Ueno H.,Okayama University |
Suemitsu S.,Kawasaki Medical University |
Matsumoto Y.,Okayama University |
Okamoto M.,Okayama University
Neural Plasticity | Year: 2015
Early loss of one sensory system can cause improved function of other sensory systems. However, both the time course and neuronal mechanism of cross-modal plasticity remain elusive. Recent study using functional MRI in humans suggests a role of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in cross-modal plasticity. Since this phenomenon is assumed to be associated with altered GABAergic inhibition in the PFC, we have tested the hypothesis that early postnatal sensory deprivation causes the changes of inhibitory neuronal circuit in different regions of the PFC of the mice. We determined the effects of sensory deprivation from birth to postnatal day 28 (P28) or P58 on the density of parvalbumin (PV), calbindin (CB), and calretinin (CR) neurons in the prelimbic, infralimbic, and dorsal anterior cingulate cortices. The density of PV and CB neurons was significantly increased in layer 5/6 (L5/6). Moreover, the density of CR neurons was higher in L2/3 in sensory deprived mice compared to intact mice. These changes were more prominent at P56 than at P28. These results suggest that long-term sensory deprivation causes the changes of intracortical inhibitory networks in the PFC and the changes of inhibitory networks in the PFC may contribute to cross-modal plasticity. © 2015 Hiroshi Ueno et al.
Okabe N.,Kagawa University |
Nakamura T.,Kagawa University |
Toyoshima T.,Kagawa University |
Miyamoto O.,Kawasaki Medical University |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases | Year: 2011
Previous studies have demonstrated that the generation of reactive oxygen species and an excessive inflammatory reaction are involved in the progression of neural damage following brain ischemia. In this study, we focused on the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Gerbils were treated intraperitoneally with 500 mg/kg of EPA ethyl for 4 weeks until the day of forebrain ischemia, which was induced by occluding the bilateral common carotid artery for 5 minutes. In the first part of the 2-part experiment, the effect of EPA treatment was evaluated using hematoxylin and eosin staining and deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling as a marker of cell death (n = 3 per group). The inflammatory reaction was evaluated using anti-Iba1 immunohistochemistry, a marker of microglial activation (n = 3 per group), and detection of 8-hydroxyl-2′- deoxyguanosine, a marker of oxidative DNA damage (n = 4 per group). In the second part of the experiment, the effect of EPA treatment on memory function was examined using an 8-arm radial maze (n = 6 per group). EPA treatment significantly inhibited DNA oxidative damage (P < .05) and accumulation of Iba1-positive cells in the CA1 area at 12 and 72 hours after the induction of ischemia, and also decreased apoptotic neurons and neuronal death (P < .001) at 72 hours after ischemia. EPA treatment also significantly improved memory function (P < .05). These findings suggest that EPA inhibits the inflammatory reaction and oxidative damage occurring after ischemic brain injury, and also may contribute to the prevention of neural damage and memory impairment following such injury. © 2011 by National Stroke Association.
Lu F.,Kagawa University |
Nakamura T.,Kagawa University |
Toyoshima T.,Kagawa University |
Liu Y.,Kagawa University |
And 7 more authors.
Brain Research | Year: 2014
The present study investigates the potential protective effects of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and underlying mechanisms in a gerbil model of global cerebral ischemia. We examined neuronal death, inflammatory reaction and neurogenesis in hippocampus 72 h after transient forebrain ischemia and investigated functional deficits. G-CSF was administered intraperitoneally 24 h before ischemia and then daily. Treatment with G-CSF at 25-50 μg/kg significantly reduced neuronal loss in the hippocampus CA1 area but not at 10 ug/kg. G-CSF at 50 μg/kg significantly decreased the level of TNF-α, the number of Iba1 (microglia marker) positive cells and reduced locomotor activity 72 h after transient forebrain ischemia. Furthermore, the number of DCX-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus increased in with G-CSF treatment. Our findings indicate that G-CSF reduces hippocampal neuronal cell death dose-dependently and attenuates sensorimotor deficits after transient forebrain ischemia. These neuroprotective effects of G-CSF may be linked to inhibition of inflammation and possibly increased neurogenesis in the hippocampus. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
PubMed | Kagawa University, Kawasaki Medical University and University of Michigan
Type: | Journal: Brain research | Year: 2014
The present study investigates the potential protective effects of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and underlying mechanisms in a gerbil model of global cerebral ischemia. We examined neuronal death, inflammatory reaction and neurogenesis in hippocampus 72 h after transient forebrain ischemia and investigated functional deficits. G-CSF was administered intraperitoneally 24 h before ischemia and then daily. Treatment with G-CSF at 25-50 g/kg significantly reduced neuronal loss in the hippocampus CA1 area but not at 10 ug/kg. G-CSF at 50 g/kg significantly decreased the level of TNF-, the number of Iba1 (microglia marker) positive cells and reduced locomotor activity 72 h after transient forebrain ischemia. Furthermore, the number of DCX-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus increased in with G-CSF treatment. Our findings indicate that G-CSF reduces hippocampal neuronal cell death dose-dependently and attenuates sensorimotor deficits after transient forebrain ischemia. These neuroprotective effects of G-CSF may be linked to inhibition of inflammation and possibly increased neurogenesis in the hippocampus.
