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Przybysz M.A.,Katedra Technologii Zywnosci | Szterk A.,Katedra Zywnosci Funkcjonalnej | Zawislak M.,Katedra Technologii Zywnosci | Dluzewska E.,Katedra Technologii Zywnosci
Zywnosc. Nauka. Technologia. Jakosc/Food. Science Technology. Quality | Year: 2014

This objective of the research study was to determine the effect of type and amount of the carrier (wall material of microcapsules) as well as of the addition of antioxidants on stability of spray-dried microencapsulated fish oil after the microencapsulation process and during subsequent storage of the powder obtained. The ‘ROPUFA ‘30’ N-3 FOOD OIL’ fish oil constituted the core of microcapsules. The carriers (walls of microcapsules) were made of arabic gum, maltodextrin (glucose equivalent 16.4), and starch sodium octenyl succinate (E1450). Green tea extract and butylated hydroxyanisole – BHA (E320) were applied as antioxidants. The amount of fish oil added equalled 10 % of the emulsion weight, and the amount of the carrier added ranged from 20 to 30 %. The stability of microencapsulated fish oil was determined by measuring the peroxide value of oil extracted from the whole microcapsules and from their surfaces. The research analysis was conducted over a period of eight months. Based on the results obtained, it was found that the fish oil analysed was already partially oxidized during the stage of spray drying of emulsions, which contained this oil. Fish oil, enclosed in microcapsules composed of modified starch, was characterized by a higher stability compared to the oil contained in microcapsules with gum Arabic. The adding of maltodextrin to microcapsules made of gum Arabic caused the oxidative stability of microencapsulated fish oil to increase significantly. The adding of antioxidants caused the oxidative stability of microencapsulated fish oil to improve. The green tea extract appeared to be a more effective antioxidant. © 2014, Polish Food Technologist Society. All rights reserved.

Dluzewska E.,Katedra Technologii Zywnosci | Florowska A.,Katedra Technologii Zywnosci | Jasiorska E.,Katedra Technologii Zywnosci
Zywnosc. Nauka. Technologia. Jakosc/Food. Science Technology. Quality | Year: 2011

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of carrier type and amount on the stability of β-carotene micro-encapsulated using a spray-drying method. The walls of micro-capsules (carriers) were made of: an Arabic gum and a modified starch (E1450). The amounts of the carriers added ranged from 15 to 30 %, and the amount of the β-carotene emulsion was 5% of the emulsion weight. The emulsions of β-carotene and the carrier solutions were made using a high-pressure homogenizer in order to perform a two stage homogenization process. The following values were determined: distribution of the emulsion particle size, total content of β-carotene in micro-capsules and on their surfaces, the colour of beverages produced with the addition of micro-encapsulated β-carotene. The experiment was carried out during two months. It was found that both the Arabic gum and the modified starch (E 1450) were a good material to build the walls of micro-capsules containing β-carotene. The distribution analysis of the dispersed emulsion particle size showed that the emulsions with 25 % of Arabic gum added were better dispersed. The samples with the Arabic gum added were characterized by the better effectiveness of micro-encapsulation and the better retention of β-carotene during storage. As for the Arabic gum, the increase in the carrier concentration caused the colour retention to increase. A reverse dependence was found in the case of modified starch.

Chmiel M.,Katedra Technologii Zywnosci | Slowinski M.,Katedra Technologii Zywnosci | Cal P.,Katedra Technologii Zywnosci
Zywnosc. Nauka. Technologia. Jakosc/Food. Science Technology. Quality | Year: 2011

The objective of the research study was to determine the possibility of using computer vision systems (CVS) to detect a PSE defect in pork meat. The research material comprised 42 pork longissimus dorsi muscles obtained under the industrial conditions. Based on the measurements of pH and colour lightness (L*), the raw material studied was classified into three quality groups: normal meat (RFN, i.e. reddish-pink, firm, non-exudative), PSE meat (pale, soft, exudative), and meat that did not meet any criteria of being classified into any of the two quality groups as above (NZ). The meat samples analyzed were photographed and their images were analyzed in order to determine the values of colors components of the three models: RGB, HSV, and HSL. Based on the results obtained, it was found that CVS could be applied to detect a PSE defect in pork meat. For this purpose, the colors components of V (from the HSV model), L (from the HSL model), and R, G, B (from the RGB model) appeared to be most useful.

