PubMed | Food and Agricultural Materials Inspection Center, Food Analysis Technology Center, Azabu University, Japan National Institute of Public Health and 7 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of food protection | Year: 2014
A survey of the contamination of wheat, barley, and Japanese retail food by four Fusarium mycotoxins, deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN), T-2 toxin (T-2), and HT-2 toxin (HT-2), was performed between 2010 and 2012. A method for the simultaneous determination of the four mycotoxins by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was validated by a small-scale interlaboratory study using two spiked wheat samples (DON was spiked at 20 and 100 g/kg and ZEN, T-2, and HT-2 at 6 and 20 g/kg in the respective samples). The recovery of the four mycotoxins ranged from 77.3 to 107.2%. A total of 557 samples of 10 different commodities were analyzed over 3 years by this validated method. Both T-2 and HT-2 were detected in wheat, wheat flour, barley, Jobs tears products, beer, corn grits, azuki beans, soybeans, and rice with mixed grains. Only T-2 toxin was detected in sesame seeds. The highest concentrations of T-2 toxin (48.4 g/kg) and HT-2 toxin (85.0 g/kg) were present in azuki beans and wheat, respectively. DON was frequently detected in wheat, wheat flour, beer, and corn grits. The contamination level of wheat was below the provisional standard in Japan (1,100 g/kg). The maximum contamination level of DON was present in a sample of a Jobs tears product (1,093 g/kg). ZEN was frequently detected in Jobs tears products, corn grits, azuki beans, rice with mixed grains, and sesame seeds. A sample of a Jobs tears product presented the highest ZEN contamination (153 g/kg). These results indicate that continuous monitoring by multiple laboratories is effective and necessary due to the percentage of positive samples detected.
Gu Y.,Tohoku University |
Gu Y.,Japan National Institute of Infectious Diseases |
Shimada T.,Japan National Institute of Infectious Diseases |
Yasui Y.,Japan National Institute of Infectious Diseases |
And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013
Influenza-associated encephalopathy (IAE) is a serious complication of influenza and is reported most frequently in Japan. This paper presents an assessment of the epidemiological characteristics of influenza A (H1N1) 2009-associated encephalopathy in comparison to seasonal IAE, based on Japanese national surveillance data of influenza-like illness (ILI) and IAE during flu seasons from 2004-2005 through 2009-2010. In each season before the pandemic, 34-55 IAE cases (mean 47.8; 95% confidence interval: 36.1-59.4) were reported, and these cases increased drastically to 331 during the 2009 pandemic (6.9-fold the previous seasons). Of the 331 IAE cases, 322 cases were reported as influenza A (H1N1) 2009-associated encephalopathy. The peaks of IAE were consistent with the peaks of the influenza epidemics and pandemics. A total of 570 cases of IAE (seasonal A, 170; seasonal B, 50; influenza A (H1N1) 2009, 322; unknown, 28) were reported over six seasons. The case fatality rate (CFR) ranged from 4.8 to 18.2% before the pandemic seasons and 3.6% in the 2009 pandemic season. The CFR of pandemic-IAE was 3.7%, which is lower than that of influenza A-/B-associated encephalopathy (12.9%, p<0.001; 14.0%, p = 0.002; respectively). The median age of IAE was 7 years during the pandemic, which is higher than that of influenza A-/B-associated encephalopathy (4, p<0.001; 4.5, p = 0.006; respectively). However, the number of pandemic-IAE cases per estimated ILI outpatients peaked in the 0-4-year age group and data both before and during the pandemic season showed a U-shape pattern. This suggests that the high incidence of influenza infection in the 0-4 year age group may lead to a high incidence of IAE in the same age group in a future influenza season. Further studies should include epidemiologic case definitions and clinical details of IAE to gain a more accurate understanding of the epidemiologic status of IAE. © 2013 Gu et al.
PubMed | Aomori Prefectural Public Health and Environment Center, Miyagi Prefectural Institute of Public Health and Environment, Hokkaido Institute of Public Health, Iwate Prefectural Meat Inspection Center and 8 more.
