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The volatile compounds were determined produced in a roasted product of minced pork-beef meat and in thermal reactions between lysine and ribose for the purpose of identifying the same compounds produced those two processes. Additionally, upon completion of the roasting process, the sensory features of meat samples were analyzed. The minced meat was used to make products of various percentage rates of pork and beef amounts contained therein [% (w/w)]: 100:0; 95:5; 90:10; and 85:15. The samples were thermally processed in a Phillips gastronomic roaster, type HD4454/A, at a temperature of 185 ± 5 °C. The volatile compounds were analyzed in the surface and inner layers of the meat products. The reactions between lysine and ribose were performed at the same temperature; the process times were changed as follows: 5, 10, 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes. Based on the research results, there were determined the sensorily active volatile compounds appearing characteristic for the thermal reactions occurring while roasting meat, and those produced during the reactions between lysine and ribose to determine some sensory features of meat. Using a factor analysis, the following significant, common variables were identified: benzaldehyde, butan-2-one, 1-hydroxypropan-2-one, butane-2,3-diol, butyl acetate, heptanal, octanal, pentane-2,3-dione, 2-pentylfuran, burnt aroma, bitter flavour, colour and aroma of meat. Next, a PCA analysis was used to classify the quality features of the meat products analyzed. On the basis of the projection of the cases onto the factor plane, two major subsets of point markers were identified; based thereon it was possible to distinguish between the quality features originating from the two layers of the meat products. Moreover, it was possible to find similarities of and differences among the qualitative features of the individual samples in each of the two subsets. It was evidenced that volatile compounds could be identified in the model reactions between lysine and ribose that might be equated with the sensory features of roasted meat. Thus, the analyses of the product could be made simpler by using detail-focused model analyses. Source

Przybysz M.A.,Katedra Technologii Zywnosci | Szterk A.,Katedra Zywnosci Funkcjonalnej | Zawislak M.,Katedra Technologii Zywnosci | Dluzewska E.,Katedra Technologii Zywnosci
Zywnosc. Nauka. Technologia. Jakosc/Food. Science Technology. Quality

This objective of the research study was to determine the effect of type and amount of the carrier (wall material of microcapsules) as well as of the addition of antioxidants on stability of spray-dried microencapsulated fish oil after the microencapsulation process and during subsequent storage of the powder obtained. The ‘ROPUFA ‘30’ N-3 FOOD OIL’ fish oil constituted the core of microcapsules. The carriers (walls of microcapsules) were made of arabic gum, maltodextrin (glucose equivalent 16.4), and starch sodium octenyl succinate (E1450). Green tea extract and butylated hydroxyanisole – BHA (E320) were applied as antioxidants. The amount of fish oil added equalled 10 % of the emulsion weight, and the amount of the carrier added ranged from 20 to 30 %. The stability of microencapsulated fish oil was determined by measuring the peroxide value of oil extracted from the whole microcapsules and from their surfaces. The research analysis was conducted over a period of eight months. Based on the results obtained, it was found that the fish oil analysed was already partially oxidized during the stage of spray drying of emulsions, which contained this oil. Fish oil, enclosed in microcapsules composed of modified starch, was characterized by a higher stability compared to the oil contained in microcapsules with gum Arabic. The adding of maltodextrin to microcapsules made of gum Arabic caused the oxidative stability of microencapsulated fish oil to increase significantly. The adding of antioxidants caused the oxidative stability of microencapsulated fish oil to improve. The green tea extract appeared to be a more effective antioxidant. © 2014, Polish Food Technologist Society. All rights reserved. Source

Kluszczynska D.,Katedra Zywnosci Funkcjonalnej | Sowinska W.,Katedra Zywnosci Funkcjonalnej
Zywnosc. Nauka. Technologia. Jakosc/Food. Science Technology. Quality

The objective of the research study was to determine the effect of technological processes, such as freezing, pasteurization, lyophilisation, production of juice and preserve, on the content of bioactive substances in bilberry fruits. The fresh bilberry fruits were characterized by a content of polyphenols amounting to 543 mg GAE/100 g on average, and this content determined their antioxidant activity (7.7 mmol of Trolox / 100 g of fruits). At the same time, the amount of ascorbic acid was 43.7 mg per 100 g of fresh fruits. The technological processes caused the content of bioactive compounds in the fruits analyzed to decrease. The lowest losses in total polyphenolic compounds and vitamin C were reported after the freezing process (18 and 11 %, respectively), whereas the highest losses in those compounds were determined during the production of juices (64 and 58 %, respectively). Moreover, the juices were characterized by a low antioxidant activity (1.94 mmol of Trolox / 100 g of product). The lyophilized fruits were characterized by the lowest antioxidant activity compared to the fresh fruits (with the process efficiency included). Therefore, the lyophilisation process is not a suitable method for the preservation of billberry fruits. Despite considerable losses in bioactive compounds during the preservation and processing, the bilberry products are a good source of those compounds, especially from the point of view of the seasonality of supply thereof. © by Polskie Towarzystwo Technologów Żywności, Kraków 2014. Source

