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In the research study, the effect was determined of selected parameters of raw pork-beef mincemeat (in model setups), i.e. of pH, contents of pork and beef meat, and colour of raw products, on the degree of Browning Index (BI) of the surface and inner layers, as well as on the shear force necessary to cut the model roasted product. The following model products were prepared using mincemeat: 0 - pork meat having a natural pH value (5.31); K -pork meat having a standardized pH value (5.60); samples of porkbeef meat mix with the per cent content of beef meat being 5, 10, and 15 % of the mix. In the model raw samples, the pH value was determined and the colour (L*a*b*) was assessed. The meat samples were roasted in a HD4454/A gastronomic roaster by Phillips Co., at 185 ± 5 °C, during a 30 min. period. The colour of the external surface and inner layers of the roasted model products was assessed, and the shear [N/cm2] was determined with the use of a Warner-Bratzler knife. Based on the parameters that characterised the colour of the roasted products, the Browning Index (BI) was calculated. It was found that the pH value and the colour parameters L* (brightness) and b* (saturation of the yellow) of raw meat significantly impacted the BI of the surface layers of roasted products, whereas the BI that characterized the inner layers depended on pH and the a* and b* colour parameters of the raw materials. The shear force depended on the content of beef meat in the model setup, pH, and the a* component of the raw material prior to roasting; moreover, it was correlated with the L* and b* parameters of the surface layers of the model roasted product, as well as with the L* parameter that characterized the inner layers of the model products; however, the shear force was not correlated with the Browning Index BI. Source

While studying volatile compounds in model experiments which simulated the broiling of meat (the reactions of ribose with lysine), there were alkylbenzenes identified. They belong to food contaminants and they could be originated from the detergents and petroleum as well as geochemical samples, but they were also obtained in Maillard reactions. The aim of the studies was the attempt of the alkylbenzenes identification being formed in the model reaction of ribose with lysine. Aqueous solutions of ribose and lysine (at concentration of 0.1 mol/dm3 each) were mixed in equal volumes 10 cm3 + 10 cm3. The pH of the mixtures were adjusted to 5.6 using citrate-phosphorous buffer. In that way conditions simulating pH of meat were obtained. The mixtures were heated inside the gastronomic roaster during 0, 5, 10, 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes respectively, at the temperature 185 +/- 5 degrees C. After reactions, in the mixtures, the profiles of volatile compounds, including alkylbenzenes, were analyzed by GC-MS method. The compounds were being identified by: comparing each mass spectrum (MS) with spectra from the known libraries of MS; calculating the linear retention indexes (LRI); seeking similar LRI values of analogue compounds in literature. Amounts of volatiles were calculated in relation to amount of internal standard (IS) [-], dividing the area of the compound by area of IS. The kinds and amounts of alkylbenzenes depended on the duration of the reaction time. Maximally 16 various alkylbenzenes were developed. More of these compounds could be identified with the probability of 85-90%, using only MS, because of the lack information in literature. Moreover, the multi-dimensional GCxGC-MS or other chromatographic methods in order to make these compounds being better explored seems to be advisable. The identification of the compounds being formed during broiling of meat is very important, because of the fact that many of arising substances are considered to be unhealthy and undesirable food contaminants. Thus these compounds should be routinely investigated in food products. Source

Wroniak M.,Katedra Technologii Zywnosci | Anders A.,Katedra Technologii Zywnosci | Szterk A.,University of Warmia and Mazury | Szymczak R.,Katedra Zywnosci Funkcjonalnej i Towaroznawstwa
Zywnosc. Nauka. Technologia. Jakosc/Food. Science Technology. Quality | Year: 2013

Rapeseed of '00' cultivars is the main oleaginous material processed on an industrial scale in Poland. Rapeseed contains about 40 - 45 % of fat and 20 - 25 % of protein. The content of hulls in the seeds varies from 10.5 % to 20 % depending on the cultivar. The dehulling of seeds causes the content of proteins to increase and the content of fibre to decrease in the rapeseed meal, and, at the same time, the colour and quality of the extracted oil to improve. The objective of this research study was to determine the effect of dehulling rape seeds on the efficiency of cold pressing process of rapeseed oil as well as on its sensory and physical-chemical quality and nutritional value. The experimental material consisted of cultivated rape seeds of 'Monolit' and 'Bojan' cultivars. The dehulling of seeds was carried out in a disk hulling machine. Oils were pressed using a 'Farmet' oil expeller for cold pressing. It was proved that the dehulling of rape seeds impacted the sensory quality and colour of oils produced, decreased their nutritional value, and increased of pressing efficiency. Statistically significant differences were reported in the basic quality parameters, i.e. acid and peroxide values of oils from the dehulled and whole seeds of the 'Monolit' cultivar. However, no such differences were reported in the case of oils from the 'Bojan' seeds. The oils produced from the whole and dehulled seeds of the two cultivars did not statistically significantly differ as regards the anisidine value, UV absorbance (K232 and K268), and oxidative stability measured using the Rancimat test. In the oils from dehulled seeds, it was found that the percentage content of saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids was slightly lower and the percentage content of monounsaturated fatty acids was higher. On the other hand, the content of total tocopherols was significantly lower in the oils from the seeds of both the 'Monolit' cultivar (54.6 from the dehulled seeds and 59.2 mg/100 g from the whole seeds) and the 'Bojan' cultivar (56.9 and 62.7 mg/100 g, respectively). Source

Trzcinska A.-M.,Katedra Ochrony Lasu i Ekologii | Hallmann E.,Katedra Zywnosci Funkcjonalnej i Towaroznawstwa
Sylwan | Year: 2013

The paper discusses the biologically active compounds contained in onion (Allium cepa L.) such as thiosulfinates and other organosulfur compounds, saponins and flavonoids as well as evaluates their biological role. Method for biofungicides preparation, whose essential element is an aqueous extract of onion, and the possibility of its application in forest nurseries are presented. Content of polyphenols (quercetin and its derivatives) in a biopreparation responsible for its biological activity is determined as well. Source

Piotrowska A.,Katedra Zywnosci Funkcjonalnej i Towaroznawstwa | Swiader K.,Katedra Zywnosci Funkcjonalnej i Towaroznawstwa | Waszkiewicz-Robak B.,Katedra Zywnosci Funkcjonalnej i Towaroznawstwa | Swiderski F.,Katedra Zywnosci Funkcjonalnej i Towaroznawstwa
Zywnosc. Nauka. Technologia. Jakosc/Food. Science Technology. Quality | Year: 2012

In the paper, the health benefits of polyunsaturated fatty acids from the n-3 family were characterized and the possibilities were evaluated to increase their level in pork meat and meat products. The most frequent method used to increase the content of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in pork meat is to supplement animal feed with linseed, linseed oil, fish oil, as well as algae preparations. As for meat products, this target can be achieved through: 1) the application of meat from pigs fed feed supplemented with components that are the source of n-3 PUFA; 2) replacing some quantity of animal fat, added during the production process, with vegetable or fish oil. However, the increased content of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in pork meat and meat products, considered advantageous from a nutritional point of view, can lead to numbers of disadvantageous changes in the sensory quality and stability of a product. Among other things, this results from the susceptibility of polyunsaturated fatty acids to oxidation processes. Therefore, it is essentially significant to determine the optimal level of enrichment, as well as the application of antioxidants, particularly the natural ones. Source

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