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Wadolowska L.,Katedra zywienia Czlowieka | Krusinska B.,Katedra zywienia Czlowieka | Tenderenda M.,Klinika Chirurgii Onkologicznej i Ogolnej
Onkologia Polska | Year: 2013

This paper addresses the issue of the increasing morbidity and death rates from cancer and describes the possible effects of selected dietary factors, including nutrients, particularly n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, on the course of the disease. The effects of failing to maintain a proper n-6 to n-3 PUFA ratio on the development of cancer is emphasized. The mechanism of pro-tumor action of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, when present in excessive amounts in a diet, is also discussed along with possible anti-carcinogenic properties of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and linoleic acid conjugated dienes. The results of meta-analyses and studies linking many independent studies are presented in order to assess the strength of the relationship between lipids and their constituents, fats, nutrients and foods containing fats and the incidence of tumors in various organs. Based on the literature review, the relationships between the total lipid intake and the incidence of lung and breast cancer, butter consumption and lung cancer and the consumption of fish and foods containing animal fats and the risk of colorectal cancer are analyzed. Copyright © 2013 Cornetis.

PubMed | Pracownia Antropologii, Klinika Endokrynologii i Diabetologii and Katedra Zywienia Czlowieka
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Pediatric endocrinology, diabetes, and metabolism | Year: 2016

Overweight children are growing problem as in the pediatric, as well in the diabetic population. The aim of the study was to research the percentage of overweight and obesity in a group of adolescents with type 1 diabetes, and to analyzethe lipid parameters, as well risk factors of these abnormalities.The study group consist of 60 type 1 diabetic adolescents (including 32 girls, 53.3%), aged above 12 years (mean age for girls 14.6+/-0,3years, boys 15.6+/-0.4 years) with diabetes duration (girls 5.7+-0.6 years, boys 4.4+/-0.8 years). Statistical analysis was performed using Statistica v 9.0 and SPSS v20.The study revealed that boys with type 1 diabetes are significantly higher than healthy population, with weight, waist circumference and BMI comparable to the healthy counterparts. However, diabetic girls are more likely to be overweight and have bigger waist circumference, and higher BMI than the healthy population. Overweight were 12 adolescents (20%) using BMI 1SD criterion, and 10 (16%) using waist circumference as obesity parameter. Logistic regression revealed that the most important factors for obesity and abdominal obesity are female gender (OR=2.43 and OR=4.56for obesity and abdominal, respectively), diabetes duration above 5 years (respectively OR=1.96 and OR=3.27) and poor metabolic control (respectively OR=1.74 and OR=2.89).The most important risk factor for obesity in adolescents with type 1 diabetes is female gender. Lipids profile is closely dependent on metabolic control and mass excess. Diabetes duration, metabolic control and lipids profile are significant risk factors for overweight and abdominal obesity.

Gronowska-Senger A.,Katedra Zywienia Czlowieka
Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny | Year: 2010

The effect of retinyl palmitate dose on oxidative stress reduction induced by physical activity was the aim of study. The experiment was carried out on Wistar strain males rats, which were trained by running on trademill with speed 20 m/min. during 10 days. The rats were administered with 7, 5, 15 or 60 microg of retinyl palmitate daily to each one. The level of retinol, lipid peroxides, antioxidant potential in serum and retinyl esters in liver were measured. It was shown that retinyl palmitate reduced oxidative stress, independently to its daily dose.

Pogorzelska E.,Samodzielne Laboratorium Chemicznych Badan Zywnosci | Hamulka J.,Katedra Zywienia Czlowieka | Wawrzyniak A.,Katedra Zywienia Czlowieka
Zywnosc. Nauka. Technologia. Jakosc/Food. Science Technology. Quality | Year: 2016

Astaxanthin is a naturally occurring xanthophyll. It gives the tissues of fish, such as salmon or trout, as well as the shells of crustaceans a characteristic pink-red colour. Animals and people do not have the ability to synthesize astaxanthin de novo. Some algae, yeast, bacteria, and plants possess this ability. Owing to its chemical structure, astaxanthin is characterized by strong antioxidant properties. It is considered one of the most powerful natural antioxidants. Scientific studies carried out so far have proven that astaxanthin, if taken in large doses, does not exhibit any prooxidative and toxic properties. Hence, astaxanthin is used as an ingredient in dietary supplements and, moreover, as a feed additive for fish and, to a lesser extent, for poultry. More and more frequently, it is also applied as a functional food component. The paper presents a detailed characterization of astaxanthin in terms of its chemical structure, occurrence, application safety, and potential applications thereof to produce functional food. © by Polskie Towarzystwo Technologów Żywności, Kraków 2016 Printed in Poland.

