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Khomkaew S.,Srinakharinwirot UniversityNakhon Nayok | Bunyawanihakul P.,Srinakharinwirot UniversityNakhon Nayok | Chaorakam I.,Kasetsart UniversityNakhon Pathom
Journal of the International Society for Southeast Asian Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2016

This paper attempts to demonstratethe performance of a sugarcane planter at the Agricultural Machinery Center, Kasetsart University Research from April 2014 to March 2015 with minimum tillage resulting from a slippery sliding rate (slip %), drawbar pull, drawbar power and PTO power as varied by the different densities of residues at 0, 2, 4, and 6 ton/ha and 2 depth levels of soil at 10 cm and 20 cm. The test was done over one and two rounds in the crop field, after the final sugarcane harvesting, with a moisture content of 22.115% (bulk density) and 19.202 % (bulk density). It was discovered that the fuel consumption rate of the sugarcane planter was at125 m/l at a tractor velocity of 3.2616 km/hr, the slippery sliding rate at 4.44 %, the draft (pulling) of lower link and top link at 8.30 kW, PTO power at 16.56 kW. The performance and total power of the sugarcane planter with minimum tillage resulted from the depth level of the soil opener and the different densities of the sugar cane leaf residues at 0 2 4 and 6 ton/ha and depth level of the soil to affect performance of the sugarcane planter. Therefore, the angle of subsoil opener should be reduced to less than 31 degrees to reduce the effect of soil resistance. © 2016, International Society for Southeast Asian Agricultural Sciences. All Rights Reserved.


Taesakul P.,Kasetsart UniversityNakhon Pathom | Taesakul P.,Postharvest Technology Innovation Center | Siriphanich J.,Kasetsart UniversityNakhon Pathom | Siriphanich J.,Postharvest Technology Innovation Center | And 2 more authors.
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2015

Longkong (Lansium domesticum) fruit grows in bunches and is also sold as bunches. Individual fruit can separate from the bunch both before and after commercial harvest. The fruit has two separation sites. The first is located between bracts on the stem and the fused sepals (separation zone 1: SZ1) and the second between the fused sepals and the fruit (separation zone 2: SZ2). True abscission occurred at both zones. We investigated whether the two zones were active at different stages of development and if they were differentially sensitive to ethylene. Abscission occurred in the SZ1 in very young fruit (fruit still at the ovary stage), during early fruit development (5 weeks after full bloom; WAFB), and in ripe and overripe fruit (15-17 WAFB). Abscission did not spontaneously occur in the SZ2, but by the time the fruit was fully ripe, 15 WAFB, and later, a slight mechanical force was sufficient to break this zone. In fruit bunches severed from the tree at 5, 8, and 13 WAFB, break strength (BS) in SZ1 decreased much more after exogenous ethylene treatment than that in SZ2. Ethylene induced abscission in the SZ1, but not in SZ2. At 5, 8, and 13 WAFB, treatment with 1-methylcyclopropane (1-MCP; an inhibitor of ethylene perception) had a small effect on BS in the SZ1 and no effect in the SZ2. It is concluded that abscission in the SZ1 was much more sensitive to ethylene than that in the SZ2. In intact plants SZ1 reacts to endogenous ethylene, e.g., as a result of stress, while SZ2 apparently allows animals to remove the ripe fruit from the tree with minimal force. © 2015 Pontiggia, Ciarcianelli, Salvi, Cervone, De Lorenzo and Mattei.


Takahashi Y.,Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science | Iseki K.,Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science | Kitazawa K.,University of Tokyo | Muto C.,Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science | And 4 more authors.
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2015

Genus Vigna comprise several domesticated species including cowpea and mungbean, and diverse wild species. We found an introgressive hybrid population derived from two wild species, Vigna umbellata and Vigna exilis, in Ratchaburi district, Thailand. The hybrid was morphologically similar to V. umbellata but habituated in a limestone rock mountain, which is usually dominated by V exilis. Analyzing simple sequence repeat loci indicated the hybrid has undergone at least one round of backcross by V. umbellata. We found the hybrid acquired vigorous growth from V. umbellata and drought tolerance plus early flowering from V exilis, and thus has taken over some habitats of V. exilis in limestone karsts. Given the wide crossability of V. umbellata, the hybrid can be a valuable genetic resource to improve drought tolerance of some domesticated species. © 2015 Takahashi, Iseki, Kitazawa, Muto, Somta, Irie, Naito and Tomooka.


