Katedra Farmakognozie a Botaniky

Bratislava, Slovakia

Katedra Farmakognozie a Botaniky

Bratislava, Slovakia
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Grancai D.,Katedra Farmakognozie A Botaniky | Val'Ko V.,Katedra Farmakognozie A Botaniky | Svajdlenka E.,Veterinarni rmaceuticka University
Farmaceuticky Obzor | Year: 2012

The paper deals with the isolation and identification of constituents from light petrol and chloroform extract of the leaves of Philadelphus tenuifolius Rupr. et Maxim., Hydrangeaceae. From the light petrol extract triterpene taraxerol were isolated, stigmasteryl-3-O-β-D-glukozid, umbeliferone and esculine were isolated from the chloroform extract. Isolates were identified by spectral date, comparison with authentical samples and literature date. Mentioned compounds were isolated from Philadelphus tenuifolius Rupr. et Maxim, for the first time.


Nagy M.,Katedra Farmakognozie A Botaniky | Turcani P.,1. Neurologicka Klinika | Mucaji P.,Katedra Farmakognozie A Botaniky
Farmaceuticky Obzor | Year: 2011

Current estimates rank stroke as the third leading cause of death and leading cause of long-term disability in men in economically developed countries. Use of herbal remedies and medicinal teas is one of opportunities to influence positively the pacient health status or to prevent targeted the rise and development of the stroke. Screening or use of herbals and their constituents are based on the same knowledge of the stroke pathophysiology and biochemical processes as for as registered drugs. Review deals with current results with plant isolates (resveratrol, curcumin and (-)-epigalocatechin-3- gallate) and the most used plant drugs. Their complex mechanisms of action in in vitro and in vivo tests support the application of complementary procedures in the prevention and therapy of stroke.


Kurhajec S.,Katedra farmakognozie a botaniky | Kurhajec S.,University of Veterinary And Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno | Sabadkova D.,University of Veterinary And Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno | Franc A.,University of Veterinary And Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno | Vetchy D.,University of Veterinary And Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno
Chemicke Listy | Year: 2017

Plant extracts still constitute a part of commonly used dosage forms, but they can also be understood as raw materials for pharmaceutical industry. The production of extracts is based on the periodic, continuous and semicontinuous methods, which can also be classified as conventional extraction methods (maceration, percolation, infusion, decoction, distillation, Soxhlet extraction, ultrasound assisted extraction and headspace extraction) or modern extraction methods (supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized liquid extraction, microwave assisted extraction, solid phase micro extraction, stir bar sorptive extraction, matrix solid phase dispersion, quick easy cheap rugged effective and safe extraction). The extraction-method efficiency depends on the characteristics of the extracted material (e.g. particle size, ballast materials, thickness of the cell wall), physical factors (e.g. temperature, pressure, microwave, ultrasound), the extraction time, mixing (it influences the concentration gradient), solvent type and the presence of cosolvent. For environmental reasons, it is suitable to produce the extracts by using certain gases in supercritical conditions as solvents (e.g. carbon dioxide, nitrogen) or other generally recognized as safe solvents (e.g. water, propylene glycol) that provide a high yield at a correct methodology. © 2017, Czech Society of Chemical Engineering. All rights reserved.


Fialova S.,Katedra Farmakognozie A Botaniky | Halusova L.,Katedra Farmakognozie A Botaniky | Leitmanova G.,Katedra Farmakognozie A Botaniky | Tekel'ova D.,Katedra Farmakognozie A Botaniky | Grancai D.,Katedra Farmakognozie A Botaniky
Farmaceuticky Obzor | Year: 2011

