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Kortrijk, Belgium

Dewitte A.,Belgium Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research | Dewitte A.,KATHO University College | Eeckhaut T.,Belgium Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research | Van Huylenbroeck J.,Belgium Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research | And 2 more authors.

Unreduced gametes are the driving force for the polyploidization of plants in nature, and are also an important tool for ploidy breeding. The final heterozygosity of a 2n pollen grain depends on the cytological mechanism behind 2n pollen formation. In this study, chromosome pairing and chromosome segregation during the microsporogenesis of seven Begonia genotypes were analysed using fluorescent chromosome staining on (squashed) pollen mother cells. Among the seven genotypes, five genotypes produce 2n pollen (B. 'Bubbles', B. 'Florence Rita', B. 'Orococo', B. 'Tamo' and B276) and two genotypes produce only normal n pollen (B. fischeri and B243). All 2n pollen producers showed a mechanism equivalent to first division restitution (FDR), in which chromosomes did not segregate during meiosis I but only during meiosis II. This FDR was the result of (a) an irregular chromosome pairing in B. 'Tamo', (b) stickiness of chromosomes associated with numerous chromosome bridges in B. 'Florence Rita' and B276, and (c) a combination of irregular chromosome pairing and stickiness of chromosomes in B. 'Bubbles'. The exact mechanism of the nuclear restitution in B. 'Orococo' could not be determined. Other mechanisms, such as early asymmetric cytokinesis, omission of meiosis II, parallel or tripolar spindle formation, were rather uncommon. Unpaired chromosomes (univalents) were observed in all genotypes, but they had moved to one of the poles by the end of anaphase I or II. Only B. 'Tamo' formed a high number of micronuclei. Consequently, this genotype formed a large number of malformed pollen. Obviously, chromosome behaviour during meiosis in Begonia is very dynamic, which may have important consequences for chromosome evolution and biodiversity within the genus. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source

Pattyn E.,Ghent University | Verhaeghe M.,KATHO University College | Bracke P.,Ghent University
Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology

Purpose: This study examines why men engage less in mental health service use, by studying how gender is performed in interactions, following the doing gender perspective. We hypothesize that seeking help for mental illness may constitute a gendered role conflict among men since help seeking is associated with femininity. Therefore, we expect that men will recommend reliance on self-care options to other men, and in cases in which professional treatment is recommended, they will prefer medication to psychotherapy. We also expect that men will report greater stigmatizing attitudes. Methods: The survey Stigma in a Global Context-Belgian Mental Health Study (2009) conducted interviews of a representative sample of the Belgian general population (N = 743). The vignette technique, depicting depressive and schizophrenic symptoms, was used. Multiple linear and logistic models were estimated in SPSS. Results: In male vignettes, self-care is more likely to be recommended, both by male and female respondents. Men are less likely to acknowledge the helpfulness of psychotherapy and women rate psychotherapy as less helpful when judging a man compared to a woman. Men rate tranquilizers as more helpful for other males than that women do for other females. Furthermore, male respondents seem to ascribe more shame and blame to the situation. Conclusions: The gender gap in mental health service use is due not only to men and their negative attitudes toward help seeking, but also to structured social norms that are reconstructed in interactions. Women also contribute to the maintenance of masculinity norms. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Pattyn E.,Ghent University | Verhaeghe M.,KATHO University College | Sercu C.,Ghent University | Bracke P.,Ghent University
Psychiatric Services

Objective: Individuals in need of psychiatric treatment often avoid seeking help because of stigma. This study examined the impact of two stigma dimensions on help-seeking attitudes. Perceived public stigma refers to discrimination and devaluation by others, and anticipated selfstigma refers to internalization of negative stereotypes about people who seek help. Methods: Data were from the 2009 Stigma in a Global Context- Belgian Mental Health Study, in which face-to-face interviews were conducted with a representative sample of the general Belgian population. The study reported here included 728 respondents who received a vignette depicting major depression or schizophrenia. Perceived public stigma and anticipated self-stigma were measured with validated instruments. Respondents' attitudes toward help seeking were measured by the importance they assigned to care from formal and informal providers: general practitioners, psychiatrists, psychologists, family members, or friends. Multiple linear regression models were estimated. Results: Respondents with higher levels of anticipated self-stigma attached less importance to care provided by general practitioners or psychiatrists, and those with higher levels of perceived public stigma rated informal help seeking as less important. The gender and the ethnicity of the person and respondents' sociodemographic characteristics had relatively little effect on help-seeking attitudes. Conclusions: Anticipated self-stigma and perceived public stigma appeared to have a differential impact on attitudes toward formal and informal help seeking. Internalization of negative stereotypes was negatively associated with the perceived importance of care from medical providers (general practitioners and psychiatrists). Awareness of stereotypes held by others deterred respondents from acknowledging the importance of informal care. Source

Verhaeghe M.,Ghent University | Verhaeghe M.,KATHO University College | Bracke P.,Ghent University
Journal of Health and Social Behavior

In contrast with growing attention given to the stigma experiences of mental health service users, the stigma literature has paid almost no attention to mental health professionals. This study focuses on experiences of associative stigma among these professionals. We investigate the link between associative stigma and three dimensions of burnout as well as job satisfaction among mental health professionals, and the link of associative stigma with self-stigma and client satisfaction among service users. Survey data from 543 professionals and 707 service users from diverse mental health services are analyzed using multilevel techniques. The results reveal that among mental health professionals associative stigma is related to more depersonalization, more emotional exhaustion, and less job satisfaction. In addition, in units in which professionals report more associative stigma, service users experience more self-stigma and less client satisfaction. The results reveal that associative stigma is related to more depersonalization, more emotional exhaustion, and less job satisfaction among mental health professionals. © American Sociological Association 2012. Source

Pattyn E.,Ghent University | Verhaeghe M.,KATHO University College | Bracke P.,Ghent University
Community Mental Health Journal

Contact with people with mental illness is considered to be a promising strategy to change stigmatizing attitudes. This study examines the underlying mechanisms of the association between contact and attitudes toward community mental health care. Data are derived from the 2009 survey "Stigma in a Global Context - Belgian Mental Health Study", using the Community Mental Health Ideology-scale. Results show that people who received mental health treatment themselves or have a family member who has been treated for mental health problems report more tolerant attitudes toward community mental health care than people with public contact with people with mental illness. Besides, the perception of the effectiveness of the treatment seems to matter too. Furthermore, emotions arising from public contact are associated with attitudes toward community mental health care. The degree of intimacy and the characteristics of the contact relationship clarify the association between contact and attitudes toward community mental health care. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

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