Kashan University of Medical Sciences

Kashan, Iran

Kashan University of Medical science and Healthcare is a medical school of Iran. Located in the central city of Kashan, the university was established in 1986.The university has 4 Schools and offers degrees in 23 fields including PhDs and residency degrees for post graduate applicants. The university operates 5 teaching hospitals and over 60 clinics in the city and surrounding areas. Wikipedia.

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Arani J.A.,Kashan University of Medical Sciences
International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning | Year: 2017

Due to the existing extensive curricula of English for Dental Purposes (EDP) courses and absence of enough weekly hours to cover them in Iran, there is a limited insufficient exposure to English to improve students' English communication skills to the levels necessary for their future career. Therefore, there have been needs to appraise the present teaching approaches and reform the configuration and context of EDP classes to yield highest profit for their students. The study was designed to address issues central to the perception and expectations of students in regard the use and the impact of the social medium, WhatsApp. As part of this impression, a spectrum of procedures has been depicted to employ this cross-platform messaging application. This research was conducted among 70 2nd year dentistry students at Kashan University of Medical Sciences, in a course called English for Dental Purposes (EDP). The descriptive research project employing a qualitative and quasiexperimental study was chosen to collect data using a valid and reliable pretestposttest design. Two groups 35 subjects were randomly selected via simple random sampling. The control group was taught by conventional method, while the experimental group was taught through the proposed whatsApp assisted language learning approach in a blended way. A paired t-test was utilized to compare the results of each group and an independent sample t-test was utilized to compare the results in control and experimental group. The f-ratio value is 7.88138; the t-value is 2.80738. The p-value is .006512 and the result is significant at p < .01. Therefore, there are good reasons to think WhatsApp-based method of teaching EDP as a more effective approach than the face to face method . The Likert scale questionnaire descriptively analyzed via SPSS 16.00 version revealed experimental group had generally positive attitudes towards Apps-based teaching of academic materials. This media helps students get to be more capacitated in EDP, advances the class learning of English for Dental Purposes, enhances students' knowledge more satisfactorily, motivates them to gain a positive impact and willingness in their class activities and had resulted in more continuity in study and selfconfidence. So, it deserves considering the incorporation of the new application i.e. WhatsApp effectively in the curriculum of EDP pedagogies as an educational means.

Asemi Z.,Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases | Hashemi T.,Kashan University of Medical Sciences | Karamali M.,Arak University of Medical Sciences | Samimi M.,Kashan University of Medical Sciences | Esmaillzadeh A.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2013

Background: To our knowledge, there is no study that has examined the effects of vitamin D supplementation on metabolic status in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Objective: This study was designed to assess the effects of vitamin D supplementation on metabolic profiles, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and biomarkers of oxidative stress in pregnant women with GDM. Design: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in 54 women with GDM. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive either vitamin D supplements or placebo. Individuals in the vitamin D group (n = 27) received capsules containing 50,000 IU vitamin D3 2 times during the study (at baseline and at day 21 of the intervention) and those in the placebo group (n = 27) received 2 placebos at the same times. Fasting blood samples were collected at baseline and after 6 wk of the intervention to quantify relevant variables. Results: Cholecalciferol supplementation resulted in increased serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations compared with placebo (+18.5 ± 20.4 compared with +0.5 ± 6.1 ng/mL; P < 0.001). Furthermore, intake of vitamin D supplements led to a significant decrease in concentrations of fasting plasma glucose (-17.1 ± 14.8 compared with -0.9 ± 16.6 mg/dL; P < 0.001) and serum insulin (-3.08 ± 6.62 compared with +1.34 ± 6.51 μIU/mL; P = 0.01) and homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance (-1.28 ± 1.41 compared with +0.34 ± 1.79; P < 0.001) and a significant increase in the Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (+0.03 ± 0.03 compared with -0.001 ± 0.02; P = 0.003) compared with placebo. A significant reduction in concentrations of total (-11.0 ± 23.5 compared with +9.5 ± 36.5 mg/dL; P = 0.01) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (-10.8 ± 22.4 compared with +10.4 ± 28.0 mg/dL; P = 0.003) cholesterol was also seen after vitamin D supplementation. Conclusions: Vitamin D supplementation in pregnant women with GDM had beneficial effects on glycemia and total and LDL-cholesterol concentrations but did not affect inflammation and oxidative stress. This trial was registered at www.irct.ir as IRCT201305115623N7. Am J Clin Nutr 2013;98:1425-32. © 2013 American Society for Nutrition.

