Diseases

Quarantine and, Kazakhstan

Kazakh Scientific Center for Quarantine and Zoonotic Diseases

Quarantine and, Kazakhstan

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Heier L.,University of Oslo | Storvik G.O.,University of Oslo | Davis S.A.,University Utrecht | Viljugrein H.,University of Oslo | And 4 more authors.
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2011

Predicting the dynamics of zoonoses in wildlife is important not only for prevention of transmission to humans, but also for improving the general understanding of epidemiological processes. A large dataset on sylvatic plague in the Pre-Balkhash area of Kazakhstan (collected for surveillance purposes) provides a rare opportunity for detailed statistical modelling of an infectious disease. Previous work using these data has revealed a host abundance threshold for epizootics, and climatic influences on plague prevalence. Here, we present a model describing the local space-time dynamics of the disease at a spatial scale of 20 × 20 km 2 and a biannual temporal scale, distinguishing between invasion and persistence events. We used a Bayesian imputation method to account for uncertainties resulting from poor data in explanatory variables and response variables. Spatial autocorrelation in the data was accounted for in imputations and analyses through random effects. The results show (i) a clear effect of spatial transmission, (ii) a high probability of persistence compared with invasion, and (iii) a stronger influence of rodent abundance on invasion than on persistence. In particular, there was a substantial probability of persistence also at low host abundance. © 2011 The Royal Society.


Easterday W.R.,University of Oslo | Kausrud K.L.,University of Oslo | Star B.,University of Oslo | Heier L.,University of Oslo | And 5 more authors.
ISME Journal | Year: 2012

Plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, is a mammalian vector-borne disease, transmitted by fleas that serve as the vector between rodent hosts. For many pathogens, including Y. pestis, there are strong evolutionary pressures that lead to a reduction in 'useless genes', with only those retained that reflect function in the specific environment inhabited by the pathogen. Genetic traits critical for survival and transmission between two environments, the rodent and the flea, are conserved in epizootic/epidemic plague strains. However, there are genes that remain conserved for which no function in the flea-rodent cycle has yet been observed, indicating an additional environment may exist in the transmission cycle of plague. Here, we present evidence for highly conserved genes that suggests a role in the persistence of Y. pestis after death of its host. Furthermore, maintenance of these genes points to Y. pestis traversing a post-mortem path between, and possibly within, epizootic periods and offering insight into mechanisms that may allow Y. pestis an alternative route of transmission in the natural environment. © 2012 International Society for Microbial Ecology All rights reserved.


PubMed | Uralsk Anti Plague Station, Public Health England, Scientific Practical Center for Epidemiological Expertise and Monitoring, Naval Medical Research Center and 4 more.
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in public health | Year: 2016

Central Asia is a vast geographic region that includes five former Soviet Union republics: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. The region has a unique infectious disease burden, and a history that includes Silk Road trade routes and networks that were part of the anti-plague and biowarfare programs in the former Soviet Union. Post-Soviet Union biosurveillance research in this unique area of the world has met with several challenges, including lack of funding and resources to independently conduct hypothesis driven, peer-review quality research. Strides have been made, however, to increase scientific engagement and capability. Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan are examples of countries where biosurveillance research has been successfully conducted, particularly with respect to especially dangerous pathogens. In this review, we describe in detail the successes, challenges, and opportunities of conducting biosurveillance in Central Asia as exemplified by our recent research activities on ticks and tick-borne diseases in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.


Grushina T.,Kazakh Scientific Center for Quarantine and Zoonotic Diseases | Atshabar B.,Kazakh Scientific Center for Quarantine and Zoonotic Diseases | Syzdykov M.,Kazakh Scientific Center for Quarantine and Zoonotic Diseases | Daulbaeva S.,Kazakh Scientific Center for Quarantine and Zoonotic Diseases | And 19 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2010

Combinations of conventional serological methods and new ELISA procedures were evaluated to develop the most efficient and effective diagnostics for the detection of brucellosis in humans and animals. Sera from humans (n= 249) and animals (n= 99) were collected from brucellosis endemic areas (Zhambyl district and Enbekshi-Kazakh district of Almaty region in Kazakhstan) for serologic analysis. Sera from the humans reacted positively in the RBT (38.5%), SAT (43.3%), iELISA (42.5%) while sera from the animals reacted positively in RBT (79.8%), SAT (89.9%), CF (87.8%), iELISA (100%). Greater seropositivity was detected in animals as compared to human samples. All positive sera were also evaluated on an indirect ELISA (iELISA). Bacterial isolation was attempted on seropositive human sera. Our data indicate that the combination of conventional serological tests (SAT and CF), combined with the iELISA is optimal for the processing of large numbers of samples and the most efficient detection of human and animal brucellosis. © 2010.


