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Poulsen L.,Copenhagen University | Farzad M.S.,Kawsar Human Genetics Research Center | Borsting C.,Copenhagen University | Tomas C.,Copenhagen University | And 2 more authors.
Forensic Science International: Genetics | Year: 2015

A total of 255 individuals (Persians, Lurs, Kurds and Azeris) from Iran were typed for three sets of forensic genetic markers with the NGM SElect™, DIPplex® and Argus X-12 kits. Statistically significant deviations (P ≤ 0.002) from Hardy-Weinberg expectations were observed for the insertion-deletion markers HLD97 and HLD93 after Holm-Šidák correction. Statistically significant (P < 0.05) levels of linkage disequilibrium were observed between markers within two of the four studied X-chromosomal linkage groups. AMOVA analyses of the three sets of markers did not show population structure when the individuals were grouped according to their ethnic group. The Iranian population grouped closely to populations living geographically near to Iran based on pairwise Fst distances. The matching probabilities ranged from 1 in 3.2 × 10males by using haplotype frequencies of four X-chromosomal haplogroups to 1 in 3.4 × 10individuals for the 16 autosomal STRs. © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Khajehkazemi R.,Kerman Medical University | Sadeghirad B.,Kerman Medical University | Karamouzian M.,Kerman Medical University | Fallah M.-S.,Kawsar Human Genetics Research Center | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Objective:Iran as a developing country is in the transition phase, which might have a big impact on the Burden of Disease and Injury (BOD). This study aims to estimate Burden of Disease and Injury (BOD) in Iran up to 2025 due to four broad cause groups using Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY).Methods:The impacts of demographic and epidemiological changes on BOD (DemBOD and EpiBOD) were assessed separately. We estimated DemBOD in nine scenarios, using different projections for life expectancy and total fertility rate. EpiBOD was modeled in two scenarios as a proportion of DemBOD, based on the extracted parameters from an international study.Findings:The BOD is projected to increase from 14.3 million in 2003 to 19.4 million in 2025 (95% uncertainty interval: 16.8, 21.9), which shows an overall increase of 35.3%. Non-communicable diseases (12.7 million DALY, 66.0%), injuries (4.6 million DALY, 24.0%), and communicable diseases, except HIV/AIDS (1.8 million DALY, 9%) will be the leading causes of losing healthy life. Under the most likely scenario, the maximum increase in disease burden due to DemBOD is projected to be observed in HIV/AIDS and Non-communicable diseases (63.9 and 62.4%, respectively) and due to EpiBOD in HIV/AIDS (319.5%).Conclusion:It seems that in the following decades, BOD will have a sharp increase in Iran, mainly due to DemBOD. It seems that communicable diseases (except HIV/AIDS) will have less contribution, and especially non-communicable diseases will play a more significant role. © 2013 Khajehkazemi et al.

Keshavarzi F.,Islamic Azad University at Sanandaj Branch | Noughani A.E.,Kawsar Human Genetics Research Center | Ayoubian M.H.,Islamic Azad University at Sanandaj Branch | Zeinali S.,Kawsar Human Genetics Research Center
Iranian Journal of Public Health | Year: 2011

Background: BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes have been recognized to be responsible for 20-30% of hereditary breast cancers and approximately 50% of familial breast and ovarian cancers. Therefore, the demand for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation screening is rapidly increasing as their identification will affect medical management of people at increased risk. Because of high costs involved in analysis of BRCA1 and 2 genes, contribution of different mutation types in BRCA1 and 2 and not knowing who should be tested has hampered wide spread use of molecular testing of high -risk families. There is a need to identify the genes and types of mutations involved in breast or ovarian cancers at different age of onsets and polymorphism and polymorphic variations in our population. Methods: Twenty-seven patients with either early onset breast cancer (at age≤ 35 years) or a personal and/or family history of breast or ovarian cancer and 50 control subjects participated in this study. After collecting blood samples and extracting DNA, BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes were fully sequenced. Results: Thirteen missense substitutions in BRCA1 and BRCA2 (9 and 4, respectively) were revealed. Two nucleotide substitutions were novel (Gly1140Ser in BRCA1 and Glu1391Gly in BRCA2). The Glu1038Pro and Gly1140Ser were found in large series of breast and ovarian cancer and matched controls. Conclusion: Some nucleotide substitutions were seen only in single families and other in several. In other cases, mutations were seen in both BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Clinical significance of these mutations was evaluated comparing with normal controls.

