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Kolkman R.G.M.,University of Twente | Blomme E.,KATHO University College | Cool T.,KATHO University College | Bilcke M.,KATHO University College | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Biomedical Optics | Year: 2010

The feasibility of air-coupled ultrasound transducers to detect laser-induced ultrasound from artificial blood vessels embedded in an optically scattering phantom is demonstrated. These air-coupled transducers allow new applications in biomedical photoacoustic imaging where contact with tissue is not preferred. One promising application of such transducers is the addition of photoacoustic imaging to the regular x-ray mammographic screening procedure. © 2010 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.


Pattyn E.,Ghent University | Verhaeghe M.,KATHO University College | Sercu C.,Ghent University | Bracke P.,Ghent University
Psychiatric Services | Year: 2014

Objective: Individuals in need of psychiatric treatment often avoid seeking help because of stigma. This study examined the impact of two stigma dimensions on help-seeking attitudes. Perceived public stigma refers to discrimination and devaluation by others, and anticipated selfstigma refers to internalization of negative stereotypes about people who seek help. Methods: Data were from the 2009 Stigma in a Global Context- Belgian Mental Health Study, in which face-to-face interviews were conducted with a representative sample of the general Belgian population. The study reported here included 728 respondents who received a vignette depicting major depression or schizophrenia. Perceived public stigma and anticipated self-stigma were measured with validated instruments. Respondents' attitudes toward help seeking were measured by the importance they assigned to care from formal and informal providers: general practitioners, psychiatrists, psychologists, family members, or friends. Multiple linear regression models were estimated. Results: Respondents with higher levels of anticipated self-stigma attached less importance to care provided by general practitioners or psychiatrists, and those with higher levels of perceived public stigma rated informal help seeking as less important. The gender and the ethnicity of the person and respondents' sociodemographic characteristics had relatively little effect on help-seeking attitudes. Conclusions: Anticipated self-stigma and perceived public stigma appeared to have a differential impact on attitudes toward formal and informal help seeking. Internalization of negative stereotypes was negatively associated with the perceived importance of care from medical providers (general practitioners and psychiatrists). Awareness of stereotypes held by others deterred respondents from acknowledging the importance of informal care.


Blomme E.,KATHO University College | Bulcaen D.,KATHO University College | Cool T.,KATHO University College | Declercq F.,KATHO University College | Lust P.,KATHO University College
Ultrasonics | Year: 2010

Air-coupled ultrasound (ACU) provides a tool to evaluate wood samples of small or moderate thickness (<30 mm) thereby avoiding direct contact or liquid coupling. Results of through-transmission ACU measurements on wood veneer samples and related products are reported with respect to a wide variety of quality aspects. Fluctuations in the averaged received signal levels appear to be correlated to the presence of natural or machine-induced thickness and density variations, flaws and grain damage, errors produced by the manufacturing process, insufficient bonding on a substrate, etc. In addition it is seen that the variability of the signal levels enables to distinguish between quarter and crown areas. © 2009.


Pattyn E.,Ghent University | Verhaeghe M.,KATHO University College | Bracke P.,Ghent University
Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology | Year: 2015

Purpose: This study examines why men engage less in mental health service use, by studying how gender is performed in interactions, following the doing gender perspective. We hypothesize that seeking help for mental illness may constitute a gendered role conflict among men since help seeking is associated with femininity. Therefore, we expect that men will recommend reliance on self-care options to other men, and in cases in which professional treatment is recommended, they will prefer medication to psychotherapy. We also expect that men will report greater stigmatizing attitudes. Methods: The survey Stigma in a Global Context-Belgian Mental Health Study (2009) conducted interviews of a representative sample of the Belgian general population (N = 743). The vignette technique, depicting depressive and schizophrenic symptoms, was used. Multiple linear and logistic models were estimated in SPSS. Results: In male vignettes, self-care is more likely to be recommended, both by male and female respondents. Men are less likely to acknowledge the helpfulness of psychotherapy and women rate psychotherapy as less helpful when judging a man compared to a woman. Men rate tranquilizers as more helpful for other males than that women do for other females. Furthermore, male respondents seem to ascribe more shame and blame to the situation. Conclusions: The gender gap in mental health service use is due not only to men and their negative attitudes toward help seeking, but also to structured social norms that are reconstructed in interactions. Women also contribute to the maintenance of masculinity norms. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Delrue S.,Catholic University of Leuven | Van Den Abeele K.,Catholic University of Leuven | Blomme E.,KATHO University College | Deveugele J.,KATHO University College | And 2 more authors.
Ultrasonics | Year: 2010

Non-contact air-coupled ultrasonic inspection of materials using single-sided access offers interesting possibilities for the development of in-line non-destructive testing (NDT) systems. This contribution reports observations and simulations obtained from a single-sided air-coupled pitch-catch configuration. The pitch-catch technique involves a set-up in which transmitter and receiver are located at the same side of the test object. Sound waves, reflected once or multiple times from the back-wall of the object or refracted by a discontinuity, are recorded and analyzed for visualization. The feasibility of the technique is demonstrated, experimentally, in the case of artificial defects in aluminium samples. Depending on the configuration one or more ultrasonic images of the defect can be observed, their number and relative position containing information about the location of the defect. The experiments are simulated using two distinctive methods. The first simulation is based on a ray tracing (shadow) approach, the second method uses a spectral solution implemented within Comsol. Both simulation methods allow simple prediction of the response images in experimental conditions with supplementary levels of complexity, which will assist the development and optimization of online inspection techniques. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Verhaeghe M.,Ghent University | Verhaeghe M.,KATHO University College | Bracke P.,Ghent University
Journal of Health and Social Behavior | Year: 2012

In contrast with growing attention given to the stigma experiences of mental health service users, the stigma literature has paid almost no attention to mental health professionals. This study focuses on experiences of associative stigma among these professionals. We investigate the link between associative stigma and three dimensions of burnout as well as job satisfaction among mental health professionals, and the link of associative stigma with self-stigma and client satisfaction among service users. Survey data from 543 professionals and 707 service users from diverse mental health services are analyzed using multilevel techniques. The results reveal that among mental health professionals associative stigma is related to more depersonalization, more emotional exhaustion, and less job satisfaction. In addition, in units in which professionals report more associative stigma, service users experience more self-stigma and less client satisfaction. The results reveal that associative stigma is related to more depersonalization, more emotional exhaustion, and less job satisfaction among mental health professionals. © American Sociological Association 2012.


