Himeidan Y.E.,Kassala University |
Kweka E.J.,Tropical Pesticides Research Institute
Frontiers in Physiology | Year: 2012
East African highlands are one of the most populated regions in Africa. The population densities in the highlands ranged between 158 persons/km 2 in Ethiopia and 410 persons/km 2 in Rwanda. According to the United Nations Population Fund, the region has the world's highest population growth rate. These factors are likely behind the high rates of poverty among the populations. As there were no employment opportunities other than agricultural, this demographic pressure of poor populations have included in an extensive unprecedented land use and land cover changes such as modification of bushland, woodland, and grassland on hillsides to farmland and transformation of papyrus swamps in valley bottoms to dairy pastures and cropland and changing of fallows on hillsides from short or seasonal to longer or perennial. Areas harvested for food crops were therefore increased by more than 100% in most of the highlands. The lost of forest areas, mainly due to subsistence agriculture, between 1990 and 2010 ranged between 8000 ha in Rwanda and 2,838,000 ha in Ethiopia. These unmitigated environmental changes in the highlands led to rise temperature and optimizing the spread and survival of malaria vectors and development of malaria parasites. Malaria in highlands was initially governed by low ambient temperature, trend of malaria transmission was therefore increased and several epidemics were observed in late 1980s and early 2000s. Although, malaria is decreasing through intensified interventions since mid 2000s onwards, these environmental changes might expose population in the highlands of east Africa to an increase risk of malaria and its epidemic particularly if the current interventions are not sustained. © 2012 Himeidan and Kweka.
Ali A.A.A.,Kassala University
Reproductive Health | Year: 2012
Background: Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) or cutting caries legal and bioethical debates and it is practiced in many developing countries. Methods. Random selection of 154 midwives was used for the study during June 2012 and through July 2012 aiming to assess knowledge and attitudes of the midwives towards FGM in Eastern Sudan. Results: A total of 157 midwives enrolled in this study. They had been practicing for 3 - 44 years (mean SD 19.2±10.3). More than two third of them experienced practicing FGM sometime in their life (127/157, 80.9%). There was low level of awareness of types of FGM practice since only 7% (11/157) identified the four types correctly. 53.5% (84/157) identified type 1 correctly while 18.5% (29/157), 17.8% (28/157) and 15.9% (25/157) identified type 2, 3 and 4 as correct respectively. While 30 (19.1%) of the midwives claimed that all types of FGM are harmful, 76.4% (120/157) were of the opinion that some forms are not harmful and 7 (4.5%) reported that all types of FGM are not harmful. Likewise while 74.5% (117/157) of the interviewed midwives mentioned that the FGM is a legal practice only 25.5% (40/117) were of the opinion that FGM is illegal practice. The vast majority of the respondents (64.3%, 101/157) have an opinion that FGM decreases the sexual pleasure. More than half (53.5%, 84/157) of the participants affirmed that FGM does not increase the risk of HIV transmission. High proportion of the respondents (71.3%, 112/157) did not know whether or not infertility could complicate FGM. Conclusions: Thus a substantial effort should be made to discourage the continuation of FGM practice among midwives in Sudan. This might be achieved by improving knowledge and awareness among the midwives and the community. © 2012 Ali; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Ali A.A.A.,Kassala University |
Adam I.,University of Khartoum
Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine | Year: 2011
The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and causes of maternal deaths at Kassala maternity hospital, eastern Sudan during 2005-2009. All maternal deaths during this period were reviewed and classified retrospectively. The medical file of consequent women who were discharged from the same ward in the hospital was reviewed to act as control for the maternal death. There were 132 maternal deaths and 20,485 (644/100,000) live births. Septicemia, preeclampsia/eclampsia, hemorrhage, anemia, viral hepatitis, and malaria were the causes for maternal mortality. Primipare (OR = 3.3, CI = 1.66.9, p = 0.001), lack of antenatal care (OR = 3.9, CI = 1.69.5, p = 0.002), illiteracy (OR = 2.6, CI = 1.44.8, p = 0.002), and rural residence (OR = 2.2, CI = 1.24.1; p = 0.008) were the predictors for maternal death. The levels of maternal education and antenatal attendance should be raised to reduce the high maternal mortality. © 2011 Informa UK, Ltd.
Ali A.A.,Kassala University
BMC public health | Year: 2013
In the developing countries millions of women in the reproductive age who don't use contraceptives prefer to postpone or limit their birth. This indicates their failure to take necessary decision to prevent and avoid unwanted pregnancy. A community-based cross sectional household survey was conducted to investigate unmet need for family planning and associated factors and total demand for family planning in Kassala, Eastern Sudan between 1st May and 31st July 2012. A total of 812 married women were enrolled in this study. Their mean age and parity was 31.8 (7.3) and 3.4 (1.8) respectively. Ever use of contraception was 25.4% (206/812) and 26.2% (213/812) were currently using contraception. Unmet need for spacing was 15.1% while unmet need for limiting was 0.7%. The pregnant and amenorrheic women whose the pregnancy or birth was unwanted and mistimed were 105 (13%) and 130 (16%) respectively. Using Westoff model the total unmet need was estimated as 44.8%. The total demand for family planning was 71%.In logistic regression model, while age, age at marriage, parity, residence and experience of child death were not associated with total unmet need for family planning, women education < secondary level (OR=7.8; CI=5.6-10.9; P=0.00), husband education < secondary level (OR=1.9; CI=1.3-2.6, P = 0.00) and woman's occupation; housewife (OR=4.3; CI=2.5-7.2; P=0.00) were associated with the total unmet need. Unmet need for family planning in Eastern Sudan was significantly higher among women with less than secondary education. Also; it is influenced by couple's educational status and woman's occupation. The results of this study necessitate the need for the programme managers to take into account the concept of reproductive health education.
Ali A.A.,Kassala University
African journal of reproductive health | Year: 2011
This was a cross sectional prospective study carried out in Kassala Maternity Hospital, Eastern Sudan (2008-2011) to investigate the incidence rate and factors associated with delayed presentation in ruptured ectopic pregnancy. The total number of deliveries during the study period was 9578. The total number of ectopic pregnancy was 199 yielding an incidence rate of (1 in 48 deliveries or 20.7 per 1000 deliveries). One hundred eighty six (93.5%) out of these were ruptured ectopic reflecting very low rate of diagnosis (6.5%) before rupture occurred. Maternal educations secondary, parity and history of subfertilty were associated with ruptured ectopic pregnancy (P=0.00, 0.003 and 0.00 respectively). The causes of delay reported by the patients include: 64.5 not aware of the pregnancy, 28% have been seen by health provider but reassure and 7.5% regarded the symptoms not serious enough to ask for care.