Namiki I.,Red Cross |
Nishiguchi S.,University of Hyogo |
Hino K.,Kawasaki Medical University |
Suzuki F.,Toranomon Hospital |
And 7 more authors.
Hepatology Research | Year: 2010
The consensus meeting for the diagnosis, management and treatment for hepatitis C was held in 45th annual meeting for the Japan Society of Hepatology (JSH) in June 2009 where the recommendations and informative statements were discussed including organizers and presenters. The Several important informative statements and recommendations have been shown. This was the fourth JSH consensus meeting of hepatitis C, however, the recommendations have not been published in English previously. Thus, this is the first report of JSH consensus of hepatitis C. The rate of development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in HCV-infected patients in Japan is higher than in the USA, because the average age of the HCV-infected patients is greater and there are more patients with severe fibrosis of the liver than in the USA. In Japan, more than 60% of HCV-infected patients are genotype 1b infection, and they show lower response to perinterferon and ribavirin combination treatment. To improve the response rate is also an important issue in our country. To establish the original recommendations and informative statements to prevent the development of HCC is a very important issue in Japan. © 2010 The Japan Society of Hepatology.
PubMed | Osaka University, Stroke Center, Kawasaki Medical University and Tokyo Women's Medical University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD | Year: 2015
Homocysteine has been identified as a potential risk factor for stroke, cerebral small-vessel diseases (SVD), and dementia.The present study aimed to investigate the predictive value of homocysteine levels on incident dementia while simultaneously controlling for MRI findings and vascular risk factors.Within a Japanese cohort of participants with vascular risk factors in an observational study, we evaluated the association between baseline total homocysteine (tHcy) levels (per 1 mol/L and the tertile of tHcy), the prevalence of MRI-findings at baseline, and incident all-cause dementia. Baseline brain MRI was used to determine SVD (lacunas, white matter hyperintensities, and cerebral microbleeds [CMBs]) and atrophy (medial-temporal lobe atrophy and bicaudate ratio). Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the cross-sectional association between tHcy and each of MRI findings. Cox proportional hazards analyses were performed to estimate the longitudinal association between tHcy and dementia.In the 643 subjects (age: 67.2 8.4 years, male: 59% ; education: 12.9 2.6 years), multivariable analyses adjusted for several potential confounders, including estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and intima-media thickness, showed that highest tHcy tertile was associated with lacunas, CMBs, and strictly deep CMBs. During the mean 7.3-year follow-up (range: 2-13), 47 patients were diagnosed with dementia (Alzheimers disease: 24; vascular dementia: 18; mixed-type: 3; other: 2). After adjusting for age, gender, APOE 4, education, BMI, MMSE, hypertension, cerebrovascular events, eGFR, and MRI-findings, tHcy level (hazard ratios [HR]: 1.08, p=0.043) and the highest tertile of tHcy (HR: 2.50, p=0.047) for all-cause dementia remained significant.Our results provide additional evidence of tHcy that contributes to increased susceptibility to dementia risk.
Takahashi Y.,Tohoku University |
Takahashi Y.,Jichi Medical University |
Koyanagi T.,Tohoku University |
Koyanagi T.,Jichi Medical University |
And 6 more authors.
Molecular Cancer Research | Year: 2012
Vasohibin-1 (VASH1) is a VEGF-inducible endothelium-derived angiogenesis inhibitor and VASH2 is its homolog. Our previous analysis revealed that VASH1 is expressed in endothelial cells to terminate angiogenesis, whereas VASH2 is expressed in infiltrating mononuclear cells mobilized from bone marrow to promote angiogenesis in a mouse model of hypoxia-induced subcutaneous angiogenesis. To test the possible involvement of VASH2 in the tumor, we examined human ovarian cancer cells for the presence of VASH2. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that VASH2 protein was preferentially detected in cancer cells of serous ovarian adenocarcinoma. We then used SKOV-3 and DISS, two representative human serous adenocarcinoma cell lines, and examined the role of VASH2 in the tumor. The knockdown of VASH2 showed little effect on the proliferation of cancer cells in vitro but notably inhibited tumor growth, peritoneal dissemination, and tumor angiogenesis in a murine xenograft model. Next, we stably transfected the human VASH2 gene into two types of murine tumor cells, EL-4 and MLTC-1, in which endogenous VASH2 was absent. When either EL-4 or MLTC-1 cells were inoculated into VASH2 (-/-) mice, the VASH2 transfectants formed bigger tumors when compared with the controls, and the tumor microvessel density was significantly increased. VASH2 stimulated the migration of endothelial cells, and its increased expression in cancer cells is related to the decrease of mir-200b. These results indicate that VASH2 expressed in serous ovarian carcinoma cells promoted tumor growth and peritoneal dissemination by promoting angiogenesis. ©2012 AACR.
