Saulawa L.A.,Katsina University |
Yaradua A.I.,Umaru Musa Yar'Adua University
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2014
Effect of different processing methods on chemical profile of Baobab (Adansonia digitata) seed meal was investigated. Raw Baobab seeds were collected for the study. Five different processing methods (Boiling, toasting, soaking, soak and boiling and sprouting) were used. All the processed seeds with the exception of toasted seeds were oven dried before milling for chemical analysis. Result of the study shows that raw baobab seed contains 28.85% CP with a reasonable amount of mineral and energy, it also contain some anti-nutritional factors. Processing significantly reduced crude protein, mineral and anti nutrition factors content but improved energy content. Boiling gave the least percentage reduction of crude protein and highest percentage reduction of anti nutritional factor. Boiling processing is recommended for baobab seed. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2014.
Saulawa L.A.,Katsina University |
Yahaya M.A.,Katsina University |
Ukpabi U.H.,Abia State University
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2015
A study was carried out at the research farm of faculty of agriculture, Abia State University Uturu, in order to determine the hematopoietic reaction of broiler birds fed graded levels of boiled baobab seed meal as a replacement for soya beans meal. Three hundred (300) day old chicks of Anak breed were randomly allocated to five (5) treatments groups of A, B, C, D and E with 60 birds per treatment group replicated thrice of twenty (20) birds per replicate in a Complete Randomized Design (CRD). Treatment group A served as a control group fed diet free (0%) of the boiled baobab seed meal while treated groups B, C, D and E diets were replaced at 25, 50, 75 and 100% levels of baobab seed meal in place of soya beans meal. Treated diets and water were supplied ad-libitum and all management practices strictly adhered to. Blood samples were randomly collected from three (3) birds per replicate at the termination of the study at 8th weeks, after which the blood was sent immediately to the University Laboratory for analysis. Results of the findings revealed insignificant differences (p>0.05) in the mean values of PCV amongst all the treated groups (Table 2). On the other hand significant differences (p<0.05) due to treatment effects (Table 2) were observed in the mean values of Hb, RBC, WBC, MCV, MCHC, MCH, LYMPH, BASO and NEUTRO amongst the treated groups with treatments group A and B having greater mean values which were statistically different from treated groups C, D and E. However, the results of these findings were within the normal range reported by some authors signifying that the treated birds were healthy and the boiled test ingredient can be used to replace soya bean meal to the maximum level of 100% without any adverse effects in the hematological indices of the birds. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2015.
Mashi S.A.,University Of Abuja |
Yaro A.,Katsina University |
Jenkwe E.D.,University Of Abuja
Environment, Development and Sustainability | Year: 2015
This study examines the causes and consequences of gully erosion, as perceived by the local people of Dangara area, Nigeria. The study particularly seeks to explore the local people’s perceptions of gully erosion and how it affects crop, settlement development, crop yields, land ownership and values, rural economics and private conservation investments in Dangara area of Nigeria’s Federal Capital Territory. It is based on analysis of data collected using questionnaires administered to 346 respondents in the area. The responses received for the various aspects considered in evaluating the respondents’ perspectives of the processes, causative factors, consequences and control measures of gully erosion in the study area were subjective to Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) to detect and explore relationships between knowledge of causes of gully erosion and use of conservation measures. The results obtained indicated that the major factors causing erosion that the respondents identified in order of preference were climate, land cover, hydrology, land use and topography. For the processes, the main ones identified were slope wash and valley slope retreat, while all the other (including potholing, solution, hydraulic action, corrosion and attrition) ones were ranked with zero (0) scores indicating that the respondents were not aware of them. In the case of consequences of gully erosion, the MCA analysis indicated that livelihood, infrastructure, economy and social life were the main ones. For measures of controlling gully erosion, the analysis revealed that engineering, mechanical, land use control and agronomic measures were the ones being applied. The results obtained thus indicated that (1) the farmers were familiar with gully erosion but less aware of splash, stream bank, sheet and rill erosion; (2) the farmers did not fully understand the processes involved in gully erosion; (3) the respondents’ personal traits significantly influenced the level of their perception of the problem in the area; (4) only the uneducated among the respondents claimed to largely be unaware of gully problem in the area; (5) most of the respondents were aware of gully erosion-control measures such as sand filling, terracing, afforestation, planting of cover crops, grazing control and road construction control but could not adopt to them; and (6) the main control measures being adopted by the people include avoiding cultivating steep slopes, contour ploughing across slope, stopping land scarification, crop rotation, bush burning control, fallowing and strip cropping. These findings suggest that promoting gully erosion control in the area requires that adequate attention be given towards educating the people on the processes of gully development and the values of adopting new control measures as well as those they were aware of but have not been adopting. Since the farmers were not adopting some of the measures they are aware of largely due to lack of technical and financial base, there is the need for the development and adoption of strategies that could improve their technical and financial capabilities to enhance their capability for adopting them. In order to enhance capacity of the people of the studied community, there is the need to develop and adopt strategies that could improve technical and financial bases of the people in the area. It was further recommended that any policy aimed at comprehensively addressing gully erosion in the area must address the differences in people’s perception of the problem at the outset. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
Usman A.R.,University of Malaya |
Usman A.R.,Katsina University |
Khandaker M.U.,University of Malaya |
Isa N.F.,Bayero University |
Ahmed Y.A.,Ahmadu Bello University
IFMBE Proceedings | Year: 2016
Realizing the importance of individual elements to human body, 14 different food samples (mainly cereals: beans, millet, sorghum and rice) collected from two different countries; Nigeria and Republic of Niger, were analyzed using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) for the determination of the elemental content. Despite the commercial activity of uranium in the Republic of Niger, the concentration of Uranium, Arsenic, Chromium etc. in the studied samples show below detection limit. Elevated concentrations of K, Ca and Mg were found from the sampled beans of this work. Daily intake per person of all assessed elements were estimated and compared with Recommended Daily Intake (RDI) to establish the accumulation information of mineral, toxic and radioactive elements in the body of people of Nigeria and Niger Republic. Assessed elemental concentrations were compared with the available literature data on relevant cereals, and found reasonable agreement. Analytical quality control service (AQCS) reference material (lichen) from International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was also irradiated and analyzed in this work for ensuring quality control of the method and facility (nuclear reactor) used. © International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering 2016.
