Hardeland R.,University of Gottingen |
Cardinali D.P.,Pontifical Catholic University of Argentina |
Srinivasan V.,Educational and Research Foundation |
Srinivasan V.,Karpagam University |
And 3 more authors.
Progress in Neurobiology | Year: 2011
Melatonin, the neurohormone of the pineal gland, is also produced by various other tissues and cells. It acts via G protein-coupled receptors expressed in various areas of the central nervous system and in peripheral tissues. Parallel signaling mechanisms lead to cell-specific control and recruitment of downstream factors, including various kinases, transcription factors and ion channels. Additional actions via nuclear receptors and other binding sites are likely. By virtue of high receptor density in the circadian pacemaker, melatonin is involved in the phasing of circadian rhythms and sleep promotion. Additionally, it exerts effects on peripheral oscillators, including phase coupling of parallel cellular clocks based on alternate use of core oscillator proteins. Direct central and peripheral actions concern the up- or downregulation of various proteins, among which inducible and neuronal NO synthases seem to be of particular importance for antagonizing inflammation and excitotoxicity. The methoxyindole is also synthesized in several peripheral tissues, so that the total content of tissue melatonin exceeds by far the amounts in the circulation. Emerging fields in melatonin research concern receptor polymorphism in relation to various diseases, the control of sleep, the metabolic syndrome, weight control, diabetes type 2 and insulin resistance, and mitochondrial effects. Control of electron flux, prevention of bottlenecks in the respiratory chain and electron leakage contribute to the avoidance of damage by free radicals and seem to be important in neuroprotection, inflammatory diseases and, presumably, aging. Newly discovered influences on sirtuins and downstream factors indicate that melatonin has a role in mitochondrial biogenesis. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
Santhi T.,Karpagam University |
Manonmani S.,PSG College of Technology |
Smitha T.,Karpagam University
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2010
The use of low-cost, locally available, highly efficient and eco-friendly adsorbents has been investigated as an ideal alternative to the current expensive methods of removing dyes from wastewater. This study investigates the potential use of activated carbon prepared from the epicarp of Ricinus communis for the removal of malachite green (MG) dye from simulated wastewater. The effects of different system variables, adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, pH and contact time were investigated and optimal experimental conditions were ascertained. The results showed that as the amount of the adsorbent increased, the percentage of dye removal increased accordingly. Optimum pH value for dye adsorption was 7.0. Maximum dye was sequestered within 50min of the start of every experiment. The adsorption of malachite green followed the pseudo-second-order rate equation and fits the Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) and Tempkin equations well. The maximum removal of MG was obtained at pH 7 as 99.04% for adsorbent dose of 1g50mL-1 and 25mgL-1 initial dye concentration at room temperature. Activated carbon developed from R. communis can be an attractive option for dye removal from diluted industrial effluents since test reaction made on simulated dyeing wastewater showed better removal percentage of MG. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.
Varun S.,Karpagam University |
Sellappa S.,Karpagam University
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2014
Objective: To assess the in vitro anticancer activity of A. mexicana mediated gold nanoparticles on MCF-7 breast cancer cells.Methods: The present study reveals the synthesis and characterization of gold nanoparticles from aqueous extract of Argemone mexicana L. by biological method. UV-Vis spectroscopy, XRD, FT-IR, SEM and TEM analyses revealed that green synthesized gold nanoparticles were 26 ± 5 nm in size and spherical in shape. MCF- 7 Breast cancer cells were treated with different concentrations of green synthesised gold nanoparticles at different time intervals. Cytotoxicity activity and the mechanism of apoptosis were determined by morphological and chromatin cleavage assays.Results: Green synthesised gold nanoparticles showed dose-dependent cytotoxic and apoptotic effect in MCF-7 breast cancer cells at concentration of 100 μg/mL.Conclusion: The present investigation showed that Argemone mediated gold nanoparticles may be an alternative chemotherapeutic agent for treatment of breast cancer. © 2014, IJPPS. All rights reserved.