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2015
We studied the molecular evolution of the capsid gene in all genotypes (genotypes 1-9) of human norovirus (NoV) genogroup I. The evolutionary time scale and rate were estimated by the Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. We also performed selective pressure analysis and B-cell linear epitope prediction in the deduced NoV GI capsid protein. Furthermore, we analysed the effective population size of the virus using Bayesian skyline plot (BSP) analysis. A phylogenetic tree by MCMC showed that NoV GI diverged from the common ancestor of NoV GII, GIII, and GIV approximately 2,800 years ago with rapid evolution (about 10(-3) substitutions/site/year). Some positive selection sites and over 400 negative selection sites were estimated in the deduced capsid protein. Many epitopes were estimated in the deduced virus capsid proteins. An epitope of GI.1 may be associated with histo-blood group antigen binding sites (Ser377, Pro378, and Ser380). Moreover, BSP suggested that the adaptation of NoV GI strains to humans was affected by natural selection. The results suggested that NoV GI strains evolved rapidly and date back to many years ago. Additionally, the virus may have undergone locally affected natural selection in the host resulting in its adaptation to humans.
PubMed | Japan Institute for Environmental Sciences, Kawasaki City Institute for Public Health, Gumma Paz College, Nagasaki University and 4 more.
Type: | Journal: Infection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases | Year: 2016
We studied the molecular evolution of the fusion protein (F) gene in the human respiratory syncytial virus subgroup A (HRSV-A). We performed time-scaled phylogenetic analyses using the Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. We also conducted genetic distance (p-distance), positive/negative selection, and Bayesian skyline plot analyses. Furthermore, we mapped the amino acid substitutions of the protein. The MCMC-constructed tree indicated that the HRSV F gene diverged from the bovine RSV (BRSV) gene approximately 550years ago and had a relatively low substitution rate (7.5910(-4) substitutions/site/year). Moreover, a common ancestor of HRSV-A and -B diverged approximately 280years ago, which has since formed four distinct clusters. The present HRSV-A strains were assigned six genotypes based on F gene sequences and attachment glycoprotein gene sequences. The present strains exhibited high F gene sequence similarity values and low genetic divergence. No positive selection sites were identified; however, 50 negative selection sites were identified. F protein amino acid substitutions at 17 sites were distributed in the F protein. The effective population size of the gene has remained relatively constant, but the population size of the prevalent genotype (GA2) has increased in the last 10years. These results suggest that the HRSV-AF gene has evolved independently and formed some genotypes.
Saitoh A.,Niigata University |
Saitoh A.,University of California at San Diego |
Okabe N.,Kawasaki City Institute for Public Health
Vaccine | Year: 2014
Recent progress in the Japanese immunization program has partially closed the "vaccine gap," i.e., the deficiencies in that program relative to immunization programs in other developed countries. During the last several years, seven new vaccines (12 new products, excluding influenza vaccines) have been introduced in Japan. Five of these new vaccines are produced outside Japan and four are now included as routine vaccines in the National Immunization Program, which is a new development in the licensing and financial support of imported vaccines. However, along with this progress, important concerns have arisen regarding the Japanese immunization program. A rubella epidemic among adults, in 2012-2013, resulted in more than 40 cases of congenital rubella syndrome as of March 2014. In addition, the temporary withdrawal of the active governmental recommendation for human papilloma virus vaccines, in 2013-2014, highlighted challenges in the current Japanese immunization system. Furthermore, some important vaccines - including vaccines for hepatitis B virus, mumps, varicella, and rotavirus - are still not included in the National Immunization Program and have been categorized as voluntary vaccines since their introduction. The possibility of their inclusion in the National Immunization Program remains a matter for discussion. We hope that future initiatives will further address the vaccine gap and protect Japanese children from vaccine-preventable diseases. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
Genetic analyses of GII.17 norovirus strains in diarrheal disease outbreaks from december 2014 to march 2015 in Japan reveal a novel polymerase sequence and amino acid substitutions in the capsid region
Matsushima Y.,Kawasaki City Institute for Public Health |
Matsushima Y.,Yokohama City University |
Ishikawa M.,Kawasaki City Institute for Public Health |
Shimizu T.,Kawasaki City Institute for Public Health |
And 11 more authors.
Eurosurveillance | Year: 2015
A novel GII.P17-GII.17 variant norovirus emerged as a major cause of norovirus outbreaks from December 2014 to March 2015 in Japan. Named Hu/GII/JP/2014/GII.P17-GII.17, this variant has a newly identified GII. P17 type RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, while the capsid sequence displays amino acid substitutions around histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) binding sites. Several variants caused by mutations in the capsid region have previously been observed in the GII.4 genotype. Monitoring the GII.17 variant’s geographical spread and evolution is important. © 2015, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). All Rights Reserved.