Oladele A.H.,Katsina University |
Omitogun O.G.,Obafemi Awolowo University
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2016
This study was conducted over a period of nine weeks to investigate the population of zooplankton raised in concrete tanks, using organic manures, as an alternative to imported expensive Artemia cysts (INVE®, USA). Cow dung, swine faeces and their mixture (50:50), were used in quantities of 1.50 g/litre, 0.46 g/litre and 0.98 g/litre, respectively, to fertilize the culture tanks under an outdoor management system. Zooplankton population was monitored for 53 days with a compound microscope and an improvised 250µ mesh-sized zooplankton net. Representative species of Cladocera and Copepoda were preserved in 70% ethyl alcohol and taxonomically identified. Results revealed that there were no significant differences (p = 0.05) among the mean zooplankton populations of the three treatments. While a significant relationship (p = 0.0098) was found between zooplankton population in cow and mixture manure-fertilized tanks, and number of days, the case was different in the swine manure fertilized culture tanks (p = 0.01). Furthermore, the temperature (25±20C) of the culture tanks during the study period had no significant effect (p = 0.01) on the zooplankton population across the three treatments. Therefore, cow and swine manures can be used to raise zooplankton under extensive outdoor conditions, as an alternative to imported expensive Artemia cysts (INVE®, USA) for feeding larvae and fry of African catfish. © 2016, Fundacion CIPAV. All rights reserved.
Yahaya M.A.,Katsina University |
Aruwayo A.,Katsina University
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2014
A study was conducted to establish the survival and reproductive response of adults rabbits exposed to graded levels of crude oil contaminated diet. Thirty two rabbits of mixed breed of New Zealand White and Chinchilla were used in this study. The study entailed four treatment groups (designated) A, B, C and D with eight rabbits of equal sex ratio replicated four times were randomly assigned to each group. The levels of crude oil inclusion in the diet were 0.00%, (control A) 0.01, 0.02 and 0.03% for treated groups B, C and D respectively. The study lasted for fourteen weeks. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in weight gain among the groups. The mean feed intake, average weekly body weight gain as well as final body weight were not significantly different (p>0.05) amongst the group. There was no mortality recorded at the highest inclusion rate of 0.03% in this study. Results obtained on the reproductive response revealed 68% were pregnant including the control group and 50% conception rate was recorded amongst the experimental groups. Therefore, it could be concluded that, the adult rabbits were able to survive, conceive and kindle at the highest crude oil inclusion rate of 0.03%, without any adverse effect on the experimental rabbits, hence establishing their survival level and reproductive capability of adults rabbits exposed to crude oil contamination. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2014.
Lawal A.,University of Malaya |
Lawal A.,Katsina University |
Huat Tan G.,University of Malaya |
Ali Alsharif A.M.,University of Malaya
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2015
Historically, Allium sativum have been documented and valued for their spicy and medicinal qualities by many cultures around the globe for many years. Notwithstanding, medicinal activity of other bulb species such as Crinum ornatum have also been published. However, the bulb species of Crinum ornatum and Allium sativum were individually analyzed quantitatively for proximate compositions and flavonoids contents of the samples. Phytochemical and toxicological tests were carried out on the aqueous extracts of both species. These analyses were conducted in order to see spicy potentials of Crinum ornatum compared with Allium sativum. Proximate analysis results were presented as mean±standard deviation of three replicates, respectively; Crinum ornatum and Allium sativum contains 77.83±2.75 and 52.60±0.30% moisture, 4.67±0.58 and 4.50±0.27% ash, 0.67±0.29 and 2.98±0.03% crude lipid, 4.04±0.07 and 8.40±0.18% crude protein, 2.67±0.29 and 1.47±0.02% crude fibre, 87.96±0.46 and 82.65±0.04% available carbohydrate and 373.99 and 391.02 kcal/100 g energy value. Phytochemical screening for the two bulbs respectively revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, glycosides, cardiac-glycosides, volatile oils and steroids. The quantity of flavonoids in dried Crinum ornatum and Allium sativum are 52.4±0.02 and 29.20±0.29%, respectively. The LD50 result of both samples were, respectively higher than 3000 mg/kg for the tested animals. These results justifiably shows that, Crinum ornatum bulbs could be considered as potential spice which would serve in medicinal and culinary purposes. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2015.
