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Zrake J.,Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology
Astrophysical Journal Letters

The free decay of nonhelical relativistic magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is studied numerically, and found to exhibit cascading of magnetic energy toward large scales. Evolution of the magnetic energy spectrum PM(k, t) is self-similar in time and well modeled by a broken power law with subinertial and inertial range indices very close to 7/2 and -2, respectively. The magnetic coherence scale is found to grow in time as t2/5, much too slow to account for optical polarization of gamma-ray burst afterglow emission if magnetic energy is to be supplied only at microphysical length scales. No bursty or explosive energy loss is observed in relativistic MHD turbulence having modest magnetization, which constrains magnetic reconnection models for rapid time variability of GRB prompt emission, blazars, and the Crab nebula. © 2014. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Source

Kerr M.,Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology
Astrophysical Journal

All γ-ray telescopes suffer from source confusion due to their inability to focus incident high-energy radiation, and the resulting background contamination can obscure the periodic emission from faint pulsars. In the context of the Fermi Large Area Telescope, we outline enhanced statistical tests for pulsation in which each photon is weighted by its probability to have originated from the candidate pulsar. The probabilities are calculated using the instrument response function and a full spectral model, enabling powerful background rejection. With Monte Carlo methods, we demonstrate that the new tests increase the sensitivity to pulsars by more than 50% under a wide range of conditions. This improvement may appreciably increase the completeness of the sample of radio-loud γ-ray pulsars. Finally, we derive the asymptotic null distribution for the H-test, expanding its domain of validity to arbitrarily complex light curves. © 2011. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Source

Funk S.,Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology | Hinton J.A.,University of Leicester
Astroparticle Physics

The past decade has seen a dramatic improvement in the quality of data available at both high (HE: 100 MeV to 100 GeV) and very high (VHE: 100 GeV to 100 TeV) gamma-ray energies. With three years of data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) and deep pointed observations with arrays of Cherenkov telescope, continuous spectral coverage from 100 MeV to ∼10 TeV exists for the first time for the brightest gammaray sources. The Fermi-LAT is likely to continue for several years, resulting in significant improvements in high energy sensitivity. On the same timescale, the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) will be constructed providing unprecedented VHE capabilities. The optimisation of CTA must take into account competition and complementarity with Fermi, in particularly in the overlapping energy range 10-100 GeV. Here we compare the performance of Fermi-LAT and the current baseline CTA design for steady and transient, point-like and extended sources. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Allen S.W.,Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology | Allen S.W.,SLAC | Evrard A.E.,University of Michigan | Mantz A.B.,NASA
Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics

Studies of galaxy clusters have proved crucial in helping to establish the standard model of cosmology, with a Universe dominated by dark matter and dark energy. A theoretical basis that describes clusters as massive, multicomponent, quasi-equilibrium systems is growing in its capability to interpret multiwavelength observations of expanding scope and sensitivity. We review current cosmological results, including contributions to fundamental physics, obtained from observations of galaxy clusters. These results are consistent with and complementary to those from other methods. We highlight several areas of opportunity for the next few years, and emphasize the need for accurate modeling of survey selection and sources of systematic error. Capitalizing on these opportunities will require a multiwavelength approach and the application of rigorous statistical frameworks, utilizing the combined strengths of observers, simulators, and theorists. © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source

Buhler R.,German Electron Synchrotron | Blandford R.,Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology
Reports on Progress in Physics

The Crab nebula and its pulsar (referred to together as 'the Crab') have historically played a central role in astrophysics. True to this legacy, several unique discoveries have been made recently. The Crab was found to emit gamma-ray pulsations up to energies of 400 GeV, beyond what was previously expected from pulsars. Strong gamma-ray flares, of durations of a few days, were discovered from within the nebula, while the source was previously expected to be stable in flux on these time scales. Here we review these intriguing and suggestive developments. In this context we give an overview of the observational properties of the Crab and our current understanding of pulsars and their nebulae. © 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd. Source

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