Hattori K.,Kawasaki University of Medical Welfare |
Ishida D.N.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Nursing and Health Sciences | Year: 2012
Most humans desire a good death, but the nursing literature on culture-specific responses to older life, especially on issues of death and dying among Japanese Americans, is still limited. The pattern of beliefs about a good death held by elderly Japanese Americans living in Hawaii was explored. A qualitative study using ethnography and in-depth interviewing was employed. Eighteen healthy and active elderly participants were interviewed, and data analyzed using ethnography to extract categories and themes, and four supplementary interviews with experts were held for triangulation of the data. Four themes emerged, however, in this paper, the predominate one, not being a burden to family, was discussed. The participants believed burdening someone in their culture has an extremely negative implication. Sufficient preparation for older life and death, family support, friends support, and finance were their strategies to avoid being a burden. Nurses need to understand that the concept of good death is unique to every culture. Such knowledge will help them to plan and provide appropriate end-of-life care, and will reduce the risk of living wills being ignored. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Kawanishi N.,Waseda University |
Mizokami T.,Waseda University |
Yano H.,Kawasaki University of Medical Welfare |
Suzuki K.,Waseda University
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise | Year: 2013
PURPOSE: Obesity is associated with adipose tissue inflammation, which has been attributed to changes in the number and types of leukocytes in adipose tissue. Exercise training is thought to be important for the reduction of adipose tissue inflammation, but the mechanisms by which this may occur are incompletely understood. Here, we evaluated the effect of exercise training on several inflammation-associated changes in adipose tissue, including infiltration of inflammatory macrophages and T cells. METHODS: Four-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned to four groups that received a normal diet (ND) plus sedentary (n = 8), an ND plus exercise training (n = 8), a high-fat diet (HFD) plus sedentary (n = 12), and an HFD plus exercise training (n = 12). Mice were fed the ND or the HFD from 4 to 20 wk of age. Mice in the exercise groups ran on a treadmill for 60 min·d, 5 d·wk over the same points. RESULTS: Mice fed the HFD had increased numbers of macrophage clusters in adipose tissue, which were reduced by exercise training. Similarly, adipose tissue from the HFD sedentary mice contained higher levels of tumor necrosis factor α mRNA and increased numbers of CD11c inflammatory macrophages and CD8 T cells than adipose tissue from the ND mice, and those were also lowered by exercise training. The mRNA levels of monocyte chemoattractant proteins 1 and 2 and macrophage inflammatory proteins 1α and 1β in adipose tissue were lower in the HFD exercise mice than those in the HFD sedentary mice. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that exercise training reduces adipose tissue inflammation by suppressing infiltration of inflammatory macrophages and CD8 T cells. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Sports Medicine.
Ogino Y.,Gunma University |
Kakeda T.,Kawasaki University of Medical Welfare |
Nakamura K.,Saiseikai Hita Hospital |
Saito S.,Gunma University
Anesthesia and Analgesia | Year: 2014
BACKGROUND:: Negative effects of dehydration on the human brain and cognitive function have been reported. In this study, we examined the effects of dehydration on pain thresholds and cortical activations in response to pain, compared with rehydration with an oral rehydration solution (ORS) by functional magnetic resonance imaging. METHODS:: Five healthy adult men were subjected to dehydration and rehydration on 2 different days. The condition on the first day was randomly assigned to each subject. They completed a 40-minute exercise protocol using a walking machine after 12 hours of fasting under both conditions. For rehydration, the subjects consumed up to 3000 mL ORS starting from the night before the test day. After exercise, a painful stimulus (cold pressor test) was applied to the subjects' medial forearm in a magnetic resonance imaging scanning gantry, and pain-evoked brain activation was analyzed. RESULTS:: On the rehydration day, each of the subjects consumed an average of 2040 mL (range; 1800-2500 mL) ORS. Physiological data revealed that subjects when dehydrated lost more weight from exercise than subjects when rehydrated had a larger heart rate increase, a higher tympanic temperature, and a higher urine osmolality. Subjective data revealed that the subjects reported significantly stronger thirst while dehydrated than while rehydrated with ORS, although the levels of hunger and anxiety and mood did not significantly differ between conditions. The cold pressor test robustly activated the pain-related neural network, notably the anterior cingulate cortex, insula, and thalamus. Such activations in the dehydrated subjects were greater than those in the rehydrated subjects in terms of peak and cluster, accompanied by a decrease in pain threshold (P = 0.001). CONCLUSION:: Our findings suggest that dehydration brings about increased brain activity related to painful stimuli together with enhanced thirst, whereas rehydration with ORS alleviates thirst and decreases brain activity related to painful stimuli. Copyright © 2014 International Anesthesia Research Society.
Eikawa S.,Okayama University of Science |
Nishida M.,Okayama University of Science |
Mizukami S.,Okayama University of Science |
Yamazaki C.,Okayama University of Science |
And 2 more authors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2015
Metformin, a prescribed drug for type 2 diabetes, has been reported to have anti-cancer effects; however, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Here we show that this mechanism may be immune-mediated. Metformin enabled normal but not T-cell-deficient SCID mice to reject solid tumors. In addition, it increased the number of CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and protected them from apoptosis and exhaustion characterized by decreased production of IL-2, TNFα, and IFNγ. CD8+ TILs capable of producing multiple cytokines were mainly PD-1-Tim-3+, an effector memory subset responsible for tumor rejection. Combined use of metformin and cancer vaccine improved CD8+ TIL multifunctionality. The adoptive transfer of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells treated with metformin concentrations as low as 10 μM showed efficient migration into tumors while maintaining multifunctionality in a manner sensitive to the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitor compound C. Therefore, a direct effect of metformin on CD8+ T cells is critical for protection against the inevitable functional exhaustion in the tumor microenvironment.
Nagano T.,Kawasaki University of Medical Welfare |
Tokita M.,Kyushu University
Food Hydrocolloids | Year: 2011
Heat-induced gels of 11S globulin (11S) or soybean protein isolate (SPI) were prepared using magnesium chloride (MgCl2) as a coagulant. Viscoelastic properties and microstructures of 11S and SPI gels were quantified using dynamic viscoelastic measurement (DVM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The addition of sodium chloride was necessary for 11S and SPI to form MgCl2-induced gels. DVM indicated that 11S formed stiffer and more solid gels than SPI under all experimental conditions. CLSM showed that the microstructures of 11S gels were coarser and more heterogeneous than SPI gels in comparable conditions. The microstructures of 11S gels were highly affected by MgCl2 concentration whereas those of SPI gels were relatively insensitive to MgCl2 concentration. The microstructures of 11S and SPI gels were analyzed by two parameters: the fractal dimension and the average density of gel networks. Compared to SPI, 11S forms MgCl2-induced gels with a lower fractal dimension and a higher density of network structures. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.