Kasashima S.,National Hospital Organization |
Ozaki S.,Kanazawa University |
Kawashima A.,National Hospital Organization |
Zen Y.,King's College |
And 2 more authors.
British Journal of Dermatology | Year: 2010
Background Extramammary Paget disease is an uncommon skin tumour occurring mostly in the genitoperineal region. Previous reports have shown frequent expression of androgen receptor, suggesting a tumour-proliferative effect of androgens on Paget cells. Androgen-converting enzymes such as 5α-reductase, which locally produces a bioactive androgen, have recently gained attention in studies of the intratumoral actions of androgens. Objectives We investigated correlations between the androgenic microenvironment and invasiveness in extramammary Paget disease, particularly in terms of sex differences. Methods We examined 58 cases of extramammary Paget disease (32 men, 26 women; 42 noninvasive, 16 invasive) using immunohistochemistry for androgen receptor and 5α-reductase. Results In all 58 cases, expression rates were 57% for androgen receptor and 55% for 5α-reductase, with 38% double-positivity for androgen receptor and 5α-reductase. Only 5α-reductase expression rate was significantly higher in invasive cases (81%) than in noninvasive cases (45%; P = 0·042). For invasive cases, numbers of double-positive results for androgen receptor and 5α-reductase were significantly higher in men (70%) than in women (17%; P = 0·039). Conclusions Double positivity for androgen receptor and 5α-reductase in Paget cells suggests autocrine synthesis of androgens in extramammary Paget disease. The different hormonal microenvironments in male and female cases and intratumoral androgen levels affect the invasiveness of extramammary Paget disease. © 2010 British Association of Dermatologists.
Nagura M.,Kyoto University |
Matsumura N.,Kyoto University |
Baba T.,Kyoto University |
Murakami R.,Kyoto University |
And 9 more authors.
Gynecologic Oncology | Year: 2015
Objective. Local invasion is a common pattern of spread in uterine cervical squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Although transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) facilitates invasion of various types of cancer cells, the role of the TGF-β pathway in CSCC is unclear. In this study, we analyzed the role of TGF-β signaling in the progression of CSCC. Methods. Immunohistochemistry was used to examine the expression of TGF-β pathway molecules in 67 CSCC samples with clinicopathological data. Activation of the TGF-β pathway was investigated following co-culture of CSCC cells and cervical cancer-associated fibroblasts (CCAFs). Results. Clinicopathological analysis of CSCC samples revealed that prominent expression of TGF-β receptor-2 was more frequent in CSCC with lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI) than without LVSI (p < 0.01). Lymph node metastasis was more frequent in cases in which phosphorylated SMAD3 (pSMAD3) was localized exclusively at the boundary of tumor clusters (n = 9, p < 0.05). Recombinant TGF-β1 increased pSMAD3 expression and enhanced cellular invasion (p < 0.005) in CSCC cells, which was attenuated by an inhibitor of the TGF-β receptor (p < 0.005). Enhanced pSMAD3 expression and invasion was also observed when conditioned media from CSCC cells co-cultured with CCAFs were administered. Luciferase assays showed that this medium contained a large amount of active TGF-β. Along with TGF-β activation, thrombospondin-1 was upregulated in both CSCC cells and CCAFs, while thrombospondin-1 silencing in either CSCC cells or CCAFs repressed the activity of TGF-β. Thrombospondin-1 was prominently expressed in cases with pSMAD3 boundary staining (p b 0.05). Conclusions. These results suggest that interaction between CSCC cells and surrounding CCAFs activates TGF-β via thrombospondin-1 secretion to facilitate CSCC invasion. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Le N.A.,Kanazawa University |
Katsuyama M.,Kanazawa University |
Demura M.,Kanazawa University |
Tanii H.,Kanazawa University |
And 2 more authors.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine | Year: 2014
Objectives: Serine protease inhibitor Kazal type-5 (SPINK5) plays a crucial role in deciding the timing of desquamation of the skin. Its gene expression is limited at the very surface of the stratum granulosum (SG), whereas expression of kallikreins (KLKs) encoding proteases is usually found throughout the stratum spinosum and SG. Methods: To explore the difference in expression regulation of these proteases/inhibitors, the function of SPINK5 promoter was examined using luciferase assay. Results: Luciferase assay targeting the SPINK5 promoters (nucleotide -676/-532 and -318/-146 from the major transcription start site) showed high intensity in NHEK human keratinocyte. These two sites had neither common cis-elements nor GATA3 element but electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed similar retardation bands. Moreover, DNA footprinting did not display specific protected bands. Thus, we could not identify cis-element(s) that controlled these elements. Differentiation induced by high Ca2+ medium failed to alter their luciferase activities. Transfection of GATA3 expressing vector significantly but slightly increased them and that of vector expressing its dominant negative form decreased. Conclusions: Although GATA3 is reportedly important for inhibition of proliferation and induction of differentiation of keratinocytes, its effect on SPINK5 expression was indirect and GATA3 alone was insufficient for final differentiation of keratinocytes where full SPINK5 expression was observed. © 2014 The Author(s).