Katopodis Ecohydraulics Ltd

Winnipeg, Canada

Katopodis Ecohydraulics Ltd

Winnipeg, Canada
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Thiem J.D.,Carleton University | Binder T.R.,Carleton University | Dumont P.,Ministere des Ressources Naturelles et de la Faune | Hatin D.,Ministere des Ressources Naturelles et de la Faune | And 4 more authors.
River Research and Applications | Year: 2013

A shift from target species to ecosystem restoration has generated interest in developing fishways that are capable of passing entire fish communities. Although a number of multispecies fishways now exist in North America, evaluations of these fishways are lacking. We used a passive integrated transponder antenna array to quantify passage success and passage duration of fish using a vertical slot fishway (85m in length, 2.65m elevation rise, 12 regular pools and 2 turning basins) at a low head dam on the Richelieu River in Quebec, Canada. Fourteen of the 18 tagged species re-ascended the fishway, and passage efficiency was highly variable among species (range 25%-100%); however, it was >50% for five of the species well represented in this study (n>10) (Atlantic salmon, channel catfish, smallmouth bass, walleye and white sucker). Passage duration was likewise highly variable both among and within species (e.g. 1.0-452.9h for smallmouth bass, 2.4-237.5h for shorthead redhorse). Although this fishway design was not uniformly successful in passing fish of all species, this study does reveal the species that have problems with ascent and provides an estimate on the time spent in the fishway that is an important component of passage delay. Such information could be used to inform future design refinements to facilitate passage of the entire assemblage with minimal delay. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Marriner B.A.,University of Alberta | Baki A.B.M.,University of Alberta | Zhu D.Z.,University of Alberta | Thiem J.D.,Carleton University | And 2 more authors.
Ecological Engineering | Year: 2014

Turning pools are common in fishways, they create a more compact design by enabling fishways to fold back on themselves. Despite this, little is known about the hydraulic characteristics of turning pools or how they are influenced by different design elements. This paper presents the results of a study on the hydraulics of turning pools in vertical slot fishways focusing on the Vianney-Legendre vertical slot fishway in Quebec, Canada, which is one of few fishways worldwide to successfully pass sturgeon (i.e., lake sturgeon, Acipenser fulvescens). Field velocity measurements taken in two pools and a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model study were used to assess the turning pool hydraulics of seven design geometries. Parallel biological studies of sturgeon in the fishway revealed that turning pools were the location with the highest rate of failed passage, apparently associated with large vortices in the centre of the turning pools which serve to delay or inhibit passage. Interestingly, the velocity, and turbulence levels are comparable to results from regular pools in vertical slot fishways. The volumetric energy dissipation rate in turning pools is suitable for fish passage. Based on in silico modelling we revealed that the addition of a baffle wall extending from the inside centre wall of the pool reduced the size of the vortex and provided a resting area for ascending fish. Adding a baffle wall should be considered in turning pools with semi-circular or straight back walls. There is a need for research to evaluate exactly how fish respond to different turning pool designs but in the interim, the approach used here demonstrates the potential for using hydraulic studies to design turning pools in fishways that meet biological criteria and presumably increase passage efficiency. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Boavida I.,University of Lisbon | Santos J.M.,University of Lisbon | Katopodis C.,Katopodis Ecohydraulics Ltd | Ferreira M.T.,University of Lisbon | Pinheiro A.,University of Lisbon
River Research and Applications | Year: 2013

Both water managers and researchers have the same goal when it comes to fish conservation, namely, to sustain, to improve or to restore aquatic habitat. To this aim, two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic models have been widely used in aquatic habitat studies because they simulate flow with high accuracy and can predict habitat dynamics. The River2D model is able to integrate the habitat suitability curves for fish life stages with the simulated depth and velocity fields and the riverbed characteristics of substrate and cover, thereby estimating the corresponding weighted usable area, and thus predicting the potential distribution of fish species in the river. However, little is known about the in situ variability associated with such predictions both for hydraulic and biological data, whereas ecological responses are known to be driven by variability. Moreover, when calculating habitat availability, differences can be found by considering in the weighted usable area formulation substrate or cover or even both. To test the level of predictive accuracy of hydraulic and biological simulations, we modelled the habitat use by two fish species, the Iberian barbel Luciobarbus bocagei and the Iberian straight-mouth nase Pseudochondrostoma polylepis, according to their requirements for depth, velocity, substrate and cover and then compared measured and simulated hydraulic and biological outcomes using the River2D model. Results indicate that 2D simulation depends on data collection, especially the density and location of bed topography points. Substantial differences were found in the biological responses. Results may differ when choosing different habitat availability variables. Similarly, habitat use may also be influenced by other biotic and abiotic interactions occurring in ecosystems, and restoration planning should be aware of such variability. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Silva A.T.,University of Lisbon | Santos J.M.,University of Lisbon | Ferreira M.T.,University of Lisbon | Pinheiro A.N.,University of Lisbon | Katopodis C.,Katopodis Ecohydraulics Ltd
River Research and Applications | Year: 2012

