Katedra Ochrony Lasu i Ekologii

Warsaw, Poland

Katedra Ochrony Lasu i Ekologii

Warsaw, Poland
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Aleksandrowicz-Trzclklska M.,Katedra Ochrony Lasu i Ekologii | Szaniawski A.,Katedra Ochrony Lasu i Ekologii | Diez J.J.,University of Valladolid
Sylwan | Year: 2017

Since its initial discovery in 1945, pitch canker caused by Gibberella circinata (anamorph Fusarium circinatum) has become one of the most important pine diseases in the world. It infests 57 pine species (including Pinussyhestris) and Douglas-fir. F. circinatum has been reported in both nurseries and forests on all continents except Australia and Oceania. Both vegetative and reproductive parts of the host plant (i.e. stem, branches, roots, flowers, cones and seeds) can be infected by F circinatum. For mature trees, the main symptoms include bleeding resinous cankers on the stem and branches as well as tree death. In nurseries, F. circinatum causes pre-And post-emergence damping off as well as mortality of older seedlings. Dispersal of fungal spores occurs through air, water splash, soil, insect vectors and translocation of the infected plant material. Currently there are no effective means of controlling pitch canker, although there is ongoing research into using chemical, physical and biological methods, quarantine and breeding for resistance to control this disease. The occurrence of the disease depends mainly on the presence and density of the host species, favorable climatic conditions (especially high humidity), presence of suitable vectoring and wounding agents and various stress factors. Taking into account the above-mentioned factors, threat to Scots pine in Poland should be considered marginal, but it cannot be ruled out completely.


The aim of the study is to present - in the perspective of up to 2030 - plans about deforestation in the area administered by the State Forests, formulated at the level of communes and judged on the level of provinces (voivodeships), as well as plans for land reclamation into forests, formulated at the level of counties. The data was collected in 2013-2014 in a survey, which included the following groups of respondents: mayors of all rural and urban-rural communes, heads of all rural counties and marshals of provinces. According to information provided by 34.4% of communes, it is planned to cease the production on at least 517.1 hectares of forests, located in 64 forest districts. In relation to requests for deforestation, marshals of provinces presented various approach to their assessment, but always within the limits of applicable law. On the other hand, according to the data provided by 57.3% of counties, land reclamation into forests is planned to reach at least 498 hectares in 57 forest districts. Deforestation and forest reclamation affect both the landscape and the level of forest cover of the country. The results show a greater concern of commune heads about deforestation than it is in the case of heads of counties about land reclamation into forests. The balance in these activities proportion would be at least a positive natural, economic and social achievement. The processes of deforestation, afforestation, forest management and land restoration into forests - directly affecting the quality of the landscape - are important for assessing the implementation of the European Landscape Convention in Poland. Taking into account the current level of afforestation in Poland, it is unlikely to achieve the forest cover of 33% by 2050. Therefore, it is important to control the size of deforestation and to increase the scope and pace of land reclamation into forests.


The resilience of forest ecosystems to climate changes such as elevated temperature and frequent drought episodes, strongly depends on how the soil subsystems and its inhabitants responds to these perturbation. The epigeic soil Collembola communities of mature mixed deciduous forest and adjacent young plantation on moderately humid soil were compared in two consecutive years, out of which the second one was marked by significant deficiency of precipitation in growing-season. The study plots were established on the area of experimental forests of Warsaw University of Life Science-SGGW in Rogów (central Poland). The objectives of the study was to assess the sensitivity of forest Collembola communities to drought stress and to check if the reaction depends on stand age. We also aimed to test if an indicator species of climate changes can be appointed. The results showed that three months drought episode had negative impact on forest Collembola communities of mature stands, while communities of young plantation were not affected. The reduction of total abundance of Collembola and clear changes in communities structure in mature stand was detected in the year of lower precipitation. The Collembola communities of young plantation were also significantly transformed, but in result of clear cutting and soil preparation. Therefore, the successional changes were the most evident process in these communities and there were no signs of drought influence. Among the most numerous species in Collembola communities of mature forest Isotomiella minor was appointed as an indicator of drought, because its abundance was drastically reduced in the year of lower precipitation. The small number of specimen of this species in young plantation may also prove its sensitivity to deficiency of humidity in soil. The significantly negative response to drought episode was documented also for Psuedosinella horaki, Micraphorura absoloni and Megalothorax minimus. Our study provided strong evidence that the drought, which lasted only three months, had a detrimental effect on forest Collembola communities.


