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Goksu S.S.,Kayseri State Hospital of Research and Education | Bozcuk H.,Akdeniz University | Uysal M.,Afyon Kocatepe University | Ulukal E.,Akdeniz University | And 6 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2014

Background: Pain is one of the most terrifying symptoms for cancer patients. Although most patients with cancer pain need opioids, complete relief of pain is hard to achieve. This study investigated the factors influencing persistent pain-free survival (PPFS) and opioid efficiency. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted on 100 patients with cancer pain, hospitalized at the medical oncology clinic of Akdeniz University. Patient records were collected including patient demographics, the disease, treatment characteristics, and details of opioid usage. Pain intensity was measured using a patient self-reported visual analogue scale (VAS). The area under the curve (AUC) reflecting the pain load was calculated from daily VAS tables. PPFS, the primary measure of opioid efficacy, was described as the duration for which a patient reported a greater than or equal to two-point decline in their VAS for pain. Predictors of opioid efficacy were analysed using a multivariate analysis. Results: In the multivariate analysis, PPFS was associated with the AUC for pain (Exp (B)=0.39 (0.23-0.67), P=0.001), the cumulative opioid dosage used during hospitalisation (Exp (B)=1.00(0.99-1.00), P=0.003) and changes in the opioid dosage (Exp (B)=1.01 (1.00-1.01), P=0.016). The change in VAS score over the standard dosage of opioids was strongly associated with current cancer treatment (chemotherapy vs. others) (β=-0.31, T=-2.81, P=0.007) and the VAS for pain at the time of hospitalisation (β=-0.34, T=-3.07, P= 0.003). Conclusions: The pain load, opioid dosage, concurrent usage of chemotherapy and initial pain intensity correlate with the benefit received from opioids in cancer patients. Source

Goksu S.S.,Kayseri State Hospital of Research and Education | Goksu U.A.,Kayseri Memorial Hospital | Gunduz S.,Akdeniz University | Coskun H.S.,Akdeniz University
International Journal of Biological Markers | Year: 2014

Introduction: Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a commonly used tumor marker, and its value in colon cancer is well established. However it is overexpressed in many different tumors. Here we report a case of colorectal cancer with high postoperative CEA levels that were associated with medullary thyroid carcinoma. Case: A 60-year old man was operated for colon cancer. Postoperative CEA level was 107.6 ng/mL, while preoperative CEA level was unknown. For the detection of distant metastasis or local recurrence, we performed 18-flouro deoxyglycose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT). We observed an increased FDG accumulation in the right lobe of the thyroid. The patient had cystic and non-metabolic lesions in the liver, and started a treatment with FOLFOX regimen. After 3 months of chemotherapy CEA was still as high as 146 ng/mL. There was no pathologic FDG uptake other than the thyroid nodule in PET-CT. Fine needle aspiration of the thyroid nodule revealed a follicular neoplasia. The patient underwent total thyroidectomy and histopathology revealed a medullary thyroid carcinoma. Postoperative CEA levels then lowered to normal ranges. Conclusion: The case we here report was a stage III colorectal cancer with high CEA levels. Our focus on searching a residual/ metastatic disease made us blind to other possible explanations; in fact, none of us noticed the thyroid nodule. This case reminds us not to forget that high CEA levels can be associated with conditions other than colon cancer, such as thyroid medullary carcinoma. © 2014 Wichtig Publishing. Source

Goksu S.S.,Kayseri State Hospital of Research and Education | Tastekin D.,Istanbul University | Arslan D.,Akdeniz University | Gunduz S.,Akdeniz University | And 5 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2014