Wroniak M.,Katedra Technologii Zywnosci | Ptaszek A.,Katedra Technologii Zywnosci | Ratusz K.,Katedra Technologii Zywnosci
Zywnosc. Nauka. Technologia. Jakosc/Food. Science Technology. Quality | Year: 2013

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of pressing conditions in an UNO expeller press (manufactured by a 'Farmet' company) on the quality and chemical composition of pressed rapeseed oil. The research material included 2 batches of industrial rapeseed from the harvest campaigns in 2010 and 2011. Oils were pressed from rapeseed in the expeller machine (a screw-type press) with 3 different nozzles, their diameters being 6, 8, and 10 mm. Also, one batch of seeds was additionally heated (150 °C, 1 h) prior to pressing. The content of water and fat in the seeds and in rapeseed cake were determined as was the content of contaminations in the seeds. The extraction efficiency was computed. In the oils determined were the degree of hydrolysis, the primary and secondary lipid oxidation degree (acid value, peroxide value, and anisidine value; Totox index was computed]. Moreover, the colour of oils was determined as were the content of pheophytin a, the composition of fatty acids, and the oxidative stability according to the Rancimat test (120 °C). It was found that with the use of the expeller press for cold pressing, and regardless of the nozzle used, it was possible to press oil under very mild conditions, at a temperature ranging from 38 to 42 °C, and no oxidative changes occurred in the fat as regards the content of primary and secondary products of fat oxidation; furthermore, no changes were produced in the composition of fatty acids and in oxidative stability of the oils pressed. However, the extraction efficiency was relatively low (40 - 50 %), and the residual fat content in the cake was high (20 - 27 %). Similar trends were found in the case of the two analyzed batches of rapeseed. The heating of seeds prior to pressing caused the extraction efficiency to significantly increase, and, simultaneously, the degree of hydrolysis of lipids and the content of pheophytin to slightly increase; the heating prior to pressing also caused the colour of the oil produced to darken.

Marciniak-Lukasiak K.,Katedra Technologii Zywnosci | Zbikowska A.,Katedra Technologii Zywnosci
Zywnosc. Nauka. Technologia. Jakosc/Food. Science Technology. Quality | Year: 2013

The objective of the research study was to determine the impact of the type of frying medium and of the frying parameters of instant noodles onto their quality. The scope of the research covered the assessment of the quality of frying medium and instant noodles produced. A mixture of palm olein and rapeseed oil, their proportion being 1:1, was used for frying. In the frying medium, the parameters of fat were measured: acid value, peroxide value, and content of polar compounds. Moreover, the composition of fatty acids (FA) was analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively using a gas chromatography method. In the end product produced, measured were the moisture, fat content, colour, and hydration time of the noodles. Based on the results obtained, it was found that both the type of frying medium and the heat treatment parameters impacted the quality of instant noodles. The frying temperature caused the moisture and fat content to differentiate. Its growth caused the fat content to increase and, at the same time, the moisture of the product to decrease. The increase in the length of frying time by 50% did not impact the moisture, fat content, and colour brightness of the end products under analysis. Thus, the frying time had no statistically significant impact on the above named quality parameters of the end products under analysis (p = 0.05).

The objective of the study was to assess the effect of partial substitution of pork jowl with a mixture of plant oils (replacement rate: 20 % or 40 %) in the composition of chicken burgers recipe, as well as of the addition of inulin (1%) or wheat fibre preparation (2 % or 3 %) on the quality of final product. It was found that the applied modifications in the recipe composition caused the thermal processing yield to significantly differ and the fat content in the burgers to decrease. All types of the burgers produced were highly positively assessed as regards their sensory properties, and significant differences were found only in the juiciness assessment scores. Despite significant differences in the shear force of products, measured using an instrumental method, the differences between sensory assessment results of the hardness of individual burger types were statistically insignificant. Based on the analysis results of fatty acid composition, it was confirmed that the addition of plant oils favoured the improvement of the nutritional value of fat contained in the product. The results obtained indicate that as regards the recipe of chicken burger, it is possible to replace 20 % of pork jowl with plant oils, and, at the same time, to add a selected dietary food preparation such as inulin or wheat fibre.