Mazur S.,Katedra Ochrony Lasu i Ekologii
Annales Zoologici | Year: 2011

The taxonomical and systematic status of the Oriental species of Hister was analyzed. Hister bitumineus is newly described herein. The following new synonyms have been established: H. apicelaevis Desbordes, 1919 = H. metallicus: Lewis, 1885, syn. nov., H. encaustus Marseul, 1854 = H. duplicatus Marseul, 1854, syn. nov., H. inexspectatus Desbordes, 1923 = H. aheneus Cooman, 1938, syn. nov., H. japonieus Marseul, 1854 = H. fessus Marseul, 1862, syn. nov., H. pransus Lewis, 1892 = H. pauli Desbordes, 1916., syn. nov., H. pteromalus Marseul, 1862 = H. divisifrons Schmidt, 1895, syn. nov. = H. brahminius Lewis, 1900, syn. nov. and H. thibetanus Marseul, 1857 = H. sohieri Marseul, 1870, syn. nov. = H. dauphini Lewis, 1905, syn. nov. Lectotypes for some species are designated. All the species are keyed and a general distribution is given for each of them. H. congener Schmidt, 1885 is new to the Oriental (Bhutan) and H. pullatus Erichson, 1834 to the Ethiopian (Ivory Coast) Region. © Fundacja. Natura optima dux.


Mazur S.,Katedra Ochrony Lasu i Ekologii
Annales Zoologici | Year: 2010

A new subgenus, Sulcignathos sub. nov., is erected to include Pachylister baconi, P. luctuosus and P. scaevola. The new following synonyms have been established: P. baconi (Marseul, 1854) = P. assamensis (Marseul, 1857) syn. nov., P. luctuosus (Marseul, 1854) = P. spinipes (Marseul, 1854) syn. nov., All the species of Sulcignathos are keyed and a general distribution is given for each of them. P. baconi is new to Nepal. © Fundacja Natura optima dux.


Structure of 10 Scots pine stands in Nowe Ramuki Forest District was analyzed. The stands were of age from 25 to 220 years. Structure of pine stands younger than 115 years is characterized by low species diversity, low DHB differentiation and regular dispersion of trees. Stands older than 115-135 years show higher species richness, big diameter diversity and random dispersion of trees. Moreover, indices calculated for each stand show higher dispersion in older stands than in younger ones. Structure of old-growth pine stands is similar to natural stands of boreal zone.


Comparison of understory of stands disturbed by hurricane and managed ones allowed to distinguish two phases that include degenerative and regenerative changes. In the first phase, which lasted about 6 years, following processes were observed: chaotic changes in species composition, invasion of exogenous species, increase in cover of Deschampsia flexuosa and Vaccinium vitis-idaea, decrease in moss cover and Vaccinium myrtillus as well. In the second phase changes had opposite direction. Structure of ground flora typical to Scots pine forest was slowly developing. Increasing shade of forest floor, caused by growing shrub layer and regeneration of tree species, was a key factor of the regeneration process.


The paper presents an analysis of abundance of the millipedes (Diplopoda) in the Bialowieza Forest (eastern Poland) regarding habitat moisture and fertility. Mean individual biomass depends mostly on habitat fertility achieving higher values on eutrophic and moist sites. PCA and RDA confirmed observed pattern of relationship between millipedes abundance and site conditions.


During the period from 2003 to 2011 observations of carabid community regression and selected habitat indicators were conducted on 15 plots in stands that had been disturbed by a hurricane and on 15 plots in control stands. Regression of carabid communities delayed 3-4 years was observed, consisting in increases in the number of species and the proportion of xerophilous species and reductions in the percentage of forest fauna and in mean individual biomass. Only after 7 years did these indicators begin to show a tendency in the reverse direction, albeit not very strong, indicating that carabid communities had begun to regenerate.


The paper attempts to valorize the forest ecosystems basing on zooindication method with use of arboreal ants. 2002 specimens, belonging to 17 species, were collected in the 'Lasy Spalsko-Rogowskie' Forest Promotional Complex (central Poland). Deciduous forest habitats (fresh mixed deciduous forest, moist deciduous forest and fresh deciduous forest) turned to be the most preferred, whereas the highest biodiversity was found on the marshy coniferous forest. Two relict and very rare species of the arboreal ants (Dolichoderus quadripunctatus and Camponotus fallax) were recorded for the first time ever.

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