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Bratislava, Slovakia

Novakova L.M.,Katedra obecne antropologie | Stepankova H.,Narodni Ustav Dusevniho Zdravi | Vodicka J.,Klinika Otorinolaryngologie a Chirurgie Hlavy a Krku | Havlicek J.,Katedra zoologie
Ceska a Slovenska Neurologie a Neurochirurgie | Year: 2015

In many neurodegenerative diseases, changes in olfactory perception have been identified that can be tested with psychophysical tests. Olfactory testing is of particular significance in Alzhei-mer's and Parkinson's disease, where olfactory decline precedes other clinical symptoms. Olfactory decline may indicate a neurological disorder, aid in differential diagnosis, or help to estimate disease prognosis. This review presents olfactory dysfunction profiles in selected neurodegenera-tive diseases with an emphasis on Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, assessment of quanti- And qualitative olfactory dysfunction, focusing on widely used psychophysical tests suitable for routine olfactory testing in everyday clinical practice, and contribution of olfactory testing to the diagnosis of the selected neurodegenerative diseases. In Alzheimer's disease, identification is more severely affected than detection thresholds, whereas in Parkinson's disease, decline is more homogeneous across various olfactory measures and increase in detection thresholds is more prominent. Source

In 2008 and 2009 I observed four cases of a Western Jackdaw (Corvus monedula) attacking bats (Chiroptera) in the Bardejov town (49°17'34″ N, 21°16'40″E) in northeastern Slovakia. The attacks were recorded near flats in prefab houses before dusk. A half of the attacks were successful, while in two cases the bats managed to fly away. Source

Svoboda A.,Palacky University | Marthinsen G.,University of Oslo | Pavel V.,Palacky University | Chutny B.,Malinova 27 | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Ornithology | Year: 2014

Long-distance migratory birds are potentially exposed to a range of blood sucking arthropods that transmit avian blood parasites. Because of differential vector exposure, the parasite fauna may vary in different habitat types, among populations, or even within populations where individuals travel to different areas during migration. We applied PCR-based molecular techniques to determine patterns of blood parasite occurrence in adults of seven geographically isolated Bluethroat populations, belonging to three distinct subspecies differing in habitat preferences and wintering areas (Luscinia svecica svecica, L. s. cyanecula, L. s. namnetum). Moreover, to elucidate potential transmission of blood parasites on breeding sites, we tested adults of the relatively sedentary White-throated Dipper (Cinclus cinclus) from a Norwegian population. Across populations, we detected infection of at least one blood parasite genus in 68.5 % (139/203) of adult Bluethroats. The most common parasite genus was Plasmodium (10 lineages, 33.5 % of surveyed individuals), present in all seven populations, followed by Leucocytozoon (four lineages, 31.5 %) and Haemoproteus (two lineages, 4.9 %). We recorded multiple infections in 26.1 % of individuals. Leucocytozoon was found only in svecica inhabiting mountainous/subalpine areas with high abundance of blackflies, the main vector for this parasite. In Plasmodium, two lineages (BT6 and GRW4) were confined to specimens from svecica populations. In contrast, Lineage SGS1 was dominated by southern birds of the subspecies cyanecula and namnetum. Our data suggest transmission of Leucocytozoon on the breeding grounds in Norway as the same lineages were found in relatively sedentary White-throated Dippers as in migratory Bluethroats. We discuss these results in light of the ecological differences between the host populations, affecting their exposure to potential blood parasite vectors. © Dt. Ornithologen-Gesellschaft e.V. 2014. Source

Androlaelaps casalis (Berlese, 1887) as a facultative ectoparasite occurs in the nests of birds and mammals. So far only very limited information on its life strategy is available. We obtained 10,471 specimens of Androlaelaps casalis (Berlese, 1887) from the nests of the Tree Sparrow (Passer montanus) in SW Slovakia. Altogether we analysed 97 nests, of which 87 were positive for Androlaelaps casalis. The average number of Androlaelaps casalis was 107.9 individuals per nest, the lowest abundance was recorded in August (7.8) and the highest in June (164.6). In June, females with eggs showed lower abundance (36.6) than the adult females without eggs (44.3). The males showed maximum abundance in June (30.2) and minimum in August (2.8). Deutonymphs (35.2) and protonymphs (15.4) achieved the maximum in June, in contrast to larvae whose abundance peaked in July (1.8). Source

Garajova M.,Katedra zoologie | Mrva M.,Katedra zoologie
Epidemiologie, Mikrobiologie, Imunologie | Year: 2011

Amoebae of the genus Acanthamoeba Volkonsky, 1931 are ubiquitous, amphizoic organisms with a cosmopolitan distribution. Pathogenic strains are the causative agents of a difficult to treat disease, granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE), and skin infections in immuno compromised individuals, and of a painful corneal disease- amoebic keratitis (AK) in immuno competent individuals. The major portals of entry are the nasopharyngeal mucosa, pulmonary parenchyma, skin lesions (GAE, skin infections), eyes in contact lenses wearers with a history of improper contact lens wear and care, or corneal trauma (AK). Symptoms of the diseases are non-specific and variable which alongside with the lack of awareness among health care professionals often hamper early diagnosis. While treatment options for GAE and skin infections are limited and poorly effective, various antifungals and antimicrobials have proved beneficial in AK, although the therapy is often complicated and long. Source

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