Asemi Z.,Kashan University of Medical Sciences | Karamali M.,Arak University of Medical Sciences | Esmaillzadeh A.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
Diabetologia | Year: 2014

Aims/hypothesis: This study was designed to assess the effects of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on the metabolic status of pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods: This randomised placebo-controlled trial was performed at maternity clinics affiliated to Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran. Participants were 56 women with GDM at 24-28 weeks' gestation (18 to 40 years of age). Subjects were randomly assigned to receive calcium plus vitamin D supplements or placebo. All study participants were blinded to group assignment. Individuals in the calcium-vitamin D group (n = 28) received 1,000 mg calcium per day and a 50,000 U vitamin D3 pearl twice during the study (at study baseline and on day 21 of the intervention), and those in the placebo group (n = 28) received two placebos at the mentioned times. Fasting blood samples were taken at study baseline and after 6 weeks of intervention. Results: The study was completed by 51 participants (calcium-vitamin D n = 25, placebo n = 26). However, as the analysis was based on an intention-to-treat approach, all 56 women with GDM (28 in each group) were included in the final analysis. After the administration of calcium plus vitamin D supplements, we observed a significant reduction in fasting plasma glucose (-0.89 ± 0.69 vs +0.26 ± 0.92 mmol/l, p < 0.001), serum insulin levels (-13.55 ± 35.25 vs +9.17 ± 38.50 pmol/l, p = 0.02) and HOMA-IR (-0.91 ± 1.18 vs +0.63 ± 2.01, p = 0.001) and a significant increase in QUICKI (+0.02 ± 0.03 vs -0.002 ± 0.02, p = 0.003) compared with placebo. In addition, a significant reduction in serum LDL-cholesterol (-0.23 ± 0.79 vs +0.26 ± 0.74 mmol/l, p = 0.02) and total cholesterol: HDL-cholesterol ratio (-0.49 ± 1.09 vs +0.18 ± 0.37, p = 0.003) and a significant elevation in HDL-cholesterol levels (+0.15 ± 0.25 vs -0.02 ± 0.24 mmol/l, p = 0.01) was seen after intervention in the calcium-vitamin D group compared with placebo. In addition, calcium plus vitamin D supplementation resulted in a significant increase in GSH (+51.14 ± 131.64 vs -47.27 ± 203.63 μmol/l, p = 0.03) and prevented a rise in MDA levels (+0.06 ± 0.66 vs +0.93 ± 2.00 μmol/l, p = 0.03) compared with placebo. Conclusions/interpretation: Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation in women with GDM had beneficial effects on their metabolic profile. Trial registration: www.irct.ir IRCT201311205623N11 Funding: The study was supported by a grant (no. 92110) from Kashan University of Medical Sciences. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

News Article | November 12, 2016
Site: www.sciencedaily.com

For the first time, scientists have shown that probiotics -- beneficial live bacteria and yeasts taken as dietary supplements -- can improve cognitive function in humans. In a new clinical trial, scientists show that a daily dose of probiotic Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium bacteria taken over a period of just 12 weeks is enough to yield a moderate but significant improvement in the score of elderly Alzheimer's patients on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scale, a standard measure of cognitive impairment. Probiotics are known to give partial protection against certain infectious diarrheas, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, eczema, allergies, colds, tooth decay, and periodontal disease. But scientists have long hypothesized that probiotics might also boost cognition, as there is continuous two-way communication between the intestinal microflora, the gastrointestinal tract, and the brain through the nervous system, the immune system, and hormones (along the so-called "microbiota-gut-brain axis"). In mice, probiotics have indeed been shown to improve learning and memory, and reduce anxiety and depression- and OCD-like symptoms. But prior to the present study there was very limited evidence of any cognitive benefits in humans. Here, the researchers, from Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, and Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran, present results from a randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial on a total of 52 women and men with Alzheimer's between 60 and 95 years of age. Half of the patients daily received 200 ml milk enriched with four probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. casei, L. fermentum, and Bifidobacterium bifidum (approximately 400 billion bacteria per species), while the other half received untreated milk. At the beginning and the end of the 12-week experimental period, the scientists took blood samples for biochemical analyses and tested the cognitive function of the subjects with the MMSE questionnaire, which includes tasks like giving the current date, counting backwards from 100 by sevens, naming objects, repeating a phrase, and copying a picture. Over the course of the study, the average score on the MMSE questionnaire significantly increased (from 8.7 to 10.6, out of a maximum of 30) in the group receiving probiotics, but not in the control group (from 8.5 to 8.0). Even though this increase is moderate, and all patients remained severely cognitively impaired, these results are important because they are the first to show that probiotics can improve human cognition. Future research, on more patients and over longer time-scales, is necessary to test if the beneficial effects of probiotics become stronger after longer treatment. "In a previous study, we showed that probiotic treatment improves the impaired spatial learning and memory in diabetic rats, but this is the first time that probiotic supplementation has been shown to benefit cognition in cognitively impaired humans," says Professor Mahmoud Salami from Kashan University, the senior author of the study. Treatment with probiotics also resulted in lower levels of triglycerides, Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL), high-sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hs-CRP) in the blood of the Alzheimer patients, and likewise a reduction in two common measures (called "Homeostatic Model Assessment," HOMA-IR and HOMA-B) of insulin resistance and the activity of the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. "These findings indicate that change in the metabolic adjustments might be a mechanism by which probiotics affect Alzheimer's and possibly other neurological disorders," says Salami. "We plan to look at these mechanisms in greater detail in our next study." Walter Lukiw, Professor of Neurology, Neuroscience and Ophthalmology and Bollinger Professor of Alzheimer's disease at Louisiana State University, who reviewed the study but was not involved in the research, said: "This early study is interesting and important because it provides evidence for gastrointestinal (GI) tract microbiome components playing a role in neurological function, and indicates that probiotics can in principle improve human cognition. This is in line with some of our recent studies which indicate that the GI tract microbiome in Alzheimer's is significantly altered in composition when compared to age-matched controls, and that both the GI tract and blood-brain barriersbecome significantly more leaky with aging, thus allowing GI tract microbial exudates (e.g. amyloids, lipopolysaccharides, endotoxins and small non-coding RNAs) to access Central Nervous System compartments."