Boontham T.,Kamphaeng Saen | Naritoom C.,Kasetsart UniversityNakhon Pathom
Journal of the International Society for Southeast Asian Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2015

Blunt-headed burrowing frog (BhBF) (Glyphoglossus molossus) is currently a species at risk of extinction because people catch them for food and also sell them in the marketplace for profit. The objectives of this study were to investigate BhBF nature and to develop the raising method of BhBF in sustainable agricultural system. The experiments were conducted in 2 areas of naturally ecological system; Area 1) Nong Thaag Laan village no. 5, Huay Mon Thong sub-district and Area 2) Kasetsart University, Kamphaeng Saen Campus (KU KPS). Both areas are located in Kamphaeng Saen district, Nakhon Pathom province, Thailand and the experiments were conducted from May 2012 to June 2014. The BhBF breeding trial started with the tadpoles aged 5 days and continued to the age of 20 days which was carried out in 80-cm diameter cement ponds. The density rate of 1,200 tadpoles/pond gave the highest growth with the average length of 2.79 cm. It is not significantly different from the density rate of 1,500 tadpoles/pond (average length of 2.63 cm) but significantly different from the density rates of 1,800 (average length of 2.34 cm) and 2,100 tadpoles/pond (average length of 2.38 cm). No difference in the tadpole length was found between the density rates of 1,800 and 2,100 tadpoles/pond. The tadpole in the density rate of 1,200 tadpoles/pond condition weighed the heaviest (7.61 g) and was significantly different from the tadpoles in other conditions, the density rates of 1,500 (6.25 g), 1,800 (4.71 g) and 2,100 tadpoles/pond (5.60 g), at p<0.0001. No difference in tadpole weight was found between the groups with the density rate of 1,800 (4.71 g) and 2,100 tadpoles/pond (5.60 g). The highest survival rate of BhBF tadpoles was observed in the density rate of 1,800 tadpoles/pond condition and the survival rate is significantly higher than other conditions at p<0.0012. The length of BhBFs from the density rates of 1,200 and 1,500 tadpoles/pond were different from the length of BhBF at the density rates of 1,800 and 2,100 tadpoles/pond. Even though the breeding of BhBFs with the lowest density rate gave the highest lengths and weights, it had the lowest survival rate, hence, it was not recommended. In the Area 1, farmers could catch BhBFs up to 1.5 kg (about 20-30 BhBFs) after one year. In the Area 2, the researcher found that about 20-30 BhBFs had mated and spawned their eggs in a pond 1 year later. © 2015 International Society for Southeast Asian Agricultural Sciences. All rights reserved.


Donjadee S.,Kasetsart UniversityNakhon Pathom | Tingsanchali T.,Asian Institute of Management
Agriculture and Natural Resources | Year: 2016

This research investigated the performance of mulching using rice straw mulch (RC) and vetiver grass clippings as mulch (VGM) in reducing soil loss and runoff during the early stages of cultivation on an agricultural area. The effects of the rainfall intensity and mulch rate in conserving runoff and trapping sediment were determined by field experiments on land with a steep 30% slope. Three rainfall intensities of 35 mm/h, 65 mm/h and 95 mm/h were applied using an artificial rainfall simulator. The effects of five mulch rates (1.0, 1.5, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 t/ha) with conventional tillage were compared with un-mulched treatment. Both VGM and RC showed good potential for reducing runoff and soil loss. For a given rainfall intensity of 65 mm/h and a mulch rate of 1.5 t/ha, RC reduced runoff and soil loss less than VGM. For higher mulch rates, RC performed better than VGM. For example, at the 5.0 t/ha mulch rate, RC reduced runoff and soil loss by about 47.5% and 62.9%, respectively, compared to VGM with a corresponding reduction of 42.4% and 53.7%, respectively. It is recommended that application of 5.0 t/ha of RC or 7.5 t/ha of VGM is the most suitable for soil and water conservation. © 2016 Kasetsart University


Saeng-Chuto K.,Kasetsart University | Thayananuphat A.,Kasetsart UniversityNakhon Pathom | Thayananuphat A.,Kasetsart University | Sritrakoon N.,Kasetsart University | Nimsuphan B.,Kasetsart University
Tropical Biomedicine | Year: 2016

In Thailand, five species of Ehrlichia (E. canis, E. chaffeensis, E. equi, E. risticii and Anaplasma platys) have been reported to infect dogs. Although ehrlichial infections can cause ocular disorders, the severity and type of ocular disorder varies between individual infected dogs. The aims of this study were to determine the factors associated with retinal detachment and to investigate the species of Ehrlichia that cause ocular disorders in natural infected dogs. In the present study, ocular examination, complete blood count and total protein measurement were performed in 134 dogs brought into an ophthalmology clinic. A 310 bp fragment of the Ehrlichia 16s rRNA gene was amplified by nested-PCR and direct DNA sequenced. Thirty-eight of these dogs were found to be positive for Ehrlichia 16s rRNA, of which the sequence analysis suggested 34 and 4 dogs were infected with E. canis and A. platys, respectively, with no multiple infections or other Ehrlichia species detected. The most common ocular disorders in dogs infected with E. canis were blindness, keratoconjunctivitis sicca and retinal detachment, while blindness and retinal detachment were found in A. platys-infected dogs. Hematological disorders were found anemia, thrombocytopenia and hyperproteinemia. Odd ratio analysis showed that thrombocytopenia and anemia were likely important factors for increasing retinal detachment risk. In this study, only E. canis and A. platys closely relate to be causative agents of ocular disorders in infected dogs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of A. platys as a causative pathogen of both anterior and posterior uveitis in clinical situations. © 2016, Malaysian Society for Parasitology. All rights reserved.


