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Blask-Osipa A.,Klinika Gastroenterologii Dzieciecej | Walkowiak J.,Katedra Higieny Zywienia Czlowieka
Family Medicine and Primary Care Review

Celiac disease (CD) is genetically determined enteropathy of the small intestine, induced by an abnormal, increased immunological response to consumed gluten and its fractions: gliadin and other prolamins. Human leukocyte antigens (HLA-DQ2 or -DO8) are important factors conditioning CD occurrence. Due to varied clinical manifestation the diagnosis of CD could be difficult. In patients with a suspicion of CD serological screening should be performed (tissue transglutaminase or endomysial antibodies), in case of positive results gastroscopy with mucosal biopsy should be carried out. CD patients demand gluten-free diet and subsequent monitoring. © Wydawnictwo Continuo. Source

Fidler-Wito E.,Katedry Pediatrii | Madry E.,Katedra i ZakLad Fizjologii | Krasinska B.,Katedra I Klinika Hipertensjologii | Walkowiak J.,Katedra Higieny Zywienia Czlowieka
Family Medicine and Primary Care Review

Milk from non-human mammals first appeared in the human diet about 10 000 years ago. A mutation in the lactase (LCT) promoter gene has allowed a large portion of the human population to safely consume dairy products into old age. LCT activity is essential for the hydrolysis of the predominant sugar in milk, lactose, and its highest levels are observed in infancy. As the infant matures foods other than milk are introduced, so the levels of LCT gradually reduce. The problem of lactose intolerance has been recorded since Roman times, but the genetic basis of this phenomenon had only been described in the second half of the twentieth century. The C/C polymorphic variant in the LCT promoter gene (-13910 C/T system) is associated with the reduction or even in the loss of LCT activity with age, which results in the manifestation of adult-type hypolactasia. The presence of the T/T or T/C genotype determines the persistence of LCT throughout the course of a lifetime. Copyright by Wydawnictwo Continuo. © Copyright by Wydawnictwo Continuo. Source

Madry E.,Katedra i ZakLad Fizjologii | Walkowiak J.,Klinika Gastroenterologii Dzieciecej i Chorob Metabolicznych | Adamczak-Ratajczak A.,Katedra Higieny Zywienia Czlowieka
Family Medicine and Primary Care Review

The vegetarian diets (vd) are still growing in popularity in developed Western countries. Vegetarians exclude from their diet all types of meat. Nowadays vegetarianism has many varieties: lacto-ovovegetarianism allows consumption of dairy products and eggs while vegan diet excludes all animal products including eggs and milk. Vd are low in calories, saturated fat and cholesterol and are rich in magnesium, potassium, vitamins Cand E, folates, flavonoids, carotenoids, and fiber. Potential deficits are associated with the low content of vitamins B12, D, calcium and zinc. Vegetarians are slimmer than the general population, rarely suffer from cardiovascular diseases, type II diabetes, hypertension and some cancers. From this perspective carefully planned vd can be regarded as an impulse in the fight against the epidemic of obesity and lifestyle diseases with which modern society face in developed countries. © Wydawnictwo Continuo. Source

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