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Saudi Arabia

Almutairi R.A.,King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology | Almutairi Y.A.A.,King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology | Alghtani H.H.G.,King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology | Aldamegh K.H.D.,King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology | Aboud E.S.S.,KAU
8th Congress of the Balkan Geophysical Society, BGS 2015 | Year: 2015

Saudi Arabia is a desert country with no permanent rivers or lakes and very little rainfall. As such, ground water aquifers are major sources of water in Saudi Arabia. For example, in the Riyadh region (central of Saudi Arabia), several Wadies, including Wadi Nisah, store about 14 × 106 m3 which are extracted for local irrigation purposes. In most of these areas, water wells are as shallow as 200-300m. Wadi Nisah aquifer is important because it is a large subsurface water aquifer that could provide enough water for many years. Accordingly, a Magnetotelluric (MT) survey was conducted (for the first time in the Riyadh region) in order to evaluate the subsurface aquifers at great depths (∼ 2-3km). In this study, we used the available portable broadband sounding receiver system (MT24LF). This system is designed for measuring low frequency signals which penetrate the earth layers and directly related to the subsurface resistivity. MT results indicated that, a low resistivity layer associated with alluvium deposits was defined at depth of about 1-2km and extend horizontally to about 15km. We interpreted this layer as the subsurface ground water aquifer in Wadi Nisah.


Abou-Zeid A.,Cairo University | Taha M.A.,KAU
IEEE Global Engineering Education Conference, EDUCON | Year: 2014

Quality of engineering education is a core principle that can never be sacrificed. To ensure quality, engineering programs/schools seek national and/or international accreditation from relevant accreditation agencies. As higher education in Saudi Arabia is evolving rapidly and to ensure high education quality standards, the Ministry of Higher Education is requesting all the institutions of higher education to be accredited by the National Commission for Academic Accreditation & Assessment (NCAAA). The accreditation process is not very much liked by most of the faculty members as they have the misconception that it is an exhausting time consuming, not to say complex and unnecessary, process. Most faculty members are not enthusiastic about going through the preparation process and its requirements from data collection, documents and forms preparation, data aggregation, data analysis, collecting evidences, and developing corrective action and future plans as needed. This paper describes requirements for programs accreditation, the preparation process, and the challenges faced during the accreditation process. Few papers were published discussing different issues related to the accreditation process in Saudi Universities. Despite the importance of the accreditation related issues discussed in those papers, the authors believe that the challenges associated with the accreditation process and their causes are not fully reported and are very important to be presented. Programs, colleges, and faculty members need to realize those challenges to try to avoid them and make the accreditation process easier and smoother. Knowledge and information gained via observation, unstructured interviews with faculty members, discussions with colleagues from different Saudi universities, and extensive involvement of the authors in the accreditation process in a private university and a public university is utilized to state challenges and barriers experienced throughout different stages of the accreditation journey. The private university was preparing for NCAAA and the public university was preparing for ABET. Although the study is based more on the national accreditation experience, it was found that similar challenges were faced and same recommendations apply for both national and international accreditation. This means that type of accreditation and differences between programs/universities was not the problem and proves that the readiness of the program and the institution is the most important catalyst of the accreditation process. The main challenges faced by different programs were added workload, understaffing, inadequate training, inability to properly prepare required forms and documents, lack of faculty commitment to the accreditation process, high faculty turn over, and lack of proper support from higher administration. The paper discusses the main causes of the problems faced during the process and presents some recommendations that might help making the accreditation process easier and smoother. The study concludes with the fact that faculty and staff commitment and belief in the importance of quality and the benefits of accreditation to the programs and institution is the key success factor in attaining accreditation. Administration cannot force faculty and staff to go quality but can convince them that quality is the perfect life style for the institution. © 2014 IEEE.


Haffez G.S.A.,KAU
Materialpruefung/Materials Testing | Year: 2012

The crushing energy for applications in the mineral processing industry is usually determined by an empirical bond index, regardless of the mechanical properties of a rock. Although several attempts have been made to obtain the comminution energy based on theoretical approaches, it would be beneficial to examine this relation based on a physical concept. In this paper, some Saudi samples of bauxite, kaolinite, granodiorite, magnetite, granite, feldspar and quartz were tested for hardness, abrasion, compressive strength as well as modulus of elasticity and the bond work index of these samples was estimated. The value of the bond work index of the above samples has shown a variation from 10.8 kWh ton 1 for bauxite (high abrasion value and low compressive strength) to 20.4 kWh ton -1 for granite (low abrasion value and high modulus of elasticity). The correlation between the abrasion value (X 2) and work index (W I) is found to be W 1 = -1.8 Ln(X 2) + 11.5 with a correlation coefficient of 0.80. © Carl Hanser Verlag.


