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Kathmandu, Nepal

Kathmandu University is an independent non-government, public institution. It is the third oldest university in Nepal, located in Dhulikhel, Kavrepalanchok District, about 35 km east of Kathmandu. KU was established in 1991 with the motto "Quality Education for Leadership". This university operates through its six schools and from premises in Dhulikhel, Lalitpur and Bhaktapur.The university provides undergraduate and postgraduate programs in the fields of engineering, science, management, arts, education and medical science. It provides undergraduate courses in engineering , science , pharmacy and biology & applied biology), management , arts . Graduate courses in environment science, engineering, pharmacy, development and business administration are also offered. Wikipedia.

Pudasaini S.P.,University of Bonn | Pudasaini S.P.,Kathmandu University | Miller S.A.,University of Bonn
Engineering Geology | Year: 2013

Catastrophic failure of large land masses, which generate landslides, rockfalls and debris avalanches, can have hazardous consequences extending far beyond the source. Observations show that the mobility of such events depends strongly on the volume for volumes larger than 106m3, with many different processes invoked to explain higher mobilities (hypermobility) for both terrestrial and extraterrestrial events. Although the mobility of large events has been extensively studied, there is no generally accepted mechanism for predicting extreme travel distances because the underlying physical processes are poorly understood. Here we show using physical and rheological arguments that the wide scatter observed for very large mass wasting events in all environments collapses to a single relationship between event volume or inundation area and mobility. Hypermobility is defined to be the reciprocal of the effective friction coefficient μe, where the scale-dependent μe is derived analytically as a function of the mechanical, volumetric and topographical parameters of the flow. The dominant term in the coefficient is the degree of fluidization involved in the flow; our results show that fluidization is limited in extraterrestrial events, that significant fluidization occurs in non-volcanic and volcanic events, and fluidization dominates submarine events. This analysis demonstrates that fluidization is associated with long run-out distances, and that the degree of fluidization can be predicted by the volume, and physical and topographic parameters. The methodology is simple, physically-based and validated with datasets of very large terrestrial and extraterrestrial avalanche events. We demonstrate that the effective Coulomb friction rheology and the hypermobility function are applicable to avalanche events of any size, providing an opportunity to simulate past and/or potential huge landslide and debris avalanche events, run-out distances, destructive impact and assessment of risk. The model can be used to estimate the overrun area and volume in terms of known mobility data. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.. Source

Basnyat B.,Kathmandu University
High Altitude Medicine and Biology | Year: 2014

Religious pilgrims have been going to high altitude pilgrimages long before trekkers and climbers sojourned in high altitude regions, but the medical literature about high altitude pilgrimage is sparse. Gosainkunda Lake (4300 m) near Kathmandu, Nepal, and Shri Amarnath Yatra (3800 m) in Sri Nagar, Kashmir, India, are the two sites in the Himalayas from where the majority of published reports of high altitude pilgrimage have originated. Almost all travels to high altitude pilgrimages are characterized by very rapid ascents by large congregations, leading to high rates of acute mountain sickness (AMS). In addition, epidemiological studies of pilgrims from Gosainkunda Lake show that some of the important risk factors for AMS in pilgrims are female sex and older age group. Studies based on the Shri Amarnath Yatra pilgrims show that coronary artery disease, complications of diabetes, and peptic ulcer disease are some of the common, important reasons for admission to hospital during the trip. In this review, the studies that have reported these and other relevant findings will be discussed and appropriate suggestions made to improve pilgrims' safety at high altitude. Copyright © 2014, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2014. Source

Pudasaini S.P.,University of Bonn | Pudasaini S.P.,Kathmandu University
Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface | Year: 2012

