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Ziobro R.,Katedra Technologii Weglowodanow | Litwinek D.,Katedra Technologii Weglowodanow | Mickowska B.,University Rolniczy w Krakowie
Zywnosc. Nauka. Technologia. Jakosc/Food. Science Technology. Quality

Commercial oat flour and certified gluten-free wholemeal oat flour were used to make muffins according to a recipe for gluten-free bakery wares. The use of oat flours instead of a mix of rice and maize flours with maize starch caused the content of the following components in the muffins produced to significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increase: total proteins (9.11 ÷ 10.29 % d.m.), fat (15.06 ÷ 15.41 % d.m.), and minerals in the form of total ash (1.75 ÷ 2.03 % d.m.). Particularly large changes were reported in the case of the fibre fraction; its content increased almost three times upon the application of wholemeal oat flour. Oat flours, especially gluten-free flour, were, in the muffins, a source of substantial amounts of β-D-glucans (2.89 % d.m.), an important component of the soluble fraction of dietary fibre. The differences in the volume of muffins produced were statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) but minor, and they did not significantly impact the texture parameters. As for the oat products, the rate of changes in those parameters was lower over the entire period of storage. As early as on the day of baking, the muffins made from oat flour were characterized by a lower hardness (34.8 ÷ 36.9 N) compared to the products from flour mix (51.0 N); those differences increased on the 3 subsequent days of storing (respectively, 40.8 ÷ 44.1 N, 88.8 N). Irrespective of the type of oat flour used, the products made from it were characterized by a good appearance and an attractive taste and flavour. Of the analyzed oat flours, the certified gluten-free flour was the only one to provide an appropriately low content of gluten proteins (12.8 mg gluten/kg); therefore, the products produced could be considered to be gluten-free. Thus, the muffins from commercial oat flour (166 mg gluten/ kg) can be consumed only by healthy people who choose oat products owing to their pro-health values and taste. © by Polskie Towarzystwo Technologów Żywności, Kraków 2015. Source

Litwinek D.,Katedra Technologii Weglowodanow | Gambus H.,Katedra Technologii Weglowodanow | Ziec G.,Katedra Technologii Weglowodanow | Gambus F.,Cracow University of Economics
Zywnosc. Nauka. Technologia. Jakosc/Food. Science Technology. Quality

The objective of the study was to compare the glycaemic index and glycaemic load of biscuits made with 100 % wheat flour type 650 and with two 100 % oat flours: commercial oat flour and residual oat flour (obtained after the production of fibre preparation). The biscuits were organoleptically assessed by a panel of assessors. The hardness of the biscuits was analyzed using a TA-XT Plus Texture Analyzer along with penetration and intersection tests. AOAC methods were applied to determine the moisture and the content of the following components in the biscuits: total protein, crude fat, mineral compounds in the form of total ash, total dietary fibre including soluble and insoluble fractions, and β-D-glucans. The content of available carbohydrates in the biscuits was calculated according to the FAO/WHO recommendations. The food energy provided by the biscuits was calculated based on a method recommended by FAO that included the composition of the biscuits and the Atwater energy equivalents. The determination of the glycaemic index was carried out in a group of 15 volunteers using a method recommended by ISO 26642:2010. The organoleptic characteristics of both the wheat and the oat biscuits were assessed as very good; however, the biscuits made with oat flours (residual and commercial) were characterized by a better crispness. Replacing wheat flour with oat flours to make the biscuits caused the content of crude fat, total ash, dietary fibre (soluble and insoluble fractions) including β-glucan in those biscuits to increase statistically significantly. All the biscuits tested were characterized by a low glycemic index ranging from 46 to 50 and a low glycemic load, less than 10, and this resulted, mainly, from a small content of digestible carbohydrates (57 - 61 %) and a high content of fat (19 – 24 %) in those products. © Polskie Towarzystwo Technologów Żywności, Kraków 2014. Source

Gibinski M.,Katedra Technologii Weglowodanow | Gambus H.,Katedra Technologii Weglowodanow | Nowakowski K.,Microstructure Sp. Z O. O. | Mickowska B.,University Rolniczy akowie | And 3 more authors.
Zywnosc. Nauka. Technologia. Jakosc/Food. Science Technology. Quality

A high nutritional value of oat flour constituting a by-product derived from manufacturing a BETAVEN β-D-glucan concentrate suggested that the oat flour could be used as an addition in wheat and wheat-rye breads. The objective of the research project was to develop a recipe of wheat and mixed breads, where a portion of wheat flour was substituted with the leftover oat flour amounting to 10 %, 20 %, and 25 % of the wheat flour content. Another objective was to determine the impact of the oat flour used on the sensory and nutritional properties of the products manufactured. The results obtained show that the leftover oat flour is a good source of protein with a beneficial amino-acids composition, dietary fibre, and crude lipids, and its amount not exceeding 20% of wheat flour is fit for use as a supplement in wheat and wheat-rye white breads. Source

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