Nath S.S.,Karpagam University
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2013
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the major public health problems worldwide, mainly due to the appearance of drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains that render TB control programs more cumbersome. Objective: Diagnostic tests which are rapid, sensitive and specific for the identification of causative agent are required for successful health programs focussing disease control. Many diagnostic tools have been developed to improvise the need for rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis. Techniques that are sensitive and specific to detect M. tuberculosis in clinical samples are important for the diagnosis of patients with tuberculosis. Methods: Ten clinical isolates were collected from patients clinically confirmed with TB and were enrolled into the study and tested for the presence of M. tuberculosis by Ziehl-Neelsen smear and LJ culture. KUMT09 was selected based on the biochemical and morphological characteristics. It was further subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing. In this study, sera of 200 patients were evaluated for the presence of antibodies against soluble extract and culture filtrate antigens by ELISA assay and compared with commercially available ELISA kit. Results: KUMT09 was selected based on the biochemical and morphological characteristics. 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed ~ 99 % similarity with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in NCBI database. The sequence was deposited at GenBank with accession no. JQ394980. Out of 200 sera samples, 149 sera samples appeared to be positive for tuberculosis infection by using in-house developed ELISA methodology where as 168 sera samples appeared to be positive for tuberculosis infection by using commercially available ELISA kit. The sensitivity of the in-house developed ELISA kit was found to be 88.7 %. Conclusion: The assay was simple, rapid and economical for the detection of M. tuberculosis infection and suitable for large scale screening of samples in endemic areas without any sophisticated equipment.
Stanly Pradeep F.,Karpagam University |
Pradeep B.V.,Karpagam University
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2013
Objective: This study aimed at improving the medium composition for efficient and economical production of pigment and mycelial biomass from the native isolates of Fusarium moniliforme by submerged culture. Methods: The effect of cultural conditions like different production medium, temperatures, pH, incubation period, carbon sources, nitrogen sources, amino acids and metal salts on pigment and biomass production were studied. Results: The optimum productivity of the pigment and biomass was achieved with optimized process parameters containing potato dextrose broth (PDB 2% w/v), temperature (28°C), pH (5.5), incubation period (8 days), carbon source (glucose 2% w/v), nitrogen source (peptone 1% w/v), amino acid (methionine 0.5%) and metal salts (KH2PO4 0.5%). Conclusion: We hope that the intensive study on the pigment constituents from Fusarium moniliforme will lead to the discovery of a novel pharmaceutical and insecticidal property.
Thangamani A.,Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati |
Thangamani A.,Karpagam University
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2010
Reaction of (E)-3-aryl-1-(thiophen-2-yl)prop-2-en-1-ones with azomethine ylide (generated in situ via decarboxylative condensation of isatin with l-proline) in refluxing methanol afforded 1′-(aryl)-2′-(2- thienylcarbonyl)-spiro[3H-indole-3,3′-[3H]pyrrolizin]-2-ones as the sole product in a regiospecific manner. The synthesized compounds have been characterized by their elemental, analytical and spectral studies. The synthesized compounds were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities against a spectrum of microbial organisms. These studies proved that compounds 1′-(p-chlorophenyl)-2′-(2-thienylcarbonyl)-spiro[3H- indole-3,3′-[3H]pyrrolizin]-2-one (4b), 1′-(p-fluorophenyl)- 2′-(2-thienylcarbonyl)-spiro[3H-indole-3,3′-[3H]pyrrolizin]-2-one (4d) and 1′-(p-methoxyphenyl)-2′-(2-thienylcarbonyl)-spiro[3H- indole-3,3′-[3H]pyrrolizin]-2-one (4h) against Staphylococcus aureus, 1′-(p-chlorophenyl)-2′-(2-thienylcarbonyl)-spiro[3H-indole-3, 3′-[3H]pyrrolizin]-2-one (4b), 1′-(p-methylphenyl)-2′-(2- thienylcarbonyl)-spiro[3H-indole-3,3′-[3H]pyrrolizin]-2-one (4c) and 1′-(p-fluorophenyl)-2′-(2-thienylcarbonyl)-spiro[3H-indole-3, 3′-[3H]pyrrolizin]-2-one (4d) against Salmonella typhi show maximum inhibition potency at low concentration (6.25 μg/mL) whereas 4d against Candida albicans and 4b and 4d against Rhizopus sp. showed beneficial antifungal activity at minimum concentration. © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Sangeetha G.,Karpagam University |