Introduction: Breast cancer in young women is a relatively rare disease; however it tends to be more aggressive and is the leading cause of cancer death in this population. The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical and biological features of breast cancer arising in young Turkish breast cancer patients. Materials and Methods: Patients with breast cancer aged 35 or less (≤35 years) were selected for the study. In total 211 cases were included. Pathologic features; histologic subtypes, grade, lymphovascular invasion, axillary involvement, and stage were recorded for each. Results: The most common subtype was luminal B (36.5%), followed by luminal A (30.8%), triple negative (23.2%) and HER2+(9.5%) subtypes. Twelve percent of the patients had stage 4, 32.7% had stage 3, 46.4% had stage 2, and 6.2% had stage 1 disease at the time of diagnosis. Mean tumour diameter was 3.87 cm (range 0.3-13 cm). The axillary lymph nodes were positive in 74.4% of the patients, while lympho-vascular invasion was seen in 56.4%. Some 9.5% of patients had grade 1, 51.2% had grade 2, and 31.8% had grade 3 tumors. Conclusions: Young women with breast cancer in Turkey are more likely to present with luminal B subtype. Tumors in young women are more likely to present with advanced disease, to be high grade and and to have more lymphovascular invasion. Further research should focus on whether we need new treatment strategies for young patients with breast carcinoma. Source

Goksu S.,Kayseri State Hospital of Research and Education | Bozcuk H.,Akdeniz University | Koral L.,University of Konya | Cakar B.,Ege University | And 10 more authors.
Indian Journal of Cancer | Year: 2015

Introduction of trastuzumab, a recombinant monoclonal antibody against the extracellular domain of HER-2, is a cornerstone in the treatment of HER-2+ breast carcinoma. However, many cancers that have an initial response to trastuzumab will progress some time later. After progression on trastuzumab-based first-line treatment, there are several options. Although TDM-1 (Trastuzumab emtansine) has prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival in patients previously treated with trastuzumab and taxane, it is still not available in Turkey. Patients may be switched to lapatinib (an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting both HER-1 and HER-2), or they may re-challenge with trastuzumab. There is no clear definition of the patients who should be switched to lapatinib. AIM: In this study, we investigated the factors predicting the efficacy of lapatinib. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Totally, 94 patients treated with lapatinib for metastatic breast carcinoma was included in our study. Retrospective data including pathology, treatments and treatment results, metastatic sites, and laboratory tests were collected. RESULTS: Progression-free survival was 9.1 months. Histologic subtypes other than invasive ductal carcinoma and liver metastasis were inversely related with PFS. Overall survival was 22.1 months, and patients with histologic subtypes other than invasive ductal carcinoma and who progress with brain metastasis had a worse prognosis. CONCLUSION: Clinicians should give attention to histologic subtype and metastatic sites when choosing patients for lapatinib treatment. Source

Goksu S.S.,Kayseri State Hospital of Research and Education | Gunduz S.,Akdeniz University | Unal D.,Kayseri State Hospital of Research and Education | Uysal M.,Akdeniz University | And 5 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2014

Background: Treatment of anemia is an important issue in the palliative care setting. Blood transfusion is generally used for this purpose in supportive care. However the place of blood transfusion in terminally ill cancer cases is less far established. Objective: We aimed to outline the use of transfusions and to find the impact of blood transfusion on survival in patients with advanced cancer and very near to death. Design: Patients dying in 2010-2011 with advanced cancer were included in the study. We retrospectively collected the data including age, type of cancer, the duration of last hospitalisation, ECOG performance status, Hb levels, transfusion history of erythrocytes and platelets, cause and the amount of transfusion. The anaemic patients who had transfusion at admission were compared with the group who were not transfused. Survival was defined as the time between the admission of last hospitalisation period and death. Results: Three hundred and ninety eight people with solid tumours died in 2010-2011 in our clinic. Ninety percent of the patients had anemia at the time of last hospitalisation. One hundred fifty three patients had erythrocyte transfusion at admission during the last hospitalisation period (38.4%). In the anaemic population the duration of last hospitalisation was longer in patients who had erythrocyte transfusion (15 days vs 8 days, p<0.001). Conclusions: Patients who had blood transfusion at the end of life lived significantly longer than the anaemic patients who were not transfused. This study remarks that blood transfusions should not be withheld from terminal cancer patients in palliative care. Source

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