Microscopic methods help to distinguish the plant genera or species. These methods include quantitative microscopy, in which the results of the observations are expressed numerically and used as auxiliary diacritical marks. In this microscopic work we studied the leaves of Mentha spicata L., Mentha aquatica L., Mentha longifolia (L.) L., Mentha arvensis L., Mentha x gentilis Auct., non L., Mentha x piperita (L.) Huds. The aim was to determine the number and the size of peltate glandular trichomes, which are the key points for production and storage of essential oils in these plants. Plants were collected in the developmental stage of early flowering. The largest size of peltate glandular trichomes was found on leaves of M. x piperita (75.5 to 79.0 μm in diameter) on the contrary, the smallest heads of peltate glands were observed in M. longifolia (55.1 μm). The highest frequency of peltate glands was detected in M. longifolia (12.9/mm2), while the lowest number was recorded for the species M. arvensis and M. spicata (3.6/mm2 and 4.3/mm2). For registered domestic cultivar M. x piperita cv. 'Perpeta' were recorded the size of trichome head 63.2 μm and the number of peltate glands 9/mm2. From the results we can conclude that differences in the frequency of peltate glands and their size on the leaves are not sufficient criterion for interspecies differentiation and identification of Mentha species and refer to the high variability not only between species but also populations of one species.


Mrlianova M.,Katedra Farmakognozie A Botaniky | Tekel'ova D.,Katedra Farmakognozie A Botaniky | Toth J.,Katedra Farmakognozie A Botaniky | Grancai D.,Katedra Farmakognozie A Botaniky
Farmaceuticky Obzor | Year: 2011

This work deals with the comparison of the domestic cultivar of lemon balm Melissa officinalis L. cv. 'Citra' with balms of German (cv. 'Citronella', cv. 'Quedlinburger', and cv. 'Quedlinburger niederliegende') and Swiss (cv. 'Landor') origin. The plants were cultivated in the climatic and edaphic conditions of South-East Slovakia (Bratislava). The first harvest was carried out when plants of the domestic cultivar cv. 'Citra' were at the development stage just before flowering, and a consecutive second harvest of newly grown shoots was carried out in September. We observed an earlier onset of flowering of the German cultivars. The amount of essential oil determined by hydrodistillation was influenced both by plant age, and harvest time, as well as by the origin of plants. The content of essential oil was determined in the range of 0.15% to 0.24% in first harvest samples, and in the range of 0.16% to 0.60% in second harvest samples. Lemon balms of German origin (cv. 'Citronella' and cv. 'Quedlinburger') showed the highest essential oil content in both the studied vegetation periods. The domestic cultivar cv. 'Citra' showed lower oil content in the first, and medium one in the second vegetation year. The content of total hydroxycinnamic derivatives (THD) expressed as rosmarinic acid in lemon balm leaves was determined using a colorimetric method. No significant changes were observed due to the origin, harvest time, nor plant age. The THD content was in the range of 10.3% to 13.6% in first harvest samples, and in the range of 10.1% to 13.0% in second harvest samples. Lowest THD contents were determined in the cv. 'Quedlinburger' cultivar. The cultivar 'Citra' showed medium to higher THD contents.


Czigle S.,Katedra Farmakognozie A Botaniky | Tekel'ova D.,Katedra Farmakognozie A Botaniky | Toth J.,Katedra Farmakognozie A Botaniky | Mrlianova M.,Katedra Farmakognozie A Botaniky
Farmaceuticky Obzor | Year: 2011

Ginkgo biloba L. leaf extract (EGb 761) is found in many phytopharmaceuticals. Major therapeutic indications include disturbances of cerebral functions directly linked to impaired cerebral circulation and peripheral vascular insufficiency. The standardized extract contains 24% ginkgoflavoneglycosides and 6% terpenoids (ginkgolides). Flavonoids constitute the quantitative most significant group of secondary metabolites present in standardised extracts of Ginkgo leaves, and the quantification of their content is the criterion of quality of the herbal drug Ginkgonis folium according to the Ph. Eur. 7 monograph. This work deals with the variability of the content of flavonoids in the course of a vegetation period in dried leaves of different parts of two Ginkgo biloba L. trees. The content of flavonoids was quantified using Römisch's spectrophotometric method with AlCl3 and also using a modified HPLC method based on Ph. Eur. 7. This method uses hydrolysis of the glycosides and the content of aglycons is expressed as rutin as well as a flavone acylglycoside (Mr 756.7). The content of flavonoids in Ginkgonis folium shows characteristic changes in the course of a vegetation period. Higher flavonoid content at the beginning and at the end of a vegetation period and lowest content in September was observed as a rule in our monitored trees. Leaves of Ginkgo biloba L. mainly contain flavonols, most of all derivatives of quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin. The content of flavonoids as determined using the colorimetric method was 1.33-1.55% in leaves of the first tree, and 1.03-1.32% in leaves of the second tree. The HPLC method gave the following content of acylglycosides: 0.60-1.75% in leaves of the first tree, and 0.47-1.84% in leaves of the second tree.