Although coarse fish species are frequently the predominant taxa found in rivers, they are often neglected in fish passage studies. Detailed knowledge on the impact of hydraulics on the movements and swimming performance of these species is very limited. In this study, offset and straight orifices in a pool-type fishway prototype were tested in terms of their suitability for Iberian barbel's (Luciobarbus bocagei) upstream movements. The effects of water velocity and turbulence descriptors on fish swimming performance were herein also analysed. Overall, the offset configuration was found to have a significantly higher rate of fish passage success (68%) than the straight arrangement (28%). The time taken to successfully negotiate the fishway was also significantly lower when it featured an offset configuration, particularly for small adults. Of all analysed hydraulic parameters, Reynolds shear stress (RSS) seemed to be the one that most strongly influenced the movements of Iberian barbel within the fishway. The findings provide evidence that the barbel's swimming performance and capacity to successfully migrate upstream through a fishway strongly depend on the arrangement of orifices and turbulence, in particular RSS, within a fish pass. More detailed research focusing on other 'weak' swimmers is recommended to improve future designs of pool-type fishways suitable for other coarse species. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Santos J.M.,University of Lisbon | Silva A.,University of Lisbon | Silva A.,University of Manitoba | Katopodis C.,Katopodis Ecohydraulics Ltd. | And 4 more authors.
Ecological Engineering | Year: 2012

The construction of pool-type fishways has greatly increased in recent years in response to widespread river fragmentation by man-made structures. However, the performance of such facilities has often been questioned, particularly for non-salmonid fish fauna, which are frequently the predominant group of species found in rivers. This study presents the main findings from field and experimental research conducted over the last 10. years on pool-type fishways in Portugal. Specific goals were: (i) to catalogue and evaluate the effectiveness of pool-type fishways built at small hydropower plants (SHP); (ii) to assess passage patterns of migrant fish populations through a "highly suitable" facility; (iii) to assess fish use for submerged orifices and surface notches under different flow regimes in experimental conditions and (iv) to determine the effect of hydraulic parameters on upstream movements of fish within these fishways. More than half (n= 19, 51%) of the visited fishways were considered to be unsuitable for the target potamodromous species. Seasonal movements peaked in the spring (>70%) and occurred independently of time of day. Laboratory experiments showed a significantly greater proportion of movements occurring through submerged orifices rather than surface notches. Of all the analyzed hydraulic parameters, the Reynolds shear stress was the one that most influenced fish movements within the fishways investigated. The results of this study provide new information and insights that could have important implications on the design of future fishways, particularly for larger potamodromous cyprinids. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Silva A.T.,University of Lisbon | Katopodis C.,Katopodis Ecohydraulics Ltd. | Santos J.M.,University of Lisbon | Ferreira M.T.,University of Lisbon | Pinheiro A.N.,University of Lisbon
Ecological Engineering | Year: 2012

Turbulence is a complex phenomenon which commonly occurs in river and fishway flows. It is a difficult subject to study, especially biologically, yet turbulence may affect fish movements and fish passage efficiency. Studies on quantifying fish responses to turbulence, particularly within fishways, are lacking. This study investigated the swimming behaviour of 140 adult Iberian barbel (Luciobarbus bocagei) of two size-classes (small fish: 15≤TL<25cm, large fish: 25


Santos J.M.,University of Lisbon | Branco P.,University of Lisbon | Katopodis C.,Katopodis Ecohydraulics Ltd. | Ferreira T.,University of Lisbon | Pinheiro A.,University of Lisbon
Ecological Engineering | Year: 2014

Retrofitting, or the addition of features to existing fishways to make them more suitable for upstream fish passage, is an issue of increasing interest in fishway science. Despite its potential for aiding fish passage, few studies are available on retrofitting of pool-and-weir fishways by adding boulders at the bottom of each pool of these facilities. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of a full-scale retrofitted pool-and-weir fishway model with boulders placed at the bottom of each pool, to enhance passage of a cyprinid species, the Iberian barbel (Luciobarbus bocagei), which was considered as a representative of medium-sized benthic potamodromous cyprinids in Iberia and Western Europe. Particular attention was given to testing the effects of boulder density and fishway discharge on passage success and fish transit time, both of which affect fish passage efficiency. Although no significant difference in passage success was detected between boulder spacings (mean proportion for high density: 35% success; mean proportion for low density: 40% success), increased flows (62.7 l/s) induced a higher mean proportion (P< 0.05) of successful negotiations (50%), relative to low flows (38.5 l/s, 25%). With regard to fish transit time, under higher flows, fish took significantly less time (P< 0.05) to ascend the fishway with the higher (5.3 ± 4.2 min) vs the lower boulder density (12.1 ± 6.5 min). This study showed that fish passage success was discharge-related and independent of boulder density. However, a high density boulder configuration combined with higher fishway discharge can be beneficial as it reduced fish transit time. Such information could be used to retrofit ill-functioning fishways in order to improve fish passage efficiency and negotiation of fishways for benthic potamodromous cyprinids. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Katopodis C.,Katopodis Ecohydraulics Ltd | Gervais R.,Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans
River Research and Applications | Year: 2012