This paper presents a new, generalized two-phase debris flow model that includes many essential physical phenomena. The model employs the Mohr-Coulomb plasticity for the solid stress, and the fluid stress is modeled as a solid-volume-fraction-gradient-enhanced non-Newtonian viscous stress. The generalized interfacial momentum transfer includes viscous drag, buoyancy, and virtual mass. A new, generalized drag force is proposed that covers both solid-like and fluid-like contributions, and can be applied to drag ranging from linear to quadratic. Strong coupling between the solid-and the fluid-momentum transfer leads to simultaneous deformation, mixing, and separation of the phases. Inclusion of the non-Newtonian viscous stresses is important in several aspects. The evolution, advection, and diffusion of the solid-volume fraction plays an important role. The model, which includes three innovative, fundamentally new, and dominant physical aspects (enhanced viscous stress, virtual mass, generalized drag) constitutes the most generalized two-phase flow model to date, and can reproduce results from most previous simple models that consider single-and two-phase avalanches and debris flows as special cases. Numerical results indicate that the model can adequately describe the complex dynamics of subaerial two-phase debris flows, particle-laden and dispersive flows, sediment transport, and submarine debris flows and associated phenomena. © 2012. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. Source

Sanjel S.,Kathmandu University
Kathmandu University Medical Journal | Year: 2013

This article attempts to summarize the situations of gender-based violence, a major public health issue. Due to the unequal power relations between men and women, women are violated either in family, in the community or in the State. Gender-based violence takes different forms like physical, sexual or psychological/ emotional violence. The causes of gender-based violence are multidimensional including social, economic, cultural, political and religious. The literatures written in relation to the gender-based violence are accessed using electronic databases as PubMed, Medline and Google scholar, Google and other Internet Websites between 1994 and first quarter of 2013 using an internet search from the keywords such as gender-based violence, women violence, domestic violence, wife abuse, violence during pregnancy, women sexual abuse, political gender based violence, cultural gender-based violence, economical gender-based violence, child sexual abuse and special forms of gender-based violence in Nepal. As GBVs remain one of the most rigorous challenges of women's health and well-being, it is one of the indispensable issues of equity and social justice. To create a gender-based violence free environment, a lot works has to be done. Hence, it is suggested to provide assistance to the victims of violence developing the mechanism to support them. Source

Marahatta S.B.,Kathmandu University
Kathmandu University Medical Journal | Year: 2010

Multi-drug resistant (MDR) tuberculosis is defined as disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis with resistance to at least two anti-tubercular drugs Isoniazid and Rifampicin. Recent surveillance data have revealed that prevalence of the drug resistant tuberculosis has risen to the highest rate ever recorded in the history. Drug resistant tuberculosis generally arises through the selection of mutated strains by inadequate therapy. The most powerful predictor of the presence of MDR-TB is a history of treatment of TB. Shortage of drugs has been one of the most common reasons for the inadequacy of the initial anti-TB regimen, especially in resource poor settings. Other major issues significantly contributing to the higher complexity of the treatment of MDR-TB is the increased cost of treatment. Other factors also play important role in the development of MDR-TB such as poor administrative control on purchase and distribution of the drugs with no proper mechanism on quality control and bioavailability tests. Tuberculosis control program implemented in past has also partially contributed to the development of drug resistance due to poor follow up and infrastructure. The association known for centuries between TB and poverty also applies to MDR-TB, a rather significant inverse association with MDR-TB. Various treatment strategies have been employed, including the use of standardised treatment regimens based upon representative local susceptibility patterns, empirical treatment based upon previous treatment history and local Drug Susceptibility Test (DST) patterns, and individualised treatment designed on the basis of individual DST results. Treatment outcomes among MDR-TB cases have varied widely; a recent survey of five Green Line Committee (GLC) approved sites in resource-limited countries found treatment success rates of 70%. Treatment continues to be limited in the resource poor countries where the demand is high. The ultimate strategy to control multidrug resistant tuberculosis is one that implements comprehensive approach incorporating treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis based upon principles closely related to those of its general DOTS strategy for TB control: sustained political commitment; a rational case-finding strategy including accurate, timely diagnosis through quality assured culture and DST; appropriate treatment strategies that use second-line drugs under proper case management conditions; uninterrupted supply of quality-assured antituberculosis drugs; standardised recording and reporting system. Source

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