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In recent years increasingly more attention has been devoted to the possibilities of saliva analysis in laboratory diagnostics. The article discusses issues associated with the production of saliva, and contemporary possibilities of its use in the diagnostics and treatment. The benefits of diagnostic application of saliva for laboratory tests instead of blood serum are presented, and current possibilities of its application in the diagnostics of hereditary disorders, autoimmune diseases, infectious diseases, endocrine disorders, as well as in the assessment of therapeutic drug levels and the monitoring of stimulants. Source

Background. During the past decades considerable attention had been paid to demographic changes in the world population leading to continuous increase in average length of life and consequently growing number of older people. The aging of population causes considerable changes in all aspects of the social life, out of which in health care. Objectives. Evaluation of the dental students knowledge of ageing and their perception of elderly people. Material and Methods. 152 dental students of fifth year aged 23-25, out of which 117 women and 35 men before tutors in geriatric dentistry were involved in the study. The knowledge of aging was evaluated with use of Palmore's Facts on Ageing Quiz - FAQ1. In the questionnaire the students' gender and age, the age of their parents, and their grandparents as well as the frequency of contacts with an older individual were considered. Results: The students responded correctly to 55.6% of the all items, and the average respondent replied correctly to 13.9 items. The analysis of the answers in relation to the frequencies of the contacts with an older family member - occasionally or frequently, declared by the students did not reveal any significant differences between the answers to the items, except of the item concerning the percentage of people at the age of 65 or more in the population; significantly more students contacting the older family member occasionally than contacting frequently ones answered correctly to this item (22.0% vs. 5.9%, p < 0.05). The students contacting occasionally answered correctly to 58.6 % of all items and gave the correct answer to 14.6 items on the average. The students contacting frequently with the older person responded on 56.0% and 14.0, retrospectively. Conclusions. The dental student's general knowledge on ageing can be estimated satisfactory. The frequency of contacts with an older family member did not increase the level of knowledge of ageing. © by Wroclaw Medical University. Source

Malicka B.,Katedra i Zaklad Stomatologii Zachowawczej | Kaczmarek U.,Katedra i Zaklad Stomatologii Zachowawczej
Dental and Medical Problems

Background. in the course of diabetes there are many systemic complications of the disease. This complications are caused by hyperglycemia that leads to production of advanced glycation end-products (ages), that accumulate in tissues and blood. These products sensitize endothelial cells and monocytes to stimuli that induce production of inflammatory mediators, causing - among the others - increased permeability of blood vessels and degeneration of collagen, which promotes destruction of connective tissue and bones in periodontium. available data suggest that severe periodontitis is more prevalent at diabetics. Objectives. comparison of periodontal inflammation in patients with type 1 and 2 diabetes, according to the level of metabolic control and duration of diabetic disease. Material and Methods. The dental examination copmrised 156 patients: 34 with type 1 diabetes (group c1), 59 with type 2 diabetes (group c2) and 63 healthy subjects control (group K). periodontal status was assessed using gi and SBi indices in relation to the type of diabetes, level of metabolic control (Hba1c ≤ 8.5% and Hba1c > 8.5%) and disease duration (up to 10 years and above 10 years). Results. The gingival index (gi) values differed significantly between patients with: different type of disease (c1 0.41 ± ± 0.59 vs. c2 0.69 ± 0.57) and its absence (K - 0.35 ± 0.49), metabolic control (normal: 0.30 ± 0.60 vs. 0.58 ± 0.55; invalid: 0.48 ± 0.59 vs. 0.81 ± 0.58) and duration of the disease (up to 10 year: 0.20 ± 0.35 vs. 0.59 ± 0.55; over 10 years: 0.58 ± 0.71 vs. 0.75 ± 0.58). Similar correlation of values showed SBi index, which were respectively: 17.6 ± 31.92%, ± 34.1 ± 38.84% and 15.57 ± 32.54%, 11.63 ± 28.2% vs. 25.92 ± 32.38%, 22.05 ± 34.48% vs. 43.18 ± 43.84%, 17.89% ± ± 8.89 vs. 27.66 ± 33.76% and 24.92 ± 39.08% vs. 37.65 ± 41.42%. assessment of the periodontal status according to cpi showed that the among patients with diabetes type 2 compared with type 1 diabetics there is a lower proportion of patients with: healthy periodontium (13.6% vs. 35.3%), calculus (10.2% vs. 14 7%) and deep pockets (3.4% vs. 5.9%) and higher percentage of bleeding sites (11.0% vs. 5.9%) and superficial pockets (38.9% vs. 29.4%) Conclusions. patients with diabetes, regardless of the type of the disease suffer from greater intensity of inflammation in periodontal tissue compared with healthy controls. The intensity of inflammation in periodontium is significantly higher in patients with type 2 diabetes than with type 1. regardless of the type of diabetes periodontal disease is more intense in subjects with impaired control of disease and longer duration of diabetes. © Wroclaw Medical University and Polish Dental Society. Source

Skladnik-Jankowska J.,Katedra i Zaklad Stomatologii Zachowawczej | Kaczmarek U.,Katedra i Zaklad Stomatologii Zachowawczej
Dental and Medical Problems

