Amirov B.M.,Kazakh Research Institute of Potato and Vegetable Growing
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012
While waiting forthe membership of WTO, Kazakhstan has chosen to strengthen its agro science bases as one of its main priorities to advance the country's sustainable development. Vegetable production is an important resource in the country's agro industry, and the valuable element of the population's nourishment. Vegetable breeding and seed production activities in Kazakhstan began after the Second World War, 1946, when the basis of the Kazakh Research Institute of Potato and Vegetable Growing was established which nowadays is the single research center committed to provide scientifically the country's vegetable industry by new potato and vegetables cultivars and technological developments. The first years of Kazakhstan's independence were years of scarcity in financial resources and skilled scientists', that affected all branches of the country's science, including vegetable R&D by causing its somewhat extent stagnation in sustainable development of the branch. But in recent years the Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of Kazakhstan has taken active measures for dynamic development of vegetable production and processing industry and vegetable industry related research institutions are expected to pay a proper attention. Since 1995, the Institute has made certain efforts to collect, conserve and develop new vegetable germplasm. By January 2008, 8005 vegetable and melon crops accessions of 152 botanical taxons originating from 94 countries have been collected. Among 340 cultivars and hybrids of potato, vegetable and melon crops presently listed in Register of selection achievements permitted for use in Kazakhstan 23 of potato and 47 of vegetable and melon crops cultivars comprising 11 major species have been developed by Kazakhstan breeders. Today it is relevant for Kazakhstan to revitalize a sound network of vegetable breeding and seed production system, to become a part of an internationally harmonized system of world's vegetable R&D society would facilitate a wide access to international genetic and information resources and motivate researchers to improve breeding work, providing a ground for more effective breeding and seed growing activities at the domestic level.
Rakhymzhanov B.S.,Agrarian National University |
Aitbaev T.E.,Kazakh Research Institute of Potato and Vegetable Growing |
Tazhibaev T.S.,Agrarian National University |
Cholacov T.L.,Institute Of Plant Genetic Resources K Malkov Sadovo
Biosciences Biotechnology Research Asia | Year: 2015
Kazakhstan has the largest land resources with the total area of 272 million ha. Out of the total land area of the Republic, its main part consists of agricultural land, and includes 222.6 million ha (over 80%). However, agriculture in Kazakhstan exists in extremely harsh climatic conditions, where the annual rainfall in the main producing areas is 200-300 mm. Currently, Kazakhstan starts experiencing shortage of water resources, and according to forecasts, it may face significant water shortage by 2040. In order to save irrigation water and increase crop yield, water-saving irrigation methods are to be developed and tested. One of the ways to achieve these goals is the introduction of modern irrigation methods, drip irrigation in particular. For Kazakhstan, drip irrigation is a relatively new technology. Therefore, in 2013-2014 we studied eggplant cultivation with the use of drip irrigation with various doses of fertilizers. The aim of this work was to study the influence of drip irrigation with the use of fertilizers on economy of irrigation water and yield of cultivated eggplant in the conditions of the South-East Kazakhstan. The study was performed in accordance with generally accepted and available techniques. Eggplants were planted in a 70x30 cm pattern, plant population was 47.6 thousand plants/ha. The following was used for the study: furrow irrigation (control), drip irrigation system. To determine the effect of fertilizers together with drip irrigation, 4 norms of fertilizers were taken: N0P0K0 (control), N50P30K40, N100P60K80 and N150P90K120. The studies proved that the use of drip irrigation system for growing eggplant ensures saving of irrigation water by 29.27%, while infestation of crops decreased by 58.46%. When the triple rate of fertilizer (N150P90K120) was used, yield increased by 41.37%, as compared to the reference (N0P0K0).
Amirov B.M.,Kazakh Research Institute of Potato and Vegetable Growing |
Amirova Zh.S.,Kazakh Research Institute of Potato and Vegetable Growing |
Manabaeva U.A.,Kazakh Research Institute of Potato and Vegetable Growing |
Zhasybaeva K.R.,Kazakh Research Institute of Potato and Vegetable Growing
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014
Studies were conducted in a field research plot of the Kazakh Research Institute of Potato and Vegetable Growing on furrow-irrigated, clay-loam, darkchestnut soils. Carrot selections were visually screened over three seasons for Alternaria leaf blight (ALB) (Alternaria ssp.) resistance. Field evaluation of carrot leaf infection by ALB was visually scored one month before harvest, at maximum display of foliage infection. The rating scale was: 0-disease symptoms are absent; 1-low susceptible (1-10% of foliage); 2-moderately susceptible (11-25% of foliage); 3-susceptible (26-50% of foliage); and 4-highly susceptible (more than 51% of foliage). For the assessment of carrot plants' resistance to leaf infection by ALB, the coefficients of weighted-mean infection, intensity of distribution and degree of infection development were calculated. Of the 86 carrot selections screened visually, 69 carrot selections exhibited very low susceptibility to ALB (0.1-1.0 points), 16 accessions were considered low susceptible (1.1-2.0 points), and selection number CR425 was moderately susceptible (2.1-3.0 points) to ALB. Correlation analysis indicated the lack of any association between ALB infection rates and yield or other carrot quality traits (R=-0.002-0.115).