Kathmandu, Nepal
Kathmandu, Nepal

Kathmandu University is an independent non-government, public institution. It is the third oldest university in Nepal, located in Dhulikhel, Kavrepalanchok District, about 35 km east of Kathmandu. KU was established in 1991 with the motto "Quality Education for Leadership". This university operates through its six schools and from premises in Dhulikhel, Lalitpur and Bhaktapur.The university provides undergraduate and postgraduate programs in the fields of engineering, science, management, arts, education and medical science. It provides undergraduate courses in engineering , science , pharmacy and biology & applied biology), management , arts . Graduate courses in environment science, engineering, pharmacy, development and business administration are also offered. Wikipedia.

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News Article | February 27, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

A major new research programme will be launched today at the University of East Anglia (UEA) to help improve understanding about how adult learning can address inequalities in the poorest communities of the world. The university has been invited by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) to join its prestigious University Network and establish the first UNESCO Chair in Adult Literacy and Learning for Social Transformation. Led by Chairholder Anna Robinson-Pant, professor of education at UEA, the international collaboration with researchers in Nepal, Ethiopia and Egypt will focus in particular on women and young adults, investigating how or why adult literacy and learning programmes might better respond to processes of social transformation, including women's empowerment. The Chair programme aims to strengthen the interaction between formal, non-formal and informal learning in research, policy and programmes and will build directly on the expertise of the UEA Literacy and Development Group, which brings together researchers in education and international development from across the university. Today's launch will be opened by UEA Vice-Chancellor Prof David Richardson, with speakers including James Bridge, chief executive of the UK National Commission for UNESCO. The event will feature presentations by the UEA UNESCO Chair team, Prof Alan Smith (UNESCO Chairholder in Education for Pluralism, Human Rights and Democracy, University of Ulster), Prof Mary Hamilton (University of Lancaster), Prof Gemma Moss (Institute of Education, University College London), Mari Hartl (International Fund for Agricultural Development, IFAD) and Mari Yasunaga (UNESCO Paris). Among the topics to be discussed at the launch will be indigenous women and adult literary, as well as a joint IFAD-UNESCO project on learning knowledge and skills for agriculture to improve rural livelihoods. Prof Robinson-Pant led the project, which prompted the initial proposal for a Chair in this area. This UNESCO Chair programme is a partnership with university departments specialising in adult literacy and community learning in Ethiopia (Bahir Dar University), Nepal (Kathmandu University and Tribhuvan University Research Center for Educational Innovation and Development, CERID) and Egypt (Ain Shams University). Prof Robinson-Pant recently visited Nepal to meet with colleagues at Kathmandu University, CERID, the Ministry of Education and key development agencies to discuss possible collaborative research projects around adult literacy and education and community learning. Prof Robinson-Pant said: "We are delighted to launch this programme today. Adult education can become a force for change in the poorest communities of the world and this is a real opportunity to work closely with colleagues in Ethiopia, Egypt and Nepal who share that view. "Our programme of collaborative research and training should also contribute to the 2030 sustainable development agenda, highlighting the central role of adult learning and literacy in areas like health and agricultural development." The chair of the UK National Commission for UNESCO, Dr Beth Taylor, said: "I am delighted to welcome the Chair in Adult Literacy and Learning for Social Transformation to the UK's UNESCO Chairs Network. The Chair will join a well-established network of 16 UK UNESCO Chairs and UNITWIN Networks in diverse subjects ranging from Sustainable Mountain Development to Archaeological Ethics. Being accepted to the Network is in recognition of the University of East Anglia's academic excellence and the contribution of its research to UNESCO's core mission of promoting peace in the minds of men and women. "I hope that the designation will help provide a national and global platform for the Chair's research, and will add value for the university. Recent research by the UK National Commission found that UK Chairs generated an estimated £14.4 million in 2014/15 through their association with UNESCO." The UEA team consists of Prof Robinson-Pant, Prof Nitya Rao, Dr Sheila Aikman, Dr Catherine Jere, Prof Alan Rogers and Dr Spyros Themelis. The expertise of the group includes literacy and women's empowerment, migration and education, the influence of education on social and economic mobility, and cultural and linguistic change in low income countries. The aim of the Chair is to strengthen qualitative research capacity in the field of adult literacy, learning and social transformation through collaborative research and curriculum development activities. It also sets out to develop new initiatives with key policy organisations in this field - particularly the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning in Hamburg - the aim being to promote greater interaction between research and policy in areas such as vocational skill development, health and agriculture. A series of research workshops is proposed as part of the new Chair, as well as an international conference in 2018. The team also hope to work with organisations involved in adult education in Norwich - such as New Routes, an established NGO working with recently settled migrants - to inform some of the international activities.

