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Different methods of logging slash management (LSM) and methods of soil preparation (MSP) can create different conditions for the growth of forest trees. This occurs through variation in soil aeration, tree nutrition or microbial conditions. These factors are modified by climate, soil fertility, treats from insects or fungal pathogens and renewed species. The aim of this study was to compare effects of three LSM methods: 1) crushing and mixing with the soil by Mery Crusher, 2) chopping and leaving on the soil surface, and 3) removal from the clear-cut, and three MSP: 1) double-mouldboard forest plough LPz-75, 2) active plough U-162, and 3) forest mill FAO-FAR FV 4088 on biometric parameters, density and survival of six-years old Scots pine seedlings. Field research was conducted in Narol Forest District (south-eastern Poland). The soil in the study area was classified as brown podzolic, formed on loose sands with typical mor humus. The experiment was established by planting 10 000 one-year-old pine seedlings per hectare, after clear cut and followed by a two-factor block design consisting of nine variants distinguished on the basis of LSM and MSP randomly assigned to each of the three blocks. Tree height and root collar diameter were measured three times, at the end of 1st, 3rd and 6th growing season. The results showed no statistically significant differences in the size of the analyzed parameters of planted seedlings. Seedlings in the variant with site preparation by crusher and forest mill were slightly higher and thicker. This indicates the better trophic conditions in that variant. LSM did not affect either seedlings density or their survival. A slightly higher survival rate and tree density occurred in variants with crusher regardless of soil preparation method. It follows that, all presented experimental variants give similar results. Therefore, selection of the most appropriate methods of site and soil preparation should primarily respect ecological and economic indicators, and such local factors as microclimate, mainly precipitation, site fertility and threats from pests and fungal diseases.

The information about the occurrence of the invasive bark beetle Xylosandrus germanus (Bldf.) in Poland is presented. A set of traits enabling its distinguishing from similar Anisandrus dispar is provided. © 2014, Polish Forest Society. All rights reserved.

Trzcinska A.-M.,Katedra Ochrony Lasu i Ekologii | Hallmann E.,Katedra Zywnosci Funkcjonalnej i Towaroznawstwa
Sylwan | Year: 2013

The paper discusses the biologically active compounds contained in onion (Allium cepa L.) such as thiosulfinates and other organosulfur compounds, saponins and flavonoids as well as evaluates their biological role. Method for biofungicides preparation, whose essential element is an aqueous extract of onion, and the possibility of its application in forest nurseries are presented. Content of polyphenols (quercetin and its derivatives) in a biopreparation responsible for its biological activity is determined as well.

Mazur S.,Katedra Ochrony Lasu i Ekologii
Annales Zoologici | Year: 2011

The taxonomical and systematic status of the Oriental species of Hister was analyzed. Hister bitumineus is newly described herein. The following new synonyms have been established: H. apicelaevis Desbordes, 1919 = H. metallicus: Lewis, 1885, syn. nov., H. encaustus Marseul, 1854 = H. duplicatus Marseul, 1854, syn. nov., H. inexspectatus Desbordes, 1923 = H. aheneus Cooman, 1938, syn. nov., H. japonieus Marseul, 1854 = H. fessus Marseul, 1862, syn. nov., H. pransus Lewis, 1892 = H. pauli Desbordes, 1916., syn. nov., H. pteromalus Marseul, 1862 = H. divisifrons Schmidt, 1895, syn. nov. = H. brahminius Lewis, 1900, syn. nov. and H. thibetanus Marseul, 1857 = H. sohieri Marseul, 1870, syn. nov. = H. dauphini Lewis, 1905, syn. nov. Lectotypes for some species are designated. All the species are keyed and a general distribution is given for each of them. H. congener Schmidt, 1885 is new to the Oriental (Bhutan) and H. pullatus Erichson, 1834 to the Ethiopian (Ivory Coast) Region. © Fundacja. Natura optima dux.

Mazur S.,Katedra Ochrony Lasu i Ekologii
Annales Zoologici | Year: 2010

A new subgenus, Sulcignathos sub. nov., is erected to include Pachylister baconi, P. luctuosus and P. scaevola. The new following synonyms have been established: P. baconi (Marseul, 1854) = P. assamensis (Marseul, 1857) syn. nov., P. luctuosus (Marseul, 1854) = P. spinipes (Marseul, 1854) syn. nov., All the species of Sulcignathos are keyed and a general distribution is given for each of them. P. baconi is new to Nepal. © Fundacja Natura optima dux.

Structure of 10 Scots pine stands in Nowe Ramuki Forest District was analyzed. The stands were of age from 25 to 220 years. Structure of pine stands younger than 115 years is characterized by low species diversity, low DHB differentiation and regular dispersion of trees. Stands older than 115-135 years show higher species richness, big diameter diversity and random dispersion of trees. Moreover, indices calculated for each stand show higher dispersion in older stands than in younger ones. Structure of old-growth pine stands is similar to natural stands of boreal zone.

Comparison of understory of stands disturbed by hurricane and managed ones allowed to distinguish two phases that include degenerative and regenerative changes. In the first phase, which lasted about 6 years, following processes were observed: chaotic changes in species composition, invasion of exogenous species, increase in cover of Deschampsia flexuosa and Vaccinium vitis-idaea, decrease in moss cover and Vaccinium myrtillus as well. In the second phase changes had opposite direction. Structure of ground flora typical to Scots pine forest was slowly developing. Increasing shade of forest floor, caused by growing shrub layer and regeneration of tree species, was a key factor of the regeneration process.

The paper presents an analysis of abundance of the millipedes (Diplopoda) in the Bialowieza Forest (eastern Poland) regarding habitat moisture and fertility. Mean individual biomass depends mostly on habitat fertility achieving higher values on eutrophic and moist sites. PCA and RDA confirmed observed pattern of relationship between millipedes abundance and site conditions.

During the period from 2003 to 2011 observations of carabid community regression and selected habitat indicators were conducted on 15 plots in stands that had been disturbed by a hurricane and on 15 plots in control stands. Regression of carabid communities delayed 3-4 years was observed, consisting in increases in the number of species and the proportion of xerophilous species and reductions in the percentage of forest fauna and in mean individual biomass. Only after 7 years did these indicators begin to show a tendency in the reverse direction, albeit not very strong, indicating that carabid communities had begun to regenerate.

The paper attempts to valorize the forest ecosystems basing on zooindication method with use of arboreal ants. 2002 specimens, belonging to 17 species, were collected in the 'Lasy Spalsko-Rogowskie' Forest Promotional Complex (central Poland). Deciduous forest habitats (fresh mixed deciduous forest, moist deciduous forest and fresh deciduous forest) turned to be the most preferred, whereas the highest biodiversity was found on the marshy coniferous forest. Two relict and very rare species of the arboreal ants (Dolichoderus quadripunctatus and Camponotus fallax) were recorded for the first time ever.

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