Nouri S.,Baqiyatallah Medical Sciences University | Sharif M.R.,Kashan University of Medical Sciences
Hepatitis Monthly | Year: 2014

Background: Controlling parenchymal hemorrhage especially in liver parenchyma, despite all the progress in surgical science, is still one of the challenges surgeons face saving patients' lives and there is a research challenge among researchers in this field to introduce a more effective method. Objectives: This study attempts to determine the haemostatic effect of ferric chloride and compare it with that of the standard method (suturing technique) in controlling bleeding from liver parenchymal tissue. Materials and Methods: In this animal model study 60 male Wistar rats were used. An incision, two centimeters (cm) long and half a cm deep, was made on each rat's liver and the hemostasis time was measured once using ferric chloride with different concentrations (5%, 10%, 15%, 25% and 50%) and then using the control method (i.e. controlling bleeding by suturing). The liver tissue was examined for pathological changes. Results: The hemostasis time of ferric chloride concentration groups was significantly less than that of the control group (P value < 0.001). The pathologic examination showed the highest frequency of low grade inflammation based on the defined pathological grading. Conclusions: Ferric chloride is an effective haemostatic agent in controlling liver parenchymal tissue hemorrhage in an animal model. © 2014, Kowsar Corp.

Asemi Z.,Kashan University of Medical Sciences | Esmaillzadeh A.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
Hormone and Metabolic Research | Year: 2015

This study was designed to assess the effects of Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) eating plan on insulin resistance and serum hs-CRP in overweight and obese women with PCOS. This randomized controlled clinical trial was done on 48 women diagnosed with PCOS. Subjects were randomly assigned to consume either the control (n=24) or the DASH eating pattern (n=24) for 8 weeks. The DASH diet consisted of 52% carbohydrates, 18% proteins, and 30% total fats. It was designed to be rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and low-fat dairy products and low in saturated fats, cholesterol, refined grains, and sweets. Sodium content of the DASH diet was designed to be less than 2 400 mg/day. The control diet was also designed to contain 52% carbohydrates, 18% protein, and 30% total fat. Fasting blood samples were taken at baseline and after 8 weeks intervention to measure insulin resistance and serum hs-CRP levels. Adherence to the DASH eating pattern, compared to the control diet, resulted in a significant reduction of serum insulin levels (-1.88 vs. 2.89 μIU/ml, p=0.03), HOMA-IR score (-0.45 vs. 0.80; p=0.01), and serum hs-CRP levels (-763.29 vs. 665.95 ng/ml, p=0.009). Additionally, a significant reduction in waist (-5.2 vs. -2.1 cm; p=0.003) and hip circumference (-5.9 vs. -1 cm; p<0.0001) was also seen in the DASH group compared with the control group. In conclusion, consumption of the DASH eating pattern for 8 weeks in overweight and obese women with PCOS resulted in the improvement of insulin resistance, serum hs-CRP levels, and abdominal fat accumulation. Clinical trial registration number: www.irct.ir: IRCT201304235623N6. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart. New York.

Soleimani A.,Kashan University of Medical Sciences
Saudi journal of kidney diseases and transplantation : an official publication of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Saudi Arabia | Year: 2014

The prevalence and incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are increasing in developed and developing countries, and this will place an enormous financial burden for health-care systems. The exact reasons of the rising prevalence of ESRD patients are unknown, but it can be attributed to an increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and hypertension as the most common causes of ESRD. However, in contrast to the developed countries, the etiology of ESRD in the significant percent of patients with ESRD in Iran is unknown. In our country, the patients with chronic kidney diseases present themselves to the hospital only when they have severe symptoms of uremia, and, at this time, determining the primary cause of ESRD is often not possible. In addition, although the prevalence and incidence of ESRD are also significantly increasing in Iran in recent years, they are still lower compared with developed countries, which may also be due to poor referral resulting in the under diagnosis of ESRD. The aim of this review is to evaluate the epidemiologic aspects of ESRD in Iran, including demographic data, cause of ESRD, kind of renal replacement therapies implemented and their survival.

