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Baker S.G.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Van Calster B.,Katholieke University Leuven | Steyerberg E.W.,Erasmus MC
International Journal of Biostatistics | Year: 2014

Most of the methodological literature on evaluating an additional marker for risk prediction involves purely statistical measures of classification performance. A disadvantage of a purely statistical measure is the difficulty in deciding the improvement in the measure that would make inclusion of the additional marker worthwhile. In contrast, a medical decision making approach can weigh the cost or harm of ascertaining an additional marker against the benefit of a higher true positive rate for a given false positive rate that may be associated with risk prediction involving the additional marker. An appealing form of the medical decision making approach involves the risk threshold, which is the risk at which the expected utility of treatment and no treatment is the same. In this framework, a readily interpretable evaluation of the net benefit of an additional marker is the test tradeoff corresponding to the risk threshold. The test tradeoff is the minimum number of tests for a new marker that need to be traded for a true positive to yield an increase in the net benefit of risk prediction with the additional marker. For a sensitivity analysis the test tradeoff is computed over multiple risk thresholds. This article updates the theory and estimation of the test tradeoff. An example is provided. © 2012 De Gruyter. All rights reserved. Source

Among the Punu of Congo-Brazzaville ikoku dancing is conceptualized through the notion of joy. Good dancing is considered to be joyful dancing that "makes the mind burst open". A similar opening up of the mind is acknowledged in water spirit celebrations where it actualizes in trancing. Hence, a rigid distinction between the profane and the sacred is broken down. The mind-body opposition supporting this distinction is further undone by the following observation: the inspiration that the mentioned opening up awakens, not only pertains to the body but to the mind as well. It concerns movements, sounds and words, emerging in one single move. On that account, what discourse should be adopted to deal with these practices while staying in touch with the observed reality and its local conceptualization? An emphasis put on emotion, as this concept is worked out in the philosophies of Merleau-Ponty and Spinoza, seems to offer a possible answer. Since, in these theories, emotion is regarded as an inchoate force, it is possible to deepen the dance dynamics of emergence and amplification without defining them beforehand according to their actualization in terms of the body-mind dichotomy. Source

Borruto F.,University of Verona | Hoppenbrouwers K.,Katholieke University Leuven
Current Cancer Therapy Reviews | Year: 2010

Persistent human Papillomavirus (HPV) infections are now recognised as the leading cause of cervical cancer (CC). Approximately 100 types of human infecting HPV exist in nature and according to the samples collected from either precancerous or cancerous lesions, almost ten are responsible for a good part of the CC cases. Two anti-HPV vaccines are currently registered worldwide - a tetravalent and a bivalent one - for which evidences of protecting effectiveness and safety have been delivered by controlled clinical trials and clinical practice. Consequently, and as a first step, several countries implemented HPV mass vaccination programmes for girls before the age of sexual debut. Moreover, and specifically for the bivalent vaccine, efficacy over various oncogenic types has been demonstrated in a broad population also including sexually active women that had potentially already acquired an HPV infection. The opportunity to extend the primary prevention to other cohorts of women up to the adult age through the use of the vaccine, improves the possibility to actively reduce the total number of CC cases. Based on two country examples, Italy and Belgium, different strategies for HPV vaccination of pre-adolescents, adolescents and young adults are discussed. © 2010 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. Source

Katholieke University Leuven | Date: 2014-06-17

The present invention relates to a series of compounds having antiviral activity, more specifically HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) replication inhibiting properties. The invention also relates to methods for the preparation of such compounds, as well as to novel intermediates useful in one or more steps of such syntheses. The invention also relates to pharmaceutical compositions comprising an effective amount of such compounds as active ingredients. This invention further relates to the use of such compounds as medicines or in the manufacture of a medicament useful for the treatment of animals suffering from viral infections, in particular HIV infection. This invention further relates to methods for the treatment of viral infections in animals by the administration of a therapeutic amount of such compounds, optionally combined with one or more other drugs having anti-viral activity.

Herregods M.C.,Katholieke University Leuven
Verhandelingen - Koninklijke Academie voor Geneeskunde van België | Year: 2011

Despite the progress in medicine, infectious endocarditis is often diagnosed late, as its symptomatology is subject to a high variability. The clinical features are usually atypical. Since the introduction of the Duke criteria, clinical, bacteriological and echocardiographical findings are being integrated, allowing an earlier definitive diagnosis. The incidence remains practically stable. The decrease in post-rheumatic valvular heart disease at population level is compensated by an increase in degenerative valvular heart disease as predisposing factor. Moreover, the share of patients with intravascular foreign material is increasing. Endocarditis is usually characterized by a complicated development. About half of the patients develop heart failure as a consequence of the destruction of the affected valve with serious valvular insufficiency. One third of the patients present cerebral or peripheral embolization. Embolization predominantly occurs at the beginning, until the first two weeks of antibiotic treatment. Abscess formation occurs more frequently than is suspected based on echographical examinations. Particularly a Staphylococcus aureus infection in the presence of an artificial valve leads to extravalvular extension with abscess formation around the artificial valve. Treatment should be initiated promptly. High doses of antibiotics, tailored to the microorganism and the valve type (native or artificial valve), are administered intravenously during four, or more frequently, six weeks. In more than half of the patients cardiac surgery is also required. As soon as an indication for cardiac surgery is present, the operation should not be postponed. Experience learns that a smaller risk is associated with an early intervention. The operation is performed in a technically easier way. Eventually, also the total duration of hospitalization is shorter. Despite the available antibiotics and the technical progress in cardiac surgery, mortality remains high. This is the consequence of an increasing share of aggressive hospital germs, on the one hand, and an older population, characterized by a higher comorbidity, on the other hand. Source

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