Saitoh A.,Niigata University |
Saitoh A.,University of California at San Diego |
Okabe N.,Japan National Institute of Infectious Diseases |
Okabe N.,Kawasaki City Institute for Public Health
Vaccine | Year: 2012
The " vaccine gap" is a term which has been used in Japan to indicate that the current immunization program is behind compared to the programs in other developed countries. The current national immunization program (NIP) which was established under the Japanese Immunization Law includes only six vaccines (eight targeted diseases), and the rest of available vaccines have been categorized as voluntary vaccines, which require out-of-pocket expense in order for the patients to receive them. This has led the vaccination rates for the voluntary vaccines remaining low, and the incidence of the target diseases remaining high. In addition, there are a few domestic rules that exist for immunizations including (1) subcutaneous injection is the standard method of vaccination, (2) the thigh is not considered to be the common site of vaccination in infants, and (3) the intervals of administration of inactivated and live vaccines are strictly determined by law. Along with the " vaccine gap" and the domestic rules, some movements to improve our current NIP are underway; including increased calls to change the NIP from civilians and professionals, the establishment of a group by the representatives from 13 medical professional societies asking the government to consider the immunization policy a " national policy" and seeking the establishment of a new and reorganized national immunization technical advisory group (NITAG). In addition, the Vaccination Subcommittee of Health Sciences Council was formed in the government to reform the current Immunization Law and NIP, which established a new national program for three voluntary vaccines funded by a temporary budget. We hope these new movements will fill the " vaccine gap" and that the NITAG will help ensure that vaccine policy becomes a national policy, and will provide necessary vaccinations without out-of-pocket expense to protect children in Japan from vaccine preventable diseases. © 2012.
PubMed | Kawasaki City Institute for Public Health
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Japanese journal of infectious diseases | Year: 2014
A number of novel recombinant human adenoviruses (HAdVs) have recently been identified through sequencing of the complete genomes. The recombinant HAdV sequences share similarity with other types in the major capsid genes, namely the hexon, penton base, and fiber genes, implying recombination events, which may result in escape from the immune response and the acquisition of different organotropisms. Therefore, a surveillance system of HAdVs that considers the effect of frequent recombination on genetic evolution in these genes must be constructed. In this study, we designed new primer sets that can amplify the partial penton base and fiber genes from species HAdV-A to HAdV-F and proteotype HAdVs on the basis of sequence analyses, including previously reported primers that amplify loop 1 of the hexon. Phylogenetic analysis through sequencing with these primers correctly classified clinical HAdV isolates in loop 1 of the hexon gene, the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) loop of the penton base gene, and the knob of the fiber gene, which contain neutralizing, hemagglutination, and receptor binding epitopes associated with immunogenicity and tissue tropisms of HAdVs. This study contributes to the accumulation of correct information regarding genetic diversity and evolution in the worldwide HAdV surveillance.
PubMed | Japan National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Yokohama City University and Kawasaki City Institute for Public Health
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Genome announcements | Year: 2016
A recombinant norovirus, GII.P16-GII.4_Sydney2012, was first detected from nine patients with gastroenteritis in Kawasaki City, Japan, in 2016. The viral genome showed nucleotide sequence identities of 95.1% and 97.2% to the closest strains in the regions of 5 terminus to ORF1 and ORF2 to 3 terminus, respectively.
PubMed | University of California at San Diego and Kawasaki City Institute for Public Health
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Vaccine | Year: 2014
Recent progress in the Japanese immunization program has partially closed the vaccine gap, i.e., the deficiencies in that program relative to immunization programs in other developed countries. During the last several years, seven new vaccines (12 new products, excluding influenza vaccines) have been introduced in Japan. Five of these new vaccines are produced outside Japan and four are now included as routine vaccines in the National Immunization Program, which is a new development in the licensing and financial support of imported vaccines. However, along with this progress, important concerns have arisen regarding the Japanese immunization program. A rubella epidemic among adults, in 2012-2013, resulted in more than 40 cases of congenital rubella syndrome as of March 2014. In addition, the temporary withdrawal of the active governmental recommendation for human papilloma virus vaccines, in 2013-2014, highlighted challenges in the current Japanese immunization system. Furthermore, some important vaccines - including vaccines for hepatitis B virus, mumps, varicella, and rotavirus - are still not included in the National Immunization Program and have been categorized as voluntary vaccines since their introduction. The possibility of their inclusion in the National Immunization Program remains a matter for discussion. We hope that future initiatives will further address the vaccine gap and protect Japanese children from vaccine-preventable diseases.