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Samborska K.,Katedra Inzynierii Zywnosci I Organizacji Produkcji
Zywnosc. Nauka. Technologia. Jakosc/Food. Science Technology. Quality | Year: 2010

Enzyme inactivation generated by the spray drying process and attempts to describe both the possible causes and the mechanisms thereof constitute a subject matter of many scientific papers. In the present paper, the analysis of the most important causes of inactivation is presented, and some examples are given to illustrate the mechanisms described. The causes of inactivation include: impact of increased temperature, adverse effect of removing water from the system, adverse effect of protein adsorption on interfacial surface, and mechanical damages. Some methods and mechanism applied to stabilize the enzyme activity during spray-drying are described and exemplified, such as: water replacement, glassy state, and interfacial adsorption. Source


Rafalska U.K.,Samodzielny Zaklad Techniki w Zywieniu | Kaminska-Dworznicka A.,Katedra Inzynierii Zywnosci I Organizacji Produkcji
Zywnosc. Nauka. Technologia. Jakosc/Food. Science Technology. Quality | Year: 2014

The objective of the research study was to compare the effect of adding a kappa carrageenan and its hydrolysates, and a protein type AFP III, which limits the ice crystallization, on the freezing process of model sucrose solutions. There were studied samples of 30 % sucrose solutions without and with those cryo-protective substances added; the samples were frozen at -20 °C using a cryostat. It was proved that the freezing time of the samples with AFP protein added was the longest. Compared to the samples with no additives, the refreezing phase thereof was extended, whereas the time duration of the transition phase was shorter by 12 minutes. The samples with the hydrolyzed kappa carrageenan added got frozen quicker than the samples containing only the kappa carrageenan. On the other hand, that time was similar to the lime of freezing the samples without the biopolymers added. At the same time, the second phase, i.e. the lime of re-freezing the samples with the hydrolysates was extended by 30 minutes compared to the time of refreezing the samples without the polymers added, and it was by 20 minutes longer than the refreezing time of the samples with the carrageenan added. The addition of the hydrolysates and of the kappa carrageenan reduced the time of the transition phase by about 80 %. Each of the substances used caused the cryoscopic temperature to increase by more than 1 °C. © Polskie Towarzystwo Technologόw Żywności, Krakwό 2014. Source


Galus S.,Katedra Inzynierii Zywnosci I Organizacji Produkcji | Lenart A.,Katedra Inzynierii Zywnosci I Organizacji Produkcji
Zywnosc. Nauka. Technologia. Jakosc/Food. Science Technology. Quality | Year: 2011

The objective of the study was to determine the effect of whey protein content amounting to 7 - 10 % in a coating-forming solution on the kinetics of water vapour adsorption by whey coatings formed on the basis of whey protein isolate. The adsorption process was conducted for 20 h in an environment with 75.3 % of relative humidity. The effect of protein on the water vapour adsorption was analyzed by tracing the kinetic curves as a function of time and the water vapour adsorption rate curves as a function of water content. The dependencies between the increases in water content as a function of time were mathematically analyzed and the kinetic curves were described using an exponential equation. The analysis of the equation parameters obtained proved that they very well corresponded to the experimental data. Based on the analysis performed, the effect was shown of the protein content on water vapour adsorption by whey coatings. Source


Ciurzynska A.,Katedra Inzynierii Zywnosci I Organizacji Produkcji | Lenart A.,Katedra Inzynierii Zywnosci I Organizacji Produkcji
Zywnosc. Nauka. Technologia. Jakosc/Food. Science Technology. Quality | Year: 2013

In the paper, the effects are presented of blanching used as a pre-treatment method and of a method of freezing on some selected physical properties of freeze-dried pumpkin. It was shown that every type of pre-treatment favourably impacted the colour, but it caused the water activity, the shrinkage, and the porosity of dried pumpkin to increase compared to non-pre-treated samples. The application of quick freezing reduced the shrinkage and porosity of freeze-dried pumpkin compared to samples frozen using a slow method, but it caused the colour of dried material to essentially deteriorate. The combined method of freezing made it possible to produce dried pumpkins showing the lowest water activity and the lowest difference in colour. Source


Janiszewska E.,Katedra Inzynierii Zywnosci I Organizacji Produkcji | Witrowa-Rajchert D.,Katedra Inzynierii Zywnosci I Organizacji Produkcji | Roj E.,Zaklad Ekstrakcji Nadkrytycznej
Zywnosc. Nauka. Technologia. Jakosc/Food. Science Technology. Quality | Year: 2013

Supercritical micronization is the process that uses a supercritical solvent, usually carbon dioxide, to close active substances in shells. In this paper, the process of supercritical micronization was characterized as were its theoretical basis and methods of performing it. The supercritical micronization process was divided by the supercritical CO2 application technique. The division resulted in selecting the micronization process with the supercritical CO2 applied as a solvent (RESS Rapid Expansion of Supercritical Solution) or as an anti-solvent (SAS Supercritical Anti-Solvent, PGSS Particles from Gas Saturated Solutions, and ASES Aerosol Solvent Extraction System). Any of those processes can be used for the micronization in the food industry. However, until now, the majority of the micronization methods are still tested in laboratories, and only the patented PGSS process was applied on the industrial scale. Source

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