In this paper, we deal with the energy and exergy analysis of a fossil plant and ground and air source heat pump building heating system at two different dead-state temperatures. A zone model of a building with natural ventilation is considered and heat is being supplied by condensing boiler. The same zone model is applied for heat pump building heating system. Since energy and exergy demand are key parameters to see which system is efficient at what reference temperature, we did a study on the influence of energy and exergy efficiencies. In this regard, a commercial software package IDA-ICE program is used for calculation of fossil plant heating system, however, there is no inbuilt simulation model for heat pumps in IDA-ICE, different COP (coefficient of performance) curves of the earlier studies of heat pumps are taken into account for the evaluation of the heat pump input and output energy. The outcome of the energy and exergy flow analysis at two different dead-state temperatures revealed that the ground source heat pumps with ambient reference have better performance against all ground reference systems as well as fossil plant (conventional system) and air source heat pumps with ambient reference. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Pudasaini S.P.,University of Bonn | Pudasaini S.P.,Kathmandu University
Physics of Fluids | Year: 2011

Exact analytical solutions to simplified cases of nonlinear debris avalanche model equations are necessary to calibrate numerical simulations of flow depth and velocity profiles on inclined surfaces. These problem-specific solutions provide important insight into the full behavior of the system. In this paper, we present some new analytical solutions for debris and avalanche flows and then compare these solutions with experimental data to measure their performance and determine their relevance. First, by combining the mass and momentum balance equations with a Bagnold rheology, a new and special kinematic wave equation is constructed in which the flux and the wave celerity are complex nonlinear functions of the pressure gradient and the flow depth itself. The new model can explain the mechanisms of wave advection and distortion, and the quasiasymptotic front bore observed in many natural and laboratory debris and granular flows. Exact time-dependent solutions for debris flow fronts and associated velocity profiles are then constructed. We also present a novel semiexact two-dimensional plane velocity field through the flow depth. Second, starting with the force balance between gravity, the pressure gradient, and Bagnold's grain-inertia or macroviscous forces, we construct a simple and very special nonlinear ordinary differential equation to model the steady state debris front profile. An empirical pressure gradient enhancement factor is introduced to adequately stretch the flow front and properly model nonhydrostatic pressure in granular and debris avalanches. An exact solution in explicit form is constructed, and is expressed in terms of the Lambert-Euler omega function. Third, we consider rapid flows of frictional granular materials down a channel. The steady state mass and the momentum balance equations are combined together with the Coulomb friction law. The Chebyshev radicals are employed and the exact solutions are developed for the velocity profile and the debris depth. Similarly, Bagnold's fluids are also used to construct alternative exact solutions. Many interesting and important aspects of all these exact solutions, their applications to real-flow situations, and the influence of model parameters are discussed in detail. These analytical solutions, although simple, compare very well with experimental data of debris flows, granular avalanches, and the wave tips of dam break flows. A new scaling law for Bagnold's fluids is established to relate the settlement time of debris deposition. It is found analytically that the macroviscous fluid settles (comes to a standstill) considerably faster than the grain-inertia fluid, as manifested by dispersive pressure. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.

Sanjel S.,Kathmandu University
Kathmandu University Medical Journal | Year: 2013

This article attempts to summarize the situations of gender-based violence, a major public health issue. Due to the unequal power relations between men and women, women are violated either in family, in the community or in the State. Gender-based violence takes different forms like physical, sexual or psychological/ emotional violence. The causes of gender-based violence are multidimensional including social, economic, cultural, political and religious. The literatures written in relation to the gender-based violence are accessed using electronic databases as PubMed, Medline and Google scholar, Google and other Internet Websites between 1994 and first quarter of 2013 using an internet search from the keywords such as gender-based violence, women violence, domestic violence, wife abuse, violence during pregnancy, women sexual abuse, political gender based violence, cultural gender-based violence, economical gender-based violence, child sexual abuse and special forms of gender-based violence in Nepal. As GBVs remain one of the most rigorous challenges of women's health and well-being, it is one of the indispensable issues of equity and social justice. To create a gender-based violence free environment, a lot works has to be done. Hence, it is suggested to provide assistance to the victims of violence developing the mechanism to support them.