Wroniak M.,Katedra Technologii Zywnosci
Zywnosc. Nauka. Technologia. Jakosc/Food. Science Technology. Quality | Year: 2012

The objective of the study was to assess the quality and nutritional value of cold-pressed rapeseed oils on the basis of fatty acid composition and content of tocopherols and sterols. The scope of the study comprised the pressing of oil from rapeseed in an expeller under laboratory conditions, the analysis of quality and chemical composition of pressed oils, and comparing them with other commercial cold pressed and refined oilss. The following basic quality parameters of the oil samples were determined: acid value, peroxide value, anisidine value, Totox index, and oxidative stability in the Rancimat test at a temperature of 120 °C. The composition of fatty acids was analyzed, as were the composition and contents of tocopherols and sterols The cold-pressed rapeseed oils produced under laboratory conditions as well as other commercial oils were characterized by a high quality and a diverse oxidative stability (induction time from 3.82 to 7.32 h). The high nutritional value of rapeseed oils was confirmed owing to the optimal composition of fatty acids, i.e.: the high content of unsaturated fatty acids from 92.6 % to 93.1 %, the low content of saturated fatty acid from 6.7 to 7.3 %, and the optimal ratio of n-6 to n-3 acids, 2.1:1 on average. The oils did not contain trans-fatty acids except for the refined oil (0.8 %). Moreover, all the oils tested proved to be a valuable source of both the tocopherols from 44.82 to 57.60 mg/100 g and the sterols from 547.06 to 676.25 mg/100 g.

Wolska P.,Katedra Technologii Zywnosci | Ceglinska A.,Katedra Technologii Zywnosci | Dubicka A.,Katedra Technologii Zywnosci
Zywnosc. Nauka. Technologia. Jakosc/Food. Science Technology. Quality | Year: 2010

The objective of the study was to assess the quality of bread made using sourdoughs from gluten-free cereals. The experimental material constituted flours from gluten-free cereals, such as: amaranth, buckwheat, millet, and rice, as well as gluten-free bread made according to an adopted recipe, and gluten-free bread concentrate (control sample). The sourdoughs from gluten-free cereals applied to the bread making process caused significant changes to occur, namely: baking loss, changes in the crumb mass density and in the crumb porosity comparing with a control sample. Furthermore, the sourdoughs applied contributed to a significant increase in the level of total proteins in the bread baked. The effect of buckwheat sourdough was particularly beneficial. No significant impact was found of the sourdoughs used on the volume of 100 g of bread and on the bread moisture. The point-based system of assessment applied in this study allowed for the statement that the bread with buckwheat sourdough added had the best and above-average sensory features compared to the control sample.

Changing preferences of consumers are the main reason why scientists and food manufacturers have been searching for new concepts and directions in the food product development. In this paper, the applications were presented of high pressure technology to manufacture convenience food from poultry meet in order to guarantee its safety and high quality. In the case of meat products designated as a convenience food type, the food preservation method using a high hydrostatic pressure seems to be an interesting techniqueto prolong their shelf life; in particular, this refers to the tightly packed products since the secondary contamination thereof during their portioning or slicing is quite possible. Owing to the improper technological treatment, cross-contaminations, or improper storing, pathogenic micro-organisms can develop in this kind of products, especially in those made from poultry meat. Such pathogens are extremely dangerous for people with a decreased immunity, children, the elderly, and pregnant women. In addition, the high pressure processing can be applied to inactivate those human health threatening pathogens.

The objective of the study was to determine the qualitative changes in black current nectars stored at 20 °C during a period of 1, 2, and 4 months with no access to light. Three variants of nectars were analysed: nectars without the additives, nectars enriched in an echinacea purpurea extract, and nectars enriched in a green tea extract. In the nectars analysed, the following contents were determined: total polyphenols, anthocyanins, L-ascorbic acid, and, also the antioxidant activity was determined. Immediately after the production, the nectars without the additives, as well as those enriched in the echinacea extract and in the green tea extract were characterized by the following antioxidant activity levels: 9.3 μmol Troloxu/ml, 11.8 μmol Troloxu/ml, and 16.3 μmol Troloxu/ml, respectively. In the same nectars, the content of anthocyanins was 89.7, 100.2, and 105.2 mg/100 ml, respectively, whereas the content of polyphenols was 96.3, 110.1, and 124.2 mg/100 ml, respectively. It was found that during the 4 months of storage the content of total polyphenols, anthocyanins, and vitamin C decreased in all nectars, and this decrease caused the antioxidant activity to fall. After the 4 month storage, the content of anthocyanins in the nectars was 70% lower compared to the initial samples.

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