The range of food products fortified with vitamins and minerals in Poland is growing rapidly in the last years. Also the consumption of such food and dietary supplements is increasing. Therefore there is a risk of excessive intake of vitamins and minerals. The aim of the study was to analyze the determinants of intake of food products fortified with vitamins and minerals among children aged 6-12. Data was collected by a questionnaire specially developed and a FFQ method including vitamins and/or minerals in fortified food products. There were collected data from parents of 743 children (374 boys, 369 girls) attending primary schools, placed in four different districts of Poland. More than 70% of children consumed food products fortified with vitamins and/or minerals, among them 76% - every day. As a main reason of intake of fortified food by children, parents mentioned the beneficial effects on health (86.2% parents) and taste preferences (61.2%). However, the main reason of no consuming this kind of products, were proper nutrition of the children (57.4%), no influence on health (30.3%) and prohibitive price (24,1%). There were statistically significant relationships between intake of food fortified with vitamins and/or minerals and children's age (75.8% of age 6-9 years vs. 58.1% of age 10-12 years), health condition (71.6% of children with good and very good health status -assessed by parents - vs. 55.6% with average and poor health status), the number of meals eaten during the day (75.6% eating 4 meals/day vs. 67.8% - 5 and more meals vs. 52.3% - 3 meals), regular breakfast eating (71.8% eating vs. 50.0% non consumption), brunch eating (73.3% vs. 54.0% respectively), afternoon snack eating (75.7% vs. 59.4%) and using of dietary supplements (84.6% among children who use supplements vs. 61.4% among non users). It was established that about 22% of parents were unaware that their children consumed food fortified with vitamins and/or minerals. Food fortified with vitamins and/or minerals was consumed more frequently among younger children, specially among those who eat more meals per day and with good and very good health status. Due to the fact that many children consumed both fortified foods and dietary supplements, there is a risk of exceeding levels consider as safe (UL) of some vitamins and/or minerals.

Januszko O.,Katedra Zywienia Czlowieka
Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny | Year: 2012

The aim of this study was to assess the intake of calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, potassium and sodium with drinking water among 19-26 years old women, students at the Warsaw University of Life Sciences (SGGW). Data on intake of drinking water and food products were collected based on 4-day record method. Information about kind of water usage to prepare beverages and meals were obtained by using a specific questionnaire. Minerals concentrations in water samples were assessed using the atomic spectrophotometer absorption (ASA) technique. The average consumption of drinking water equaled 870 +/- 389 cm3/d (100-2738 cm3/d). The drinking water used by the women for meals or beverages preparation contributed in 9,8% of calcium and 3,8% of magnesium to their daily diet. Contribution of tap water in the intake of calcium and magnesium depended on the contents of these minerals in water, and amounted from 6,0% (< or = 68,3 mg calcium on dm3 water--1st quartile) to 14,8% (> 112 mg/dm3--4th quartile) for calcium and from 2,9% (< or = 10,9 mg/dm3) to 4,7% (> 15,4 mg/dm3) for magnesium. The contribution of iron, zinc, potassium and sodium was low, and not exceeded 2%. Comparing the average content of minerals in non-boiled and boiled tap water the cooking process influenced the levels of calcium (95,8 +/- 31,8 vs 89,7 +/- 31,1 mg/dm3), magnesium (12,1 +/- 3,24 vs. 12,7 +/- 3,04 mg/dm3), zinc (0,35 +/- 0,87 vs. 0,17 +/- 0,89 mg/dm3), potassium (3,31 +/- 2,67 vs. 3,66 +/- 4,18 mg/dm3) and sodium (23,2 +/- 15,4 vs. 25,9 +/- 17,2 mg/dm3). Nevertheless, from the nutritional point of view the differences in the concentrations of these minerals were insignificant. Conclusions. Drinking water can be an important source of calcium and magnesium in diet, wherein the amount of the supplied element depends on its content in drinking water used for preparing beverages and/or meals.