Pudasaini S.P.,University of Bonn | Pudasaini S.P.,Kathmandu University | Miller S.A.,University of Bonn
Engineering Geology | Year: 2013

Catastrophic failure of large land masses, which generate landslides, rockfalls and debris avalanches, can have hazardous consequences extending far beyond the source. Observations show that the mobility of such events depends strongly on the volume for volumes larger than 106m3, with many different processes invoked to explain higher mobilities (hypermobility) for both terrestrial and extraterrestrial events. Although the mobility of large events has been extensively studied, there is no generally accepted mechanism for predicting extreme travel distances because the underlying physical processes are poorly understood. Here we show using physical and rheological arguments that the wide scatter observed for very large mass wasting events in all environments collapses to a single relationship between event volume or inundation area and mobility. Hypermobility is defined to be the reciprocal of the effective friction coefficient μe, where the scale-dependent μe is derived analytically as a function of the mechanical, volumetric and topographical parameters of the flow. The dominant term in the coefficient is the degree of fluidization involved in the flow; our results show that fluidization is limited in extraterrestrial events, that significant fluidization occurs in non-volcanic and volcanic events, and fluidization dominates submarine events. This analysis demonstrates that fluidization is associated with long run-out distances, and that the degree of fluidization can be predicted by the volume, and physical and topographic parameters. The methodology is simple, physically-based and validated with datasets of very large terrestrial and extraterrestrial avalanche events. We demonstrate that the effective Coulomb friction rheology and the hypermobility function are applicable to avalanche events of any size, providing an opportunity to simulate past and/or potential huge landslide and debris avalanche events, run-out distances, destructive impact and assessment of risk. The model can be used to estimate the overrun area and volume in terms of known mobility data. © 2013 Elsevier B.V..

Marahatta S.B.,Kathmandu University
Kathmandu University Medical Journal | Year: 2010

Multi-drug resistant (MDR) tuberculosis is defined as disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis with resistance to at least two anti-tubercular drugs Isoniazid and Rifampicin. Recent surveillance data have revealed that prevalence of the drug resistant tuberculosis has risen to the highest rate ever recorded in the history. Drug resistant tuberculosis generally arises through the selection of mutated strains by inadequate therapy. The most powerful predictor of the presence of MDR-TB is a history of treatment of TB. Shortage of drugs has been one of the most common reasons for the inadequacy of the initial anti-TB regimen, especially in resource poor settings. Other major issues significantly contributing to the higher complexity of the treatment of MDR-TB is the increased cost of treatment. Other factors also play important role in the development of MDR-TB such as poor administrative control on purchase and distribution of the drugs with no proper mechanism on quality control and bioavailability tests. Tuberculosis control program implemented in past has also partially contributed to the development of drug resistance due to poor follow up and infrastructure. The association known for centuries between TB and poverty also applies to MDR-TB, a rather significant inverse association with MDR-TB. Various treatment strategies have been employed, including the use of standardised treatment regimens based upon representative local susceptibility patterns, empirical treatment based upon previous treatment history and local Drug Susceptibility Test (DST) patterns, and individualised treatment designed on the basis of individual DST results. Treatment outcomes among MDR-TB cases have varied widely; a recent survey of five Green Line Committee (GLC) approved sites in resource-limited countries found treatment success rates of 70%. Treatment continues to be limited in the resource poor countries where the demand is high. The ultimate strategy to control multidrug resistant tuberculosis is one that implements comprehensive approach incorporating treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis based upon principles closely related to those of its general DOTS strategy for TB control: sustained political commitment; a rational case-finding strategy including accurate, timely diagnosis through quality assured culture and DST; appropriate treatment strategies that use second-line drugs under proper case management conditions; uninterrupted supply of quality-assured antituberculosis drugs; standardised recording and reporting system.