Riou S.,Conservation Fund | Judas J.,Conservation Fund | Lawrence M.,Conservation Fund | Pole S.,Kazakh Scientific Center for Quarantine and Zoonotic Diseases | Combreau O.,Conservation Fund
Bird Conservation International | Year: 2011

A sharp decline in the numbers of Asian Houbara Bustard Chlamydotis macqueenii towards the end of the 20th century raised concerns about the conservation status of this species. Yet due to its large breeding range in the remote steppes and deserts of Central Asia and to its cryptic behaviour, it has been difficult to obtain enough comparable data to make reliable estimates of population trends. Here, we present the results of 10 years of extensive biannual surveys throughout southern Kazakhstan, considered to host the majority of the breeding birds in Asia, and we discuss trends in the Kazakh populations for the first decade of this century. The breeding Houbara population has generally declined over the greater part of Kazakhstan between 2000 and 2009 but with important regional differences. A steep decline was observed in north-east Caspian and Karakum, and a sharp drop followed by a stabilisation occurred in Kyzylkum. Over the same period, estimated densities were stable or increased in the area surrounding Lake Balkash, and increased in the Betpak-Dala region of central Kazakhstan. Autumn surveys showed more variability and revealed little decline overall. It was also clear that Betpak-Dala and Balkash regions hosted the largest populations. Our findings suggest that it is a complex undertaking to assign a level of vulnerability for this species as a whole. Highly variable population trends between regions indicate that threats and pressures are to a considerable extent region-specific, and that conservation measures need to be adjusted locally. © Copyright BirdLife International 2010.


Reijniers J.,University of Antwerp | Begon M.,University of Liverpool | Ageyev V.S.,Kazakh Scientific Center for Quarantine and Zoonotic Diseases | Leirs H.,University of Antwerp
Biology Letters | Year: 2014

Infection thresholds, widely used in disease epidemiology, may operate on host abundance and, if present, on vector abundance. For wildlife populations, host and vector abundances often vary greatly across years and consequently the threshold may be crossed regularly, both up- and downward. Moreover, vector and host abundances may be interdependent, which may affect the infection dynamics. Theory predicts that if the relevant abundance, or combination of abundances, is above the threshold, then the infection is able to spread; if not, it is bound to fade out. In practice, though, the observed level of infection may depend more on past than on current abundances. Here, we study the temporal dynamics of plague (Yersinia pestis infection), its vector (flea) and its host (great gerbil) in the PreBalkhash region in Kazakhstan. We describe how host and vector abundances interact over time and how this interaction drives the dynamics of the system around the infection threshold, consequently affecting the proportion of plague-infected sectors. We also explore the importance of the interplay between biological and detectability delays in generating the observed dynamics. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Kazakh Scientific Center for Quarantine and Zoonotic Diseases, University of Liverpool and University of Antwerp
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Biology letters | Year: 2014

Infection thresholds, widely used in disease epidemiology, may operate on host abundance and, if present, on vector abundance. For wildlife populations, host and vector abundances often vary greatly across years and consequently the threshold may be crossed regularly, both up- and downward. Moreover, vector and host abundances may be interdependent, which may affect the infection dynamics. Theory predicts that if the relevant abundance, or combination of abundances, is above the threshold, then the infection is able to spread; if not, it is bound to fade out. In practice, though, the observed level of infection may depend more on past than on current abundances. Here, we study the temporal dynamics of plague (Yersinia pestis infection), its vector (flea) and its host (great gerbil) in the PreBalkhash region in Kazakhstan. We describe how host and vector abundances interact over time and how this interaction drives the dynamics of the system around the infection threshold, consequently affecting the proportion of plague-infected sectors. We also explore the importance of the interplay between biological and detectability delays in generating the observed dynamics.


Dubyanskiy V.M.,Kazakh Scientific Center for Quarantine and Zoonotic Diseases | Burdelov L.A.,Kazakh Scientific Center for Quarantine and Zoonotic Diseases
Biology Bulletin | Year: 2010

The spread of plague epizootics in areas with natural plague foci, including Rhombomys opimus settlements, is usually studied in the course of annual epizootiological observations. Direct studies on the structure of epizootics and parameters of their spread are labor-intensive and, therefore, rare. Nevertheless, a number of authors have performed such studies using different methods, which made it possible to accumulate a certain factual material. This material has provided a basis for a computer model of the epizootic process in R. opimus settlements with interactively adjustable parameters. Mathematically, the model is based on a probabilistic cellular automation. The model conceptually deals with the same types of settlements as in nature: settlements with acute development of the disease, settlements with a certain proportion of immune individuals among rodents, and those not affected by an epizootic and representing a reserve for its further development. The groups of colonies (microfoci) separated from each other and unevenly distributed in the working space of the model are clearly distinguished. The epizootic process in the working space of the model shows more or less ordered cyclic fluctuations, which resemble the curve of epizootic activity in nature, and advances at a rate of 150 m to 1.5 km per 1.7-2.7 months, which well agrees with parameters recorded in field experiments with isotope-tagged animals and in the course of direct observations on the epizootic process in nature Thus, the main characteristics of the model epizootic process are quantitatively and qualitatively close to its natural analogue, which is evidence that the proposed model is conceptually correct and adequate. © 2010 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

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