The aim of this study was to determine whether the use of supplements was associated with all-cause mortality among older people. The study included 643 people aged 75-80 (305 men and 338 women) from Warsaw and Olsztyn regions. The basic information about respondents and about vitamin and/or mineral supplement intake were collected in 1999, while data about deaths from all-causes were collected in Warsaw region till the end of December 2003 and in Olsztyn region till to end of August 2004. The Cox Proportional Hazard Regression Models were used to assess the all-cause mortality risk among supplements users and nonusers. The risk of all-cause mortality was 113% (95%CI: 15 - 294%) higher among men who used vitamin A supplements compared to those who not used this nutrient as supplements, for vitamin E the risk was 89% (95%CI: 3 - 248%) higher, for vitamin B1 - 102% (95%CI: 9 - 271%), vitamin B2 - 99% (95%CI: 8 - 268%), vitamin PP - 103% (95%CI: 12 - 268%), vitamin B6 - 103% (95%CI: 10 - 273%), iron - 105% (95%CI: 2 - 308%) and for zinc -160% (95%CI: 30 - 414%) higher. Among smoking men who used vitamin B6, PP, iron and zinc supplements compared to those who were smokers and not used these supplements there were a significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality i.e. 118% (95%CI: 7 - 344%) and 106% (95%CI: 2 - 317%), 150% (95%CI: 14 - 448%) and 164% (95%CI: 122 - 472%), respectively. No such relationships were observed in older women. Further investigations are needed to explain the associations between supplement use and smoking in relation to mortality risk.

The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between indicators of diet quality and all-cause mortality in a group of elderly people. The study was carried out among 411 participants aged 75-80 years (190 men and 221 women). During this study 78 men (42%) and 79 women (36.6%) died. Quality of diet was evaluated using following indicators: Greek Mediterranean Diet Score (GMDS), Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS), Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI), Healthy Eating Index (HEI), Diet Quality Index (DQI), and Diet Quality Index-Revised (DQI-R). Among men there were not significant relationships between all-cause mortality and diet quality measured by the indicators. While the risk of all-cause mortality was statistically significantly lower in women with lower HDI (RR = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.37-0.99) and DQI-R (RR = 0.60; 95% CI: 0.37-0.96) compared to women with higher quality of diet. A similar tendency was shown for MDS indicator (RR = 0.65; 95% CI: 0.40-1.05). It was concluded that indicators used to assessment of diet quality were not good predictors of mortality in Polish population. Therefore to continue study in this field it is necessary to create new diet quality indicator more suitable to nutritional habits in Poland.

Piatkowska E.,Katedra Zywienia Czlowieka | Witkowicz R.,Cracow University of Economics | Pisulewska E.,Cracow University of Economics
Zywnosc. Nauka. Technologia. Jakosc/Food. Science Technology. Quality | Year: 2010

The objective of the investigation study was to determine the content of nutrient components in the whole grain, husk, endosperm, and bran in different cultivars of oats. The content of dry mass, protein, fat, dietary fibre, total carbohydrates, and mineral compounds in the form of ash were measured. The basic chemical composition of the research material was determined using the AOAC standard methods. The investigation results received permit to state that both the whole grain and endosperm are a good source of the protein in the oat cultivars investigated. It was also found that the fat was regularly distributed in the caryopsis, and the similar contents of this component were found both in the whole grain, endosperm, and in the bran. The husk is the best source of carbohydrates, dietary fibre, and mineral components.

Piatkowska E.,Katedra Zywienia Czlowieka | Witkowicz R.,Cracow University of Economics | Pisulewska E.,Cracow University of Economics
Zywnosc. Nauka. Technologia. Jakosc/Food. Science Technology. Quality | Year: 2010

The objective of the investigation study was to assess the antioxidant properties of the whole oat grains, husk, endosperm, and bran. The investigation material was oat grain of the following cultivars: Arab, Bohun, Celer, Cwał, Deresz, Furman, Kasztan, Krezus, Polar, and Rajtar. The content of polyphenol in the milling fractions investigated was measured using a Folin-Ciocalteau method. Additionally, the ability to eliminate an ABTS· free radical was analyzed. The highest polyphenol levels were found in the husk of the oat cultivars investigated. Smaller amounts were found in bran, whole grain, and endosperm, respectively. This is significantly correlated with the radical scavenging activity of individual milling fractions of the material investigated.

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