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Katowice, Poland

Letkiewicz S.,Katowice School of Economics | Gorski A.,Medical University of Warsaw | Gorski A.,Polish Academy of Sciences
Science and Engineering Ethics | Year: 2010

The technological advances of the 20th century resulted in the creation of the Internet and its introduction into everyday life on a global scale. The Internet provides access to information and the sale and purchase of goods. Medications are also subject to trade. Their sale is conducted by online pharmacies and their global turnover amounts to hundreds of billions of dollars. Medications ordered over the Internet are sent by mail all over the world. Considering the events of recent years, we cannot exclude the risk of a terrorist attack through online pharmacies. Terrorists can establish such companies, legally or illegally, or acquire ones already existing. Parcels, which are highly trusted by the customers of online pharmacies, can, for example, be contaminated with dangerous materials. The sale of online medications in the international system is potentially dangerous and requires international regulation. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009. Source

Poreba G.J.,Silesian University of Technology | Snieszko Z.,Katowice School of Economics | Moska P.,Silesian University of Technology
Quaternary International | Year: 2013

Although colluvium is a valuable record of past human impact, there is a lack of a precise method of age determination. The luminescence method could be used, but the basic difficulty is partial bleaching of quartz grains. In this study, colluviums from southern Poland were investigated using the OSL method. All examples for this study are colluviums deposited on Holocene fossil soils in dry valleys. In all cases, the area of research has been very well recognized in terms of archaeological significance. The youngest 50-year old colluviums were also studied using the 137Cs method. The obtained luminescence results are in stratigraphic order and in good agreement with archaeological data and 14C dating. The dated sediment samples are usually well bleached. This is not due to transportation on the slope but rather from mixing by ploughing or bioturbation. OSL dating results together with distributions may therefore be helpful in determining the origin of colluvium. This is not possible by examination of macroscopic lithogenetic characteristics, as the diagnostic sedimentary structures of colluvium were destroyed by postsedimentation soil processes. The results confirmed that soil erosion started in the Neolithic. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA. Source

Grzybowski S.J.,Jagiellonian University | Wyczesany M.,Jagiellonian University | Kaiser J.,Katowice School of Economics
Biological Psychology | Year: 2014

The study investigated brain responses to emotional and neutral adjectives within contexts of varying emotional valence. Participants were randomly assigned to 3 context groups where they viewed random sequences of emotional and neutral adjectives intermixed with: emotional pictures (emotional context), neutral pictures (neutral context) and blank screens (zero context). Within the emotional context group the P3 potential was more pronounced in response to positive than either negative or neutral adjectives, and positive picture context impacted positive and negative adjectives differently. In the neutral context group the P2 and P3 potentials were greater in response to the positive adjectives as compared to the neutral ones. There was also a greater negativity of the N400 potential in response to the neutral adjectives. Within the zero context group only the N400 effect was visible. The seeming preference for positive words can be explained in terms of the specific positivity offset phenomenon. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Wyczesany M.,Jagiellonian University | Grzybowski S.J.,Jagiellonian University | Kaiser J.,Katowice School of Economics
Journal of Psychophysiology | Year: 2015

In the study, the neural basis of emotional reactivity was investigated. Reactivity was operationalized as the impact of emotional pictures on the self-reported ongoing affective state. It was used to divide the subjects into high- and low-responders groups. Independent sources of brain activity were identified, localized with the DIPFIT method, and clustered across subjects to analyse the visual evoked potentials to affective pictures. Four of the identified clusters revealed effects of reactivity. The earliest two started about 120 ms from the stimulus onset and were located in the occipital lobe and the right temporoparietal junction. Another two with a latency of 200 ms were found in the orbitofrontal and the right dorsolateral cortices. Additionally, differences in pre-stimulus alpha level over the visual cortex were observed between the groups. The attentional modulation of perceptual processes is proposed as an early source of emotional reactivity, which forms an automatic mechanism of affective control. The role of top-down processes in affective appraisal and, finally, the experience of ongoing emotional states is also discussed. © 2015 Hogrefe Publishing. Source

Zemla M.,Katowice School of Economics
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis | Year: 2012

Mountain areas in Poland constitute a special territory with respect to physico-geographical, economic and social aspects. There are specific environmental, economic and cultural conditions, which on one hand restrain and on the other provide chances of these areas development. Environmental conditions involve higher economic costs mainly in agriculture but also in other fields, such as construction or transportation. Other characteristics of these areas include landscape values which just through development of tourism can at least partially recompense the local communities the limited opportunities of gaining incomes. Thus increasing the competitiveness of the tourism product of mountain areas in line with principles of sustainable development remains among the basic topics concerned by local, regional and national authorities, when dealing with socio-economic development of those areas. In order that an individual commune may use tourism as a driving force for local socio-economic development, in the first place there must be conditions favourable for practising various forms of tourism (bases for starting and then intensifying the tourist movement are necessary prerequisites), secondly opportunities must be opened up for creating various enterprises connected with tourism and providing services for tourists, and capable of meeting increased needs of local communities. Conditions (factors) determining mountain communes predisposition for undertaking and realisation of development through tourism may be either of external or internal character. A detailed analysis was conducted in the paper only on the internal conditions. These conditions were analysed considering their diversified character, which was presented as identification of partial conditions, i.e. infrastructural, economic, environmental (natural and anthropogenic) and social conditions characterised by individual diagnostic features. Source

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