Kazakh Research Institute of Agriculture and Crop Production

Almaty, Kazakhstan

Kazakh Research Institute of Agriculture and Crop Production

Almaty, Kazakhstan
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Shavrukov Y.,University of Adelaide | Suchecki R.,University of Adelaide | Eliby S.,University of Adelaide | Abugalieva A.,Kazakh Research Institute of Agriculture and Crop Production | And 2 more authors.
BMC Plant Biology | Year: 2014

Background: New SNP marker platforms offer the opportunity to investigate the relationships between wheat cultivars from different regions and assess the mechanism and processes that have led to adaptation to particular production environments. Wheat breeding has a long history in Kazakhstan and the aim of this study was to explore the relationship between key varieties from Kazakhstan and germplasm from breeding programs for other regions.Results: The study revealed 5,898 polymorphic markers amongst ten cultivars, of which 2,730 were mapped in the consensus genetic map. Mapped SNP markers were distributed almost equally across the A and B genomes, with between 279 and 484 markers assigned to each chromosome. Marker coverage was approximately 10-fold lower in the D genome. There were 863 SNP markers identified as unique to specific cultivars, and clusters of these markers (regions containing more than three closely mapped unique SNPs) showed specific patterns on the consensus genetic map for each cultivar. Significant intra-varietal genetic polymorphism was identified in three cultivars (Tzelinnaya 3C, Kazakhstanskaya rannespelaya and Kazakhstanskaya 15). Phylogenetic analysis based on inter-varietal polymorphism showed that the very old cultivar Erythrospermum 841 was the most genetically distinct from the other nine cultivars from Kazakhstan, falling in a clade together with the American cultivar Sonora and genotypes from Central and South Asia. The modern cultivar Kazakhstanskaya 19 also fell into a separate clade, together with the American cultivar Thatcher. The remaining eight cultivars shared a single sub-clade but were categorised into four clusters.Conclusion: The accumulated data for SNP marker polymorphisms amongst bread wheat genotypes from Kazakhstan may be used for studying genetic diversity in bread wheat, with potential application for marker-assisted selection and the preparation of a set of genotype-specific markers. © 2014 Shavrukov et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Shapalov S.K.,Kazakh National Agricultural University | Tileubayeva Z.S.,Kazakh State Teacher Training University | Kurmanbayeva M.S.,Al-Farabi Kazakh National University | Sarbaev A.O.,Kazakh Research Institute of Agriculture and Crop Production | And 3 more authors.
Biosciences Biotechnology Research Asia | Year: 2016

Types of wheat rust are among the most harmful diseases, which leads to a significant loss of yields. Under favorable conditions, the development of the disease can reduce the yield to 45% or more. During epiphytotic development, it covers an area of up to 1.5-2.0 mln ha and reduces the yields to 20-70%. Pathogens types of rust fungus diseases adapted to different climatic conditions, resulting in leaf rust meet annually and in all regions of wheat cultivation. Farms generally accepted crop protection from the disease by chemical means. However, the use of fungicides - is not only very costly, it is also environmentally safe, both for the near biological objects, and consumers received products. The most efficient and environmentally acceptable way to protect against the disease - a genetic. However, the gene pool of wheat resistance genes to rusts (P.recondita f. Sp. Tritici Rob. Ex Desm., P.graminis, P.striiformis) greatly exhausted, and every year there are new pathotypes of the pathogen able to overcome previous effective resistance genes (Lr, Sr, Yr-genes). Therefore, the stability test of wheat varieties and breeding for resistance is conducted in a continuous loop. The extension of genetic diversity of spring bread wheat varieties is possible by the involvement in hybridization of the new sources of valuable biological and economical features from the world's gene pool. The article on artificial infectious background investigation conducted spring wheat varieties for resistance to rusts and selected for the selection of resistant forms of immunity. The research revealed the forms resistant to leaf and stem rust and featuring high yielding potential.

Urazaliev K.,Kazakh Research Institute of Agriculture and Crop Production | Abekova A.,Kazakh Research Institute of Agriculture and Crop Production | Bazylova T.,Kazakh Research Institute of Agriculture and Crop Production | Bersimbaeva G.,Kazakh Research Institute of Agriculture and Crop Production | And 2 more authors.
Genetika | Year: 2013

Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.)-one of the most important crop in the world. In Kazakhstan, it is a traditional and major source of domestic sugar. The industry of cultivation and production of sugar beet is one of the priority areas of agricultural development of the country. In this paper, we studied the regeneration ability of different genotypes of sugar beet explants on selective media with the culture filtrate of the pathogen fungus F. oxysporum var. orthoceras. From the roots and shoots of sugar beet the pathogen Fusarium root rot was isolated. Was obtained pure cultures of the isolated pathogen. As a result, of morphological and cultural descriptions, as well as microbiological analysis it was revealed that the isolated pathogen is Fusarium Oxysporum. The results showed the pathogenicity of the fungus. For regeneration in vitro of the sugar beet genotypes resistant to the pathogen the culture media was optimized to the culture filtrate of the fungus F. oxysporum var. orthoceras. The frequency of shoot regeneration, depending on the genotype, was 1,0-12,5 %. On these explants the multiple shoot formations were observed.

Atakulov T.,Agrarian National University | Alkenov Y.,Agrarian National University | Ospanbaev Z.,Kazakh Research Institute of agriculture and crop production
Life Science Journal | Year: 2014

The present paper focuses on bed planted wheat systems using in the south-eastern part of Kazakhstan. This experiment was conducted with winter wheat, corn and soybean to determine intensive ways of irrigated land use. Conventional flat planting has some disadvantages and using of bed-planting system in region can become the basis of crop diversification. Results of research confirmed effectiveness of direct seeding on permanent beds, showed higher crop yield and good profit.

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