Basnyat B.,Kathmandu University
High Altitude Medicine and Biology | Year: 2014

Religious pilgrims have been going to high altitude pilgrimages long before trekkers and climbers sojourned in high altitude regions, but the medical literature about high altitude pilgrimage is sparse. Gosainkunda Lake (4300 m) near Kathmandu, Nepal, and Shri Amarnath Yatra (3800 m) in Sri Nagar, Kashmir, India, are the two sites in the Himalayas from where the majority of published reports of high altitude pilgrimage have originated. Almost all travels to high altitude pilgrimages are characterized by very rapid ascents by large congregations, leading to high rates of acute mountain sickness (AMS). In addition, epidemiological studies of pilgrims from Gosainkunda Lake show that some of the important risk factors for AMS in pilgrims are female sex and older age group. Studies based on the Shri Amarnath Yatra pilgrims show that coronary artery disease, complications of diabetes, and peptic ulcer disease are some of the common, important reasons for admission to hospital during the trip. In this review, the studies that have reported these and other relevant findings will be discussed and appropriate suggestions made to improve pilgrims' safety at high altitude. Copyright © 2014, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2014.

Risal A.,Kathmandu University
Kathmandu University Medical Journal | Year: 2011

Common mental disorders are a group of distress states manifesting with anxiety, depressive and unexplained somatic symptoms typically encountered in community and primary care settings. Risk factors for these disorders are mainly lower socioeconomic status, psychological illnesses, poor reproductive health, gender disadvantage and physical ill-health. WHO has recommended that treatment of all these disorders should be based in primary care to be more effective and accessible to all the community people. The structure of mental health care in primary care is generally understood in terms of the "pathways to care" model and it plays a major role in countries like ours where community-based mental health services do not exist. Both the psychological and pharmacological therapies are found to be equally effective for treating these disorders. Integration of mental health into primary care can be considered as the stepping stone in the way forward to tackle the barriers and problems in effective management of common mental disorders in the community. The acute shortage of mental health professionals and the relatively low levels of awareness about mental disorders make it mandatory that primary health care should remain the single largest sector for mental health care in low and middle income countries like ours.

Pudasaini S.P.,University of Bonn | Pudasaini S.P.,Kathmandu University
Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface | Year: 2012

This paper presents a new, generalized two-phase debris flow model that includes many essential physical phenomena. The model employs the Mohr-Coulomb plasticity for the solid stress, and the fluid stress is modeled as a solid-volume-fraction-gradient-enhanced non-Newtonian viscous stress. The generalized interfacial momentum transfer includes viscous drag, buoyancy, and virtual mass. A new, generalized drag force is proposed that covers both solid-like and fluid-like contributions, and can be applied to drag ranging from linear to quadratic. Strong coupling between the solid-and the fluid-momentum transfer leads to simultaneous deformation, mixing, and separation of the phases. Inclusion of the non-Newtonian viscous stresses is important in several aspects. The evolution, advection, and diffusion of the solid-volume fraction plays an important role. The model, which includes three innovative, fundamentally new, and dominant physical aspects (enhanced viscous stress, virtual mass, generalized drag) constitutes the most generalized two-phase flow model to date, and can reproduce results from most previous simple models that consider single-and two-phase avalanches and debris flows as special cases. Numerical results indicate that the model can adequately describe the complex dynamics of subaerial two-phase debris flows, particle-laden and dispersive flows, sediment transport, and submarine debris flows and associated phenomena. © 2012. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

Lamichhane A.,Kathmandu University
Journal of Nepal Health Research Council | Year: 2013

Fractures of the calcaneus are among the most challenging for the orthopaedic surgeon. The treatment of the intra-articular calcaneum fracture remains controversial due to complications and complexity of surgical anatomy. Treatment of calcaneal fracture ranges from non-operative treatment to operative. We present intraarticular fracture of calcaneus treated by combined percutaneous and minimal internal fixation. All cases evaluated either by X-ray or CT scan. All fractures were sanders two or three type evaluated by CT scan and either joint depression or tongue type fracture by X-ray. Lateral approach was used, posterior facet was exposed, reduced and fixed with one 4 mm canulated cancellous screws and 2 axial pins percutaneously from tuberosity. Clinical evaluation of the outcomes was done by modified Rowe Score. Out of 22 patients, 14 were male and 8 cases were female. Average age of the patients was 30.5 yrs (15-63 yrs). Mode of the injury was RTA in 6 cases and fall from height in 16 cases. There was no soft tissue problem in any patient. All fractures united without secondary displacement in an average of 8 weeks. Average duration of follow up was 26 months (6-37 months). Average Modified Rowe Score was 80 (Range 55-95). Ten patients had excellent, 10 had good and 2 had satisfactory outcome. Intra-articular fracture of the calcaneus can be well managed by minimal opening at the fracture and fixation by single cancellous screw and 2 axial k-wires, so minimizes complications and results in comparable outcomes.

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