Murad H.,King Abdulaziz University | Murad H.,Ain Shams University | Ayuob N.,KAU | Ayuob N.,Mansoura University
Pain Physician | Year: 2015

Background: Chronic pain may be associated with diabetes mellitus and/or depression. Use of therapies that target both comorbidities is encouraged. Objective: This study was designed to investigate the potential antinociceptive, neuroprotective, and antidepressant effects of combinations of pioglitazone or metformin with fluoxetine in chronic constriction injury (CCI) in rats. Study Design: Experimental trial in rats. Setting: University lab in Saudia Arabia. Methods: Two sets of experiments were performed. In each one, 9 groups of rats (n = 8) were used: sham, CCI, and 7 CCI-treated groups. Treatments were given orally starting on day 7 post-surgery as follows (mg/kg/day): fluoxetine (10, 20, and 40), pioglitazone (20), metformin (50), fluoxetine (20) + pioglitazone, and fluoxetine (20) + metformin. In the first set, on day 14 post-surgery mechanical allodynia, thermal hyperalgesia, and serum cytokines were measured. Moreover, immunoreactivity of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, a marker for astrocytic activation) in the spinal cord was assessed and histopathological changes in the ipsilateral sciatic nerve were examined. In the second set, on days 14 and 21 post-surgery the forced swimming test was done. Results: IIn the first set, all treatments significantly decreased (not increased) mechanical allodynia while all treatments except F10 and F20 significantly decreased (not increased) thermal hyperalgesia compared to the CCI group. The F20+M group showed the highest decreases (not increases), however still significantly lower than those of the sham group. The treatments didn’t impair motor function in the rotarod test. All treatments significantly decreased serum levels of tumor necrosis factor interleukin-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 while increasing the level of interleukin-10. The CCI-induced marked increase of GFAP immunoexpression has been reduced to moderate with fluoxetine (40) and pioglitazone, and to mild with metformin and the combination groups. The CCI-induced changes in sciatic nerve were less in fluoxetine (40), pioglitazone, and metformin groups, and least in the combination groups. In the second set, the immobility duration was significantly reduced by F20, F40, P, F20+P, and F20+M compared to the CCI group. The F20+P group showed the highest decrease, however still significantly lower than that of the sham group. The treatments didn’t affect locomotor activity in the open field test. Limitations: Measuring the cytokines levels only in blood and not in the spinal cord and sciatic nerve and measuring the outcome measures in the first set of experiments at only one time-point. Conclusions: Co-administration of pioglitazone or metformin with low-dose fluoxetine improved mechanical allodynia, thermal hyperalgesia, and neurohistopathological changes while coadministration of pioglitazone, but not metformin, improved the depressive-like behavior in the peripheral nerve injury model of neuropathic pain in rats. Extrapolation of the current results to clinical reality could be beneficial for pain patients with diabetes and/or depression, however this needs further confirmatory studies. © 2015, American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians. All rights reserved.


Hedia H.S.,KAU
Materialpruefung/Materials Testing | Year: 2011

The merge of materials science with the biological sciences has produced some advanced materials which are called functionally graded materials (FGMs) in order to provide the desired material characteristics. The FGMs concept originates in Japan in 1984 during the space plan project. FGMs are materials or structures in which the material properties vary with location in such a way as to optimize some functions of the overall FGMs. It is well known that the main inorganic component of natural bone is hydroxyapatite (HAP) and that the main organic component is collagen (Col). Hydroxyapatite HAP implants are not bioabsorbable, and because induction of bone into and around the artificially made HAP is not always satisfactory, loosening or breakage of HAP implants may occur after implantation in the clinical application. The development of a new material which is bioabsorbable and which has osteo-conductive activity is needed. Therefore, the aim of the current investigation is to design an implant, in the presence of cancellous bone as a thin layer around it, from functionally graded material. In this study, a novel biomaterial, collagen/hydroxyapatite (Col/HAP) as a functionally graded material (FGM), was developed using the finite element and optimization techniques which are available in the AN-SYS package. These materials have a self-organized character similar to that of natural bone. The investigations have shown that the maximum stress in the cortical bone and cancellous bone for the Col/HAP functionally graded implant has been reduced by about 40 % and 19 % respectively compared to currently used titanium dental implants. © Carl Hanser Verlag.

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