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Wehling E.I.,University of Bergen | Wehling E.I.,Kavli Center for Aging and Dementia Research | Lundervold A.J.,University of Bergen | Nordin S.,Umea University | Wollschlaeger D.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz
Chemical Senses | Year: 2016

This longitudinal study investigated changes in olfaction as assessed by a set of tasks requiring different aspects of semantic information in normal aging individuals. Using 16 odorous items from a standardized olfactory test, the Scandinavian Odor Identification Test, 107 middle aged and older adults were assessed up to three times over a period of 6.5 years, requesting them to rate familiarity and edibility for each odorous item before identifying it with or without presenting verbal cues. Using linear mixed models, the longitudinal analyses revealed significant correlations between all olfactory measures. Furthermore, we found an almost parallel age-related decline in all olfactory tasks, although free identification performance indicated a trend toward faster decline with age. Women showed less decline compared with men, in particular for edibility judgments. The results corroborate earlier cross-sectional findings showing significant correlations between the olfactory tasks. In the present study of healthy middle-aged and older adults, we found a parallel longitudinal decline across different tests of olfaction. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. Source

Wehling E.,University of Bergen | Wehling E.,Kavli Center for Aging and Dementia Research | Naess H.,University of Bergen | Naess H.,University of Stavanger | And 5 more authors.
BMC Neurology | Year: 2015

Background: The aim of the study was to investigate odor identification performance in patients one year after hospital admittance due to stroke. Predictors for olfactory dysfunction were investigated as well as self-reported olfactory function and pleasantness of olfactory items. Methods: A 1-year prospective study was performed. Stroke location, classification and comorbidities were registered at hospital admission. One year after admission, olfactory function was assessed using standardized olfactory methods (screening for loss of detection sensitivity and an odor identification test). A group of matched controls was derived from a population-based study to compare odor identification performance between groups. Patients were asked for their personal judgment regarding their olfactory function and pleasantness of odorous items. In addition, global cognitive function and symptoms of depression were assessed. Results: A total of 78 patients were enrolled (46 males, 32 females; mean age 68 years) of which 28.2 % exhibited reduced olfactory function (hyposmia) and 15.4 % exhibited loss of olfactory function (10.3 % functional anosmia, 5.1 % complete anosmia). Patients showed significantly lower olfactory performance compared to age- and sex-mated matched controls. Predictors of impaired olfactory function were age and NIHSS score. Self-reports indicated no significant differences between patients with normal olfactory function and those with reduced function. Yet, patients having an olfactory dysfunction rated odorous items as significantly less pleasant compared to patients without dysfunction. Conclusions: Olfactory dysfunction seems to occur frequently after stoke even one year after initial admission. The deficits seem to relate to hyposmia and functional anosmia, and less to a complete loss of smell sensitivity. © 2015 Wehling et al. Source

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