Sadowska A.,Katedra Zywnosci Funkcjonalnej | Swiderski F.,Katedra Zywnosci Funkcjonalnej | Rakowska R.,Katedra Zywnosci Funkcjonalnej | Kostyra E.,Katedra Zywnosci Funkcjonalnej | Piotrowska A.,Katedra Zywnosci Funkcjonalnej
Zywnosc. Nauka. Technologia. Jakosc/Food. Science Technology. Quality

The objective of the research study was to determine the potential of using, more extensively, a quantitative descriptive method (QDA) and a principal components analysis (PCA) to evaluate the sensory quality of grilled beef by identifying the complex profile of the product under evaluation and, then, by limiting the quantity of attributes included, which facilitated the interpretation of results and the determination of the relationships that were important for the quality of the product analyzed. The research material consisted of five muscles: musculus semitendinosus (L_PO), musculus semimembranosus (Z_PO), musculus longissimus dorsi thoracis (A_NG), musculus longissimus dorsi lumborum (R_NG), and musculus gluteus medium (K_PS); those muscles were subjected to an ageing process for 7, 14, and 21 days in vacuum packs, at a temperature of 2 °C ± 1 °C. The meat after the heat treatment (grilling) was sensory assessed using a quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) and, next, the results obtained were statistically analysed using a principal components analysis (PCA). Based on the analyses performed, it was found that the QDA-based sensory evaluation of the beef muscles subjected to the ageing process provided a comprehensive and detailed knowledge of the sensory profile of the product evaluated. The principal component analysis, used as a statistical tool, enabled the analysis of a large number of quality parameters under assessment obtained during the sensory evaluation of meat. With that analysis, it was possible to detect the regularities that were imperceptible in the original layout of the obtained results of sensory evaluations. On the basis of PCA, it was found that many sensory attributes were quite strongly correlated with each other and in order to obtain a complete characterisation of the sensory quality, it was enough to include just a small subset from a group of numerous parameters under evaluation; this could essentially facilitate the interpretation of results and the determination of relationships important for the sensory quality of the product being assessed. It was also proved that the variation in the sensory quality of beef muscles referred to the features of texture and overall quality. The intensity of how individual sensory attributes of heattreated meat were felt varied in the case of individual muscles and depended on the duration of their ageing. As regards the musculus semitendinosus, its positive sensory characteristics were formed, to the greatest extent, during a 14-day ageing period, while in the musculus longissimus dorsi lumborum, the best features of its texture and overall quality were reported after a 21 day ageing period. Regarding the remaining samples analyzed, no significant (p < 0.05) differences were found in their sensory quality after the applied period of ageing. © 2015, Polish Food Technologist Society. All rights reserved. Source

Waszkiewicz-Robak B.,Katedra Zywnosci Funkcjonalnej | Szterk A.,Katedra Zywnosci Funkcjonalnej | Rogalski M.,Katedra Zywnosci Funkcjonalnej | Kruk M.,Katedra Zywnosci Funkcjonalnej | And 3 more authors.
Zywnosc. Nauka. Technologia. Jakosc/Food. Science Technology. Quality

Under the research study, the effect was determined of the process of smoking meat products from meat of different initial quality on the content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The amount of PAHs was determined in coarse-and fine-minced cured meat products (ham sausages, ‘bockwurst’ type sausages) before they were smoked (forcemeat) and after the completed smoking process (final products). Meats of different fatty acid profiles were used to produce meat products; their fatty acid profiles differed, because fat from different fat sources was utilized to feed porkers. 21 different types of PAHs were determined and identified, and the contents of bezno[a]pyreneand, chrysene, benzo[a]anthracene, and benzo[ b]fluoranthene) were particularly accurately analysed. It was found that the smoking of meat products contributed to the increase in the content of individual PAH from ca. 22 to 40% compared to their contents in the products before smoking. It was also proved that the type of fat added to fodders for porkers used, next, as a raw material to produce cured meat products, significantly impacted the amount and type of PAHs in final meat products. The addition of linseed oil and fish oil in fodders for porkers contributed to the change in the fatty acid profile of meat; this fact encouraged the formation of a higher total amount of PAHs including the so-called heavy PAHs. The content of B[a]P in the products analysed did not exceed the limit value of 5 μg/kg, and the total of 4 PAHs from the ‘heavy group’ did not exceed the enforced, compulsory value of 30 μg/kg; this confirmed that the smoking parameters chosen were appropriate. © 2014, Polish Food Technologist Society. All rights reserved. Source

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