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Saudi Arabia

Problem statement: Improper handling of solid and hazardous waste will impact the living standards of a community in normal days and when disasters occur such misuse could disperse response and recovery activities due to natural or man-made disasters. Approach: This study discussed the Jordanian solid and hazardous waste management policies in light of USA equivalent ones with the intention to improve solid and hazardous waste management policies in Jordan. Results: It was found that establishing a council on environmental quality, special environmental court, a trust fund are the most actions which could improve the solid and hazardous waste management policies in Jordan. Moreover, introducing environmental taxation incentives, intensifying violation penalties, increasing public environmental awareness are strong motives which could improve the environmental conditions in Jordan. Conclusion/Recommendations: It is important to develop the Jordanian environmental laws in light of worldwide interest with improving environmental conditions for human being. © 2010 Science Publications. Source

Momani N.M.,KAU Jeddah
Disaster Prevention and Management

Purpose: There are several researches which addressed earthquake probabilistic and deterministic risk assessment without linking the decision-making process in order to implement policies, plans, and procedures to prevent or reduce human and monetary losses. This paper aims to address this issue. Design/methodology/approach: This study suggests an integrated framework for earthquake consequences management. The framework consists of earthquake consequences model, value analysis, and socio-economic analysis, as well as dynamic integration for implementing strategies, policies, and plans. Findings: The developed integrated framework for earthquakes consequences management could be used for a study area especially in developing countries in which human and capital resources are limited. Research limitations/implications: There is a need to have different case studies to demonstrate how the integrated framework for earthquake consequence management could reduce human and monetary losses due to earthquakes for a study area. Originality/value: It is important to consider earthquake risks as part of strategic planning for societies that are vulnerable to future earthquakes. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Source

Hedia H.S.,KAU Jeddah | Najjar I.M.R.,KAU Jeddah | Aldousari S.M.,KAU Jeddah | Alsoruji G.S.,KAU Jeddah
Materialpruefung/Materials Testing

In automotive engines, the connecting rod is subjected to high cyclic loads. These are represented by high compressive loads due to combustion, and high tensile loads due to the connecting rod mass of inertia. The main objective of this study is to optimize the shape of a connecting rod in an automobile engine. A model of the connecting rod has numerically been built and has been solved by the Finite Element Method (FEM) using the ANSYS package to determine the stresses distribution over the entire rod. In addition, the transition force analysis of the connecting rod and the verification of the analysis are shown. The aim of the optimization has been to minimize the respective Von Mises stresses which occur at connected rod in both cases, i. e. compressive loads coming from the gas pressure at maximum engine output and the bending loads resulting from the inertia force at the maximum engine power. The weight of the connecting rod should be maintained to prevent increasing of the inertia force. The results of this study indicate that the maximum compression stress occur at compressing loads at the small end section of the connecting rod. Optimizing the radius at the small end decreases such stresses. On the other hand, the inertia forces of the connecting rod mass cause a maximum bending stress at the large end section. By changing the shape and geometry of this section the maximum Von Mises stresses are reduced by 16.5 %, as compared to the original design. A buckling analysis has been carried out for the original and the optimized model and the results have been compared. The load factor (critical load/ applied load) is increased by 7% compared to the original design. Finally, a shape optimization for connecting rod reduces the stresses over the entire rod. Source

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