Swimming speeds and endurance vary with species and body morphology, fish length, water temperature and other variables. Data on fish swimming performance are collected from various swim tests conducted in the laboratory or the field. Tests include stamina tunnels where fish are constrained, long pipes with pressure flow, open channels where fish are either constrained or free to volitionally swim and field studies with culverts or other hydraulic structures where fish passage is assessed. Studies on swimming performance and data availability on various species, mostly from stamina tunnels, have been increasing since the 1960s, with more emphasis on volitional channels since the 1990s. An extensive database on fish swimming performance was generated from the literature. Fish tested represent a broad range of species and individuals within many species. There are insufficient data for many species, and significant regressions for speed versus endurance are not available for these species. Fatigue curves of groups of species using an ecohydraulic approach with dimensionless quantities improved regressions when compared with body lengths per second versus time. Furthermore, it was found that the square root of body length is a better scale for fish speed. Although variability in swimming performance exists between species and individuals within a species, data analyses indicate broad similarities in relative performance for groups of species of similar morphology or swimming mode. The ecohydraulic approach allowed the use of limited data sets in analyses for groups of species. Significant speed-time regressions were developed for three groups, the Eel group, the Trout group and the Sturgeon group. Estimates of fish fatigue time with different confidence levels may be useful when considering physiological aspects in practical applications. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Williams J.G.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Williams J.G.,University of Washington | Armstrong G.,UK Environment Agency | Katopodis C.,Katopodis Ecohydraulics Ltd | And 2 more authors.
River Research and Applications | Year: 2012

Worldwide, obstructions on watercourses have interfered with migratory pathways of fish species, reducing life-cycle success and often eliminating diadromous fish species altogether from river basins. Over the last century, efforts to mitigate these effects were initially directed at developing fishways for upstream, high-value migrant adult salmon. In more recent years, efforts have turned to developing fishways for other species. Results of past research suggest that the development of effective fishways requires biological knowledge of fish behaviour when encountering variable flows, velocity and turbulence, combined with hydraulic and civil engineering knowledge and expertise to develop facilities that provide appropriate hydraulic conditions that fish will exploit. Further, it often requires substantial financial resources for biological and hydraulic testing as well as engineering design, particularly where prior knowledge of the behaviour of target fish species does not exist. Where biological or engineering knowledge (or both) is absent, development of effective passage facilities must take on a trial and error approach that will almost certainly require years to attain success. Evaluations of existing adult and juvenile fish passage facilities, where they have been carried out, suggest that migrant fish reject areas with hydraulic conditions they determine unsuitable. Even well designed fish ladders or nature-like bypass channels for upstream migrants, even those with good attraction flows, will fail if incorrectly sited. Although progress has been made, developing successful installations for downstream migrants remains much more difficult, probably because downstream fish move with the flow and have less time to assess cues at entrances to any bypasses that they encounter. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Katopodis C.,Katopodis Ecohydraulics Ltd. | Williams J.G.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Williams J.G.,University of Washington
Ecological Engineering | Year: 2012

For centuries, humankind has constructed dams on rivers to control flooding, provide for irrigation and utilize potential energy for power, but generally dams had no or little provision for fish passage. Thus, they often blocked or impeded fish migrations. Empirical observations and "trial and error" approaches that characterized historical efforts to develop passage systems for upstream migrating fish often did not work. The first concerted efforts to develop scientifically based fishways for upstream migrant fish began in the early 1900s in Europe with field and laboratory testing of different fishway designs. These were followed by extensive efforts beginning in the 1940s in North America. Scientifically based testing of configurations for fishways for downstream migrant fish began in the 1950s. Nearly all early efforts were directed at salmonid species, with smaller efforts on shad. Recent species at risk legislation in the U.S.A., Canada, and Europe places renewed emphasis on fish passage for all migratory species, and efforts have also begun to develop successful passage strategies for migratory species in other countries worldwide. This has led to renewed efforts to develop effective passage systems and to try creative solutions using natural materials in addition to concrete or metal used in standard technical fishways. Regardless of the type of structures built, history has shown that the most effective means to develop successful installations has occurred when engineers and biologists worked together systematically to design passage structures based on the ability and willingness of fish to seek and accept the hydraulic conditions presented to them. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

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