Grancai D.,Katedra Farmakognozie A Botaniky | Fialova S.,Katedra Farmakognozie A Botaniky | Karlovska J.,NMR Laboratorium | Svajdlenka E.,University of Veterinary And Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno
Farmaceuticky Obzor | Year: 2011

The current study builds on previous articles dealing with the isolation and identification of the constituents present in the leaves of mock orange (Philadelphus coronarius L.). The powdered leaves were extracted successively in petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and n-butanol. Methanol extract was partitioned into ethyl acetate and water. Chlorogenic acid was isolated from the methanolic portion and flavonoid quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside from ethyl acetate portion. Both substances were identified using spectral methods, comparing results with standards and literature. Chlorogenic acid and quercetin-3-O- rhamnoside was isolated from Philadelphus coronarius L. for the first time.


Grancai D.,Katedra Farmakognozie a Botaniky | Val'ko V.,Katedra Farmakognozie a Botaniky | Svajdlenka E.,Veterinarni a Farmaceuticka Univerzita v Brne
Ceska a Slovenska Farmacie | Year: 2010

The paper deals with the isolation and identification of secondary metabolites from Mock Orange leaves (Philadelphus coronarius L.). A methanolic extract was partitioned between ethyl acetate and water. Two flavonoids, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside and quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (rutin), were isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction. The substances were identified by spectral methods, comparing results with the standards and literature.


Mucaji P.,Katedra Farmakognozie a Botaniky | Nagy M.,Katedra Farmakognozie a Botaniky | Sersen F.,Comenius University | Svajdlenka E.,Ustav Prirodnich Leciv | And 3 more authors.
Chemicke Listy | Year: 2012

Methanolic extract from leaves of Karwinskia humboldtiana (Schult.) Zucc. was subjected to fractionation with a pair of immiscible solvents and subsequently tested for antioxidant activity. Using DPPH the order of scavenging activities of the extracts in comparison with standards of L-ascorbic acid and quercetin was as follows: ethyl acetate fraction > L-ascorbic acid > quercetin > butan-1-ol > light petrol > chloroform > water. The capability of scavenging OH radicals determined by EPR was as follows: ethyl acetate, chloroform > light petrol > butan-1-ol > water fractions. On the basis of availability and antioxidant activity of these fractions, isolation of constituents from butanol fractions was achieved. Separation of this fraction led to the isolation of (+)-epicatechin and flavonol derivatives - quercetin, quercetin 3-O-glucoside (isoquercitrin), quercetin-3-O-galactoside (hyperosid), quercetin-3-O-ara-binoside, quercetin 3-0-rutinoside (rutin), kaempferol 3-O-arabinoside and kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside. All of them might be responsible for the observed antioxidant effects.


Kurin E.,Katedra farmakognozie a botaniky | Nagy M.,Katedra farmakognozie a botaniky
Chemicke Listy | Year: 2012

The review presents the following methods of quantitative analysis of drug interactions: The Loewe additivity model, Bliss independence model, Webb's fractional products method and the Chou model. Therapeutic synergy is achieved by combining drugs to obtain higher benefits which could not be reached with individual drugs. The synergy improves not only the drug effect, but also leads to a dosage decrease at equal or increased efficacy and finally to reduction or delay of drug resistance as well as reduction of toxic effects. In some cases also a small improvement of drug effects without increasing adverse actions means a great clinical shift even without synergy.

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