Rajeshwari S.,Karpagam University |
Venckatesh R.,Government of Tamilnadu
Materials Research Bulletin | Year: 2011
Biological methods for nanoparticle synthesis using microorganisms, enzymes, and plants or plant extracts have been suggested as possible ecofriendly alternatives to chemical and physical methods. In this paper, we report on the synthesis of nanostructured zinc oxide particles by both chemical and biological method. Highly stable and spherical zinc oxide nanoparticles are produced by using zinc nitrate and Aloe vera leaf extract. Greater than 95% conversion to nanoparticles has been achieved with aloe leaf broth concentration greater than 25%. Structural, morphological and optical properties of the synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized by using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, FTIR, Photoluminescence, SEM, TEM and XRD analysis. SEM and TEM analysis shows that the zinc oxide nanoparticles prepared were poly dispersed and the average size ranged from 25 to 40 nm. The particles obtained have been found to be predominantly spherical and the particle size could be controlled by varying the concentrations of leaf broth solution. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Natarajan S.B.,Karpagam University
Current drug delivery | Year: 2013
A melt dispersion technique was employed to prepare ofloxacin lipospheres, by using cetyl alcohol (polar lipid). Effects of various process parameters such as selection of surfactants (gelatin, Tween 40 and poly vinyl alcohol) and selection of stirring speed were studied. Lipospheres were evaluated for morphology, drug entrapment and in vitro drug release profiles. The optimized liposphere batch was selected and formulated as tablets and evaluated the in vitro drug release profile. These studies showed that ofloxacin loaded lipospheres were able to control the drug release for a period of 16h.
Padmanabhan K.K.,Karpagam University
Energy and Buildings | Year: 2013
The velocity of wind in an urban location is comparatively lower than in rural or semirural locations. This paper deals with the study of a new methodology to increase the wind speed and power output of small turbines located in urban areas. The new methodology is adopted based on TRIZ (Theory of Solving Inventive Problems) principles. This idea was obtained from the different shapes adopted for the Roof Tops of Buildings at various locations. The methodology used here studies the impact of monoslide roof shape on wind speed using CFD. Majority of buildings in India have Flat Roofs. So, the paper suggests the use of adjustable roof so that the roofs could be tilted at various angles. The present study gives a diagrammatical representation of the new method and an analysis using CFD. Measuring the velocity of wind at an urban location at various altitudes and at various locations of the buildings is a complex task. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is already a necessary tool for modelling the wind over complex urban terrains. This study underlines a system to reduce the passiveness and idle time of wind turbines located in buildings. That could make the urban wind turbine more agile and active for higher power generation and resource utilization. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Jeyakumar R.P.S.,Karpagam University |
Chandrasekaran V.,Salem College
International Journal of Industrial Chemistry | Year: 2014
Background: Adsorption of lead(II) ions onto activated carbons prepared from the marine green Ulva fasciata sp. (CCUC, SSUC and SCUC) and commercially activated carbon (CAC) was investigated with the variation in the parameters of pH, contact time, lead(II) ions concentration and the adsorbent dose. The Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin models have been applied. Results: Results showed that the adsorption process was better described by the Langmuir model. Adsorption kinetics data obtained for the metal ions sorption were investigated using reversible first order, pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and intraparticle diffusion model. The maximum adsorption capacities (Q0) were 22.93 mg/g for CCUC, 24.15 mg/g for SSUC, 23.47 mg/g for SSUC and 15.62 mg/g for CAC. Conclusions: It was found that the kinetics data fitted well into the pseudo second-order kinetics and SSUC is a superior adsorbent for the removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution. © 2014, The Author(s).