Sunpapao A.,Prince of Songkla University | Pitaloka M.K.,Prince of Songkla University | Arikit S.,Kasetsart UniversityNakhon Pathom | Arikit S.,National Science and Technology Development Agency
Biodiversitas | Year: 2016

Algal leaf spot disease of Nephelium lappaceum (rambutan) was observed in southern Thailand. The algae were isolated on Bold’s basal medium (BBM) and identified based on appearance of the lesions, algal morphology and molecular properties. Characteristics of the filamentous thallus cells, sporangiophores, sporangia, gametes and zoospores were clarified. A portion of the 18S small subunit rRNA was amplified to validate the morphological identification by sequence similarity. To summarize the main results, the plant parasite causing algal leaf spot was identified as Cephaleuros virescens, and in sequencing-based phylogenetic analysis the Cephaleuros PSU-R5.1 isolate from rambutan grouped with the algae in genus Cephaleuros. This confirms C. virescens as a causal organism of algal leaf spot disease on rambutan in southern Thailand. © 2016, Society for Indonesian Biodiversity. All rights reserved.


Terdwongworakul A.,Postharvest Technology Innovation Center | Burns P.,Kasetsart UniversityNakhon Pathom | Burns P.,Postharvest Technology Innovation Center | Wichchukit S.,Kasetsart UniversityNakhon Pathom | And 5 more authors.
Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal | Year: 2016

This research investigated an objective technique for the classification of papaya varieties based on crispiness. Five varieties of papaya were sampled with variation in crispiness. The papaya samples were mechanically tested using texture profile analysis and rectangular blade cutting methods. Discriminant analysis based on the mechanical properties measured using rectangular blade cutting was performed to develop a classification model. The obtained discriminant model was capable of classifying the papaya samples into five different groups with an accuracy of 82.4%. © 2016, Int. Comm. of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering. All rights reserved.


Somta P.,Kasetsart UniversityNakhon Pathom | Chankaew S.,Khon Kaen University | Kongjaimun A.,Kasetsart UniversityNakhon Pathom | Srinives P.,Kasetsart UniversityNakhon Pathom
Agrivita | Year: 2015

Mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) is a socio-economically important legume crop of Asia. Varieties with large seed size and early maturity are preferred in commercial production. This study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling seed weight and days to flowering in mungbean. The mapping population comprises 155 F2-derived lines from a cross between Kamphaeng Saen 1 (large-seeded and early flowering) and V4718 (small-seeded and late flowering). The F2 population was analyzed with 67 simple sequence repeat markers. The F2:3 families were evaluated for 100-seed weigh and days to flowering in two years, 2008 (one season) and 2011 (two seasons). Composite interval mapping identified six QTLs for 100-seed weight and 5 QTLs for days to flowering. Three genomic regions harbored QTLs for both seed weight and days to flowering, revealing association between the two traits. Comparison of QTLs for both traits found in this study with those reported in azuki bean [Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi & Ohashi] and rice bean [Vigna umbellata (Thunb.) Ohwi & Ohashi] revealed that several QTLs are conserved among the three Vigna species. © 2015, Agriculture Faculty Brawijaya University. All rights reserved.


Laksana C.,Kasetsart University | Chanprame S.,Kasetsart University | Chanprame S.,Kasetsart UniversityNakhon Pathom
Journal of the International Society for Southeast Asian Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2015

Oil palm leaves are rich in phenolic compounds, polysaccharides and secondary metabolites. These compounds cause difficulty when high quality RNA isolation for gene expression analysis is required. In an attempt to rapidly isolate high-quality RNA from young and mature oil palm leaf, we compared various protocols: the standard protocol, modified protocols, and RNA extraction kits. Our modified protocol has proven to be far better than said protocols for isolating RNA from both types of leaf. This modified method can reduce time, the whole process can be completed within 1.5 h. RNA analyzed spectrophotometrically showed high purity (A260/280=1.9) and high concentration (2,877 ng/ul). Electrophoresis analysis on denaturing formaldehyde agarose gels confirmed the presence of high integrity RNA containing multiple ribosomal bands. Using the extracted RNA, as a template, a fragment of the Actin and BOR genes were successfully amplified by RT-PCR. A cDNA library was also successfully constructed, using extracted RNA as a template. The extracted RNA, using our modified protocol, could be kept at -80oC for at least 24 months without degradation. This indicates that the modified protocol is suitable for RNA isolation from young and mature oil palm leaf and also for further applications. © 2015, International Society for Southeast Asian Agricultural Sciences. All rights reserved.

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