Chiromawa N.L.,Universiti Sains Malaysia |
Chiromawa N.L.,Katsina University |
Ibrahim K.,Universiti Sains Malaysia
Applied Physics A: Materials Science and Processing | Year: 2016
Recently, micro-lenses have attracted more attention among optoelectronics device application developers. This paper presents the micro-array of Si-Fresnel rings fabricated by the electron beam lithography and reactive ion etching. Fresnel rings units containing 11 concentric rings were created on the PMMA layer with the outermost Fresnel ring, having an external diameter of 45.24 μm, and are located ≈200 μm away from each other. These structures can be copied as the micro-array of Fresnel lenses for optoelectronics device applications. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Dada A.J.,Kaduna State University |
Wartu J.R.,Kaduna State University |
Auta T.,Katsina University |
Diya A.W.,Kaduna State University
Asian Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Environmental Sciences | Year: 2015
Vegetables serve as supplementary diet to the residents of Kaduna metropolis. Some leafy vegetables such as Cabbage are mostly consumed raw to harness the natural nutritive value. Improperly processed vegetables are common source of helminthes eggs leading to gastrointestinal tract infections. A total of 240 market and farm raw vegetable samples were screened for helminthes eggs and cysts. Sedimentation technique and NaNO3 floatation methods were adopted for the assay. Kasuwan Barchi had the highest level of helminthes egg contamination (33.3%) in the study, followed by Kawo market (23.3%), Sabo market (10.0%) and least contamination by Central market (5.0%). There was no significant difference between Market kiosk/shed sold vegetables and farm raw vegetables. However, the former had a higher prevalence of 71.6%, than the later (66.7%). Helminthes egg isolated from the vegetable in ascending order include: Hookworm (5.0%), S. stercoralis (7.5%). Trichuris trichiura (8.3%) and A. lumbricoides (25.8%). Likewise, Trichuris trichiura (4.2%), Fasciola spp (8.3%), hookworm (8.3%), Toxocara spp (8.3), S. stercoralis (12.5%) and A. lumbricoides (16.7%) were isolated from the various farm soils. Furthermore, Giardia lamblia cyst (1.0%), E. histolytica cyst (1.0%) and Fasciola spp (2.1%) were isolated from the farm soils. A. lumbricoides (8.3%), Schistosome spp (2.1%) and Entamoeba coli cyst (2.1%) and S. stercoralis (1.0%) were isolated from the irrigation water. Cabbage had the highest percentage (20.8%) of vegetable helminthes egg contamination and least by garden egg (3.1%). The result of this finding revealed an alarming prevalence of helminth eggs in vegetables obtained both from the farm and in the market. There is need for public enlightenment for farmers on their choice of manure for their gardens. Market women selling vegetables also need to be enlightened on the need to properly wash the farm produce before displaying them for sale. © 2015 Global Science Publications.
Musa A.,University Putra Malaysia |
Musa A.,Katsina University |
Ahmad M.B.,University Putra Malaysia |
Hussein M.Z.,University Putra Malaysia |
And 2 more authors.
Nanoscale Research Letters | Year: 2016
The synthesis of copper nanoparticles was carried out with gelatin as a stabilizer by reducing CuSO4.5H2O ions using hydrazine. Ascorbic acid and aqueous NaOH were also used as an antioxidant and pH controller, respectively. The effects of NaOH, hydrazine, and concentration of gelatin as stabilizer were studied. The synthesized copper nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, XRD, zeta potential measurements, FTIR, EDX, FESEM, and TEM. The formation of CuNPs@Gelatin is initially confirmed by UV-vis spectroscopic analysis with the characteristic band at 583 nm. XRD and TEM reports revealed that CuNPs@Gelatin (0.75 wt.%) is highly crystalline and spherical in shape with optimum average size of 4.21 ± 0.95 nm. FTIR studies indicated the presence of amide group on the surface of the CuNPs indicating the stability of CuNPs which is further supported by zeta potential measurements with the negative optimum value of −37.90 ± 0.6 mV. The CuNPs@G4 showed a good catalytic activity against methylene blue (MB) reduction using NaBH4 as a reducing agent in an aqueous solution. The best enhanced properties of CuNPs@G4 were found for the 0.75 wt.% gelatin concentration. Thermodynamic parameters (ΔH and ΔS) indicate that under the studied temperature, the reduction of MB by CuNPs@G4 is not feasible and had endothermic in nature. © 2016, The Author(s).