Background. Epidemiological studies in dentistry are significant source of knowledge about oral status of the population, particularly the prevalence and distribution of oral diseases and their determinants. Objectives. The aim of the study was to evaluate the dental status and treatment needs in 7-, 12- and 18-year-old children and adolescents living in urban and rural areas of Lower Silesia Region. Material and Methods. 605 subjects aged 7, 12, 18 years, living in 3 different areas of Lower Silesia Region: big town - DM (Wrocław), small town - MM (Trzebnica) and rural - W (villages in Trzebnica and Oborniki Śla{ogonek}skie counties) were examined. The subjects were selected by stratified cluster sampling method. Dental status and treatment needs were examined on the basis of the WHO criteria, with some modification concerning severity of caries lesions in 4 degree WHO scale. Results. The frequency of dental caries in the permanent teeth in 7-year-old children was 39.5%. In the group of 12 and 18 year olds caries frequency in the permanent dentition was 90.0% and 96.1%, respectively. The severity of caries expressed by D2+MF/T index in examined 7 year olds irrespective of region amounted 0.84 ± 1.23, while in 12 year olds was 4.20 ± 2.94, and was significantly higher in rural than in urban areas. In the group of 18 year olds independently on living area, an average 7.51 ± 4.39 teeth were affected by dental caries. The comparison of D1+MF/T index values (including early caries lesions and lesions with lost of hard tissue) and D2+MF/T (including lesions with lost of hard tissue) revealed an increase in the average value of the index 2.5 times in 7 year olds, 1.8 times in 12 year olds children and 1.4 times in 18-year olds adolescents. The strong increasing trend the both D2+MF/T (7 year olds - 0.83 ± 1.23; 12 year olds - 4.20 ± 2.94; 18 year olds - 7.51 ± 4.39) and D1+MF/T (7 year olds - 2.06 ± 2.45; 12 year olds - 7.69 ± 5.00; 18 year olds - 10.41 ± 6.21) was related with age of the examined. The subjects presented high mean number of decayed unrestored teeth (D2+/T) in comparison to number of filled teeth (F/T), which was seen in the values of treatment index showing that the coverage of treatment needs in the group of 7 year olds was 20%, in 12 year olds - 50% and in the 18-year olds - 58%. The assessment of the treatment needs revealed high percentage of subjects requiring one surface or two and more restorations of tooth (7 year olds - 34.0 and 4.5%; 12 year olds - 63.7 i 19.4%; 18 year olds 81.4 and 28.9%), procedures arresting carious process (39.0; 74.1; 73.5%) and fissure sealant (68.0; 59.2; 54.4%). Conclusions. With the age, irrespective of living area of the examined the severity of dental caries and treatment needs increased and recording early carious lesions significantly increased mean number of teeth affected by carious process and the values of DMFT. In all examined, independently on the age and living region there were lots of treatment needs (unrestored dental caries) most frequently concerning 1-surface restorations. In rural area compared to urban regions were observed higher frequency and severity of dental caries and treatment needs among 12-year-old children. © Wroclaw Medical University and Polish Dental Society. Source

Gmyrek-Marciniak A.,Katedra i Zaklad Stomatologii Zachowawczej | Kaczmarek U.,Katedra i Zaklad Stomatologii Zachowawczej
Dental and Medical Problems

The studies on oral health condition in children and adolescents suffering from juvenile idiopathic arthritis have revealed some link with higher prevalence of dental caries, periodontal diseases and changes in salivary flow. Moreover, frequently occurrence of temporomandibular joint disorders and malocclusions has been reported in ill subjects. their teeth condition in aspect of dental caries prevalence (dmf/t and DMFT values, and theirs components), oral hygiene (PlI, API), periodontal condition (GI, mSBI), malocclusions (related to sagittal, vertical and transverse planes) and temporomandibular joint dysfunctions (after Helkimo index) were assessed. Results. No significant differences in dental caries frequency (98.4 vs. 96.9%) and severity (dmft and DMFT values) between ill and healthy subjects were found, with exception the significantly higher DT value in ill subjects (3.42 ± 2.84 vs. 2.36 ± 1.99, p < 0.05). No significant differences in the level of oral hygiene (PlI 1.18 ± 0.48 vs. 1.09 ± 0.57 and API 35.64 ± 16.84% vs. 31.74 ± 17.85%, p > 0,05) was also observed. In ill subjects in comparison to healthy ones the significantly poorer periodontal condition was noticed (GI 0.43 ± 0.34 vs. 0.21 ± 0.19, p < 0.001, mSBI 16.67 ± 13.29% vs. 8.27 ± 8.03%, p < 0.001). Malocclusions related to frontal and horizontal planes occurred significantly frequently in ill subjects in comparison to healthy ones (78.1 vs. 40.6% and 35.9 vs. 4.7%, respectively). Mild and moderate symptoms of TMJ dysfunction (anamnestic score - Ai of Helkimo index) and mild to severe dysfunction of TMJ (clinical dysfunction score - Di of Helkimo index) significantly frequently in ill subjects in comparison to the healthy ones were found (81.2 vs. 29.7%, p < 0.001 and 79.7 vs. 29.7%, p < 0.001, respectively). Conclusions. The subjects suffered from juvenile idiopathic arthritis revealed the higher severity of gingivitis than the healthy ones at the same level of oral hygiene. The higher prevalence of malocclusions and dysfunction of temporomandibular joint in the ill subjects can show the necessity to cover them by the special preventive-therapeutic programme. © Wroclaw Medical University and Polish Dental Society. Source

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