Keshavarzi F.,Islamic Azad University at Sanandaj Branch | Javadi G.R.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | Zeinali S.,Kawsar Human Genetics Research Center | Zeinali S.,Pasteur Institute of Iran
Familial Cancer | Year: 2012

Breast cancer is the most common cancer in Iranian women (Mousavi et al in Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 9(2):275-278, 2008). Genetic predisposition accounts for 15% of all breast cancers and germline mutations in breast cancer susceptibility genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2 are responsible for a substantial proportion of high-risk breast and breast/ovarian cancer families (Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer in Lancet 350:1047-1059, 1997; Lee et al in Int Nurs Rev 55:355-359, 2008; Hulka and Stark in Lancet 346:883-887, 1995; Kelsey in Epidemiol Rev 15:256-263, 1993; Tischer et al in J Biol Chem 266:11947-11954, 1991; Newman et al in: Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85:3044-3048, 1988). Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate mutations of BRCA1/2 in high risk Iranian families. We screened 85 patients who met our minimal criteria. The entire coding sequences and each intron/exon boundaries of BRCA1/2 genes were screened by direct sequencing. In the present study, we could detect the novel following mutations: p.Glu1735 p.Gly1140Ser, p.Ile26Val, p.Leu1418X, p.Glu23Gln, p.Leu3X, p.Asn1403His, p.Lys581X, p.Pro938Arg, p.Thr77Arg, p.Arg7Cys, p.Ser177Thr, IVS7+83(TT), IVS8-70(-CATT), IVS2+9(-GC), IVS1-20(-GA), IVS1-8(-AG), IVS2+24(AG), IVS5-8 (A-G), IVS2(35-39)TTcctatGAT in BRCA1 and p.Glu1391Gly, 1994-1995 (Ins A), IVS6-70-T>G in BRCA2. In agreement with findings in other populations, we found that family history is a good predictor of being a mutation carrier. Five pathogenic BRCA1 mutations and one pathogenic BRCA2 mutation were detected in 85 index cases. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Davoudi-Dehaghani E.,Pasteur Institute of Iran | Davoudi-Dehaghani E.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Zeinali S.,Pasteur Institute of Iran | Zeinali S.,Kawsar Human Genetics Research Center | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology | Year: 2013

Objectives: Transmembrane channel-like 1 (TMC1) gene is a member of the transmembrane channel-like (TMC) gene family that encodes an integral membrane protein of the inner ear. It is suggested that mutation in this gene is one of the main causes of autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss (ARNSHL) in different populations. The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of the TMC1 gene mutations in causing hearing loss in Iran. Methods: In total 54 unrelated Iranian families containing 159 affected individuals with ARNSHL detected by audiometric and otologic examinations were analyzed. Haplotype analysis of all members of 45 GJB2- & GJB6-negative families, using four microsatellite markers linked to DFNB7/11 was performed. Results: Co-segregation of hearing loss with all investigated markers for the DFNB7/11 locus was found in one family. DNA sequencing of all coding and non-coding exons and intron boundaries of the TMC1 gene identified c.-258A>C mutation in non-coding exon 3 only in individuals with hearing loss. This mutation has been previously reported in another Iranian family (G9) that share similar ethnicity. This variant was not detected in 300 ethnically matched healthy controls. Conclusions: These results increase the probability that this nucleotide variation may be a pathogenic mutation. This study showed that the ethnicity may be more useful than geographical location to design research strategy for determining which genes should be considered when a heterogeneous disorder is under investigation. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

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