Talaei S.A.,Kashan University of Medical Sciences | Salami M.,Kashan University of Medical Sciences
Brain Research | Year: 2013

Postnatal development of the brain relies on genetic codes and sensory inputs. The hippocampus, a well-known area of the brain involved in learning and memory, receives indirect sensory signals through the entorhinal cortex. Stimulating perforant path (PP) excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) were recorded in dentate gyrus (DG) and CA1 area of hippocampus of the light (LR) and dark (DR) reared rats at 2 (2W), 6 (6W) and 10 weeks (10W) of postnatal age. Then, the PP was tetanized to induce LTP in both sites of recording. We found a developmental decrease in the amplitude of baseline EPSPs in either DG or CA1 area in the LR rats; opposite was the case in their DR counterparts. Potentiation level in both the CA1 and DG was lower in the DR compared to LR animals. Also, the magnitude of LTP was site-dependent where the degree of LTP was considerably higher in the CA1 compared to the DG in either LR or DR rats. We concluded that: (a) visual signals are necessary for setting the basic activity of hippocampus to mature status, (b) visual deprivation negatively influences NMDA receptor-dependent hippocampal plasticity, (c) the CA1 and DG similarly respond to the sensory deprivation and (d) generally, LTP is weaker in the DG; irrelevant to degree of visual inputs to brain. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Adib-Hajbaghery M.,Kashan University of Medical Sciences | Hoseinian M.,Kashan University of Medical Sciences
Complementary Therapies in Medicine | Year: 2014

Objectives: Studies show that medical staff in different countries have different attitudes toward traditional and complementary medicine. Therefore, the current study aimed to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice of complementary and traditional medicine by medical staff of Kashan, Iran. Design: A cross-sectional study was performed. Setting: A total of 378 questionnaires were distributed among health care team members in Kashan University of Medical Sciences in 2012. The questionnaire was consisted of 5 questions regarding demographic characteristics and 12 questions on knowledge, attitude and practice of traditional and complementary medicine. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: In total, 309 questionnaires were returned and 302 questionnaires were analyzed. Among the participants, 60.9% were female. The mean age of subjects was 29.70. ±. 9.28 years. Totally, 88.4% of the participants had no previous education on complementary and traditional medicine, and 77.8% showed interest to learn in this area. Also, 57.6% of participants had the experience of personal use of complementary and traditional therapies. The commonly used methods were: herbal therapy, cupping and traditional bathing. Participants used traditional medicine mostly for digestive diseases, colds, migraine and headaches, skin disorders, losing weight, and diabetes. Moreover, 56% of participants had recommended complementary and traditional therapies to the others. Conclusions: Most of the participants had low level knowledge on complementary and traditional medicine, but expressed their interest to learn in this field. Therefore, training health care team members and especially nurses and doctors on the applications, benefits and side effects of complementary and traditional medicine is recommended. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Barzegar M.,Kashan University of Medical Sciences | Sajjadi F.S.,Kashan University of Medical Sciences | Talaei S.A.,Kashan University of Medical Sciences | Hamidi G.,Kashan University of Medical Sciences | Salami M.,Kashan University of Medical Sciences
Hippocampus | Year: 2015

Sound pollution is known as an annoying phenomenon in modern life. Especially, development of organisms during fetal life is more sensitive to environmental tensions. To address a link between the behavioral and electrophysiological aspects of brain function with action of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in stressed animals, this study was carried out on the male Wistar rats prenatally exposed to sound stress. Groups of pregnant rats were exposed to noise stress for 1, 2, and 4 hour(s). The degree of anxiety and the spatial memory were evaluated by elevated plus maze and Morris water maze, respectively. Basic synaptic activity and long-term potentiation (LTP) induction were assessed in the CA3-CA1 pathway of hippocampus. The serum level of corticosterone was measured in the pregnant mothers and the offspring. The behavioral experiments appeared that the stressed animals performed considerably weaker than the control rats. The prenatal stress negatively affected the basic synaptic responses and led to a lower level of LTP. The pregnant animals showed an increased serum corticosterone in comparison with the nonpregnant females. Also the offspring exposed to the noise stress had a more elevated level of corticosterone than the control rats. Our findings indicate that the corticosterone concentration changes markedly coincides the results of behavioral and electrophysiological experiments. We conclude that, similar to other environmental stresses, the sound stress during fetal life efficiently disturbs both cognitive abilities and synaptic activities. The changes in action of HPA axis may contribute to problems of the brain function in the prenatally stress exposed animals. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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