Pattyn E.,Ghent University | Verhaeghe M.,KATHO University College | Sercu C.,Ghent University | Bracke P.,Ghent University
Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology | Year: 2013

Purpose: This study contrasts the medicalized conceptualization of mental illness with psychologizing mental illness and examines what the consequences are of adhering to one model versus the other for help seeking and stigma. Methods: The survey "Stigma in a Global Context-Belgian Mental Health Study" (2009) conducted face-to-face interviews among a representative sample of the general Belgian population using the vignette technique to depict schizophrenia (N = 381). Causal attributions, labeling processes, and the disease view are addressed. Help seeking refers to open-ended help-seeking suggestions (general practitioner, psychiatrist, psychologist, family, friends, and self-care options). Stigma refers to social exclusion after treatment. The data are analyzed by means of logistic and linear regression models in SPSS Statistics 19. Results: People who adhere to the biopsychosocial (versus psychosocial) model are more likely to recommend general medical care and people who apply the disease view are more likely to recommend specialized medical care. Regarding informal help, those who prefer the biopsychosocial model are less likely to recommend consulting friends than those who adhere to the psychosocial model. Respondents who apply a medical compared to a non-medical label are less inclined to recommend self-care. As concerns treatment stigma, respondents who apply a medical instead of a non-medical label are more likely to socially exclude someone who has been in psychiatric treatment. Conclusions: Medicalizing mental illness involves a package deal: biopsychosocial causal attributions and applying the disease view facilitate medical treatment recommendations, while labeling seems to trigger stigmatizing attitudes. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Zakharov A.V.,Moscow State University | Voloshinov V.B.,Moscow State University | Blomme E.,KATHO University College
Ultrasonics | Year: 2011

The Raman-Nath, intermediate and Bragg regimes of acousto-optic interaction in an acoustically anisotropic medium are theoretically examined in the paper. The general model of the interaction is extended over the case of an elastically anisotropic medium. Basic results of computer modeling of diffraction processes taking place in crystals are presented in the paper. The interaction of light and ultrasound is investigated in media with arbitrary elastic anisotropy in a wide range of the Klein-Cook and Raman-Nath parameters. The influence of the acoustic anisotropy on the process of light diffraction, especially on the light intensity in diffraction maxima, is also discussed. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Pattyn E.,Ghent University | Verhaeghe M.,KATHO University College | Bracke P.,Ghent University
Community Mental Health Journal | Year: 2013

Contact with people with mental illness is considered to be a promising strategy to change stigmatizing attitudes. This study examines the underlying mechanisms of the association between contact and attitudes toward community mental health care. Data are derived from the 2009 survey "Stigma in a Global Context - Belgian Mental Health Study", using the Community Mental Health Ideology-scale. Results show that people who received mental health treatment themselves or have a family member who has been treated for mental health problems report more tolerant attitudes toward community mental health care than people with public contact with people with mental illness. Besides, the perception of the effectiveness of the treatment seems to matter too. Furthermore, emotions arising from public contact are associated with attitudes toward community mental health care. The degree of intimacy and the characteristics of the contact relationship clarify the association between contact and attitudes toward community mental health care. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Dewitte A.,Belgium Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research | Dewitte A.,KATHO University College | Eeckhaut T.,Belgium Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research | Van Huylenbroeck J.,Belgium Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research | And 2 more authors.
Heredity | Year: 2010

Unreduced gametes are the driving force for the polyploidization of plants in nature, and are also an important tool for ploidy breeding. The final heterozygosity of a 2n pollen grain depends on the cytological mechanism behind 2n pollen formation. In this study, chromosome pairing and chromosome segregation during the microsporogenesis of seven Begonia genotypes were analysed using fluorescent chromosome staining on (squashed) pollen mother cells. Among the seven genotypes, five genotypes produce 2n pollen (B. 'Bubbles', B. 'Florence Rita', B. 'Orococo', B. 'Tamo' and B276) and two genotypes produce only normal n pollen (B. fischeri and B243). All 2n pollen producers showed a mechanism equivalent to first division restitution (FDR), in which chromosomes did not segregate during meiosis I but only during meiosis II. This FDR was the result of (a) an irregular chromosome pairing in B. 'Tamo', (b) stickiness of chromosomes associated with numerous chromosome bridges in B. 'Florence Rita' and B276, and (c) a combination of irregular chromosome pairing and stickiness of chromosomes in B. 'Bubbles'. The exact mechanism of the nuclear restitution in B. 'Orococo' could not be determined. Other mechanisms, such as early asymmetric cytokinesis, omission of meiosis II, parallel or tripolar spindle formation, were rather uncommon. Unpaired chromosomes (univalents) were observed in all genotypes, but they had moved to one of the poles by the end of anaphase I or II. Only B. 'Tamo' formed a high number of micronuclei. Consequently, this genotype formed a large number of malformed pollen. Obviously, chromosome behaviour during meiosis in Begonia is very dynamic, which may have important consequences for chromosome evolution and biodiversity within the genus. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

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