Santhi T.,Karpagam University |
Manonmani S.,PSG College of Technology
Clean - Soil, Air, Water | Year: 2011
This study investigates the potential use of activated carbon prepared from the peel of Cucumis sativa fruit for the removal of malachite green (MG) dye from simulated wastewater. The effects of different system variables, adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, pH, and contact time were investigated and optimal experimental conditions were ascertained. The results showed that when the amount of the adsorbent increased, the percentage of dye removal increased accordingly. Optimum pH value for dye adsorption was 6.0. Maximum dye was sequestered within 50min of the start of every experiment. The adsorption of MG followed the pseudo-second-order rate equation and fits the Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R), and Tempkin equations well. The maximum removal of MG was obtained at pH 6 as 99.86% for adsorbent dose of 1g/50mL and 25mgL-1 initial dye concentration at room temperature. Activated carbon developed from the peel of C. sativa fruit can be an attractive option for dye removal from diluted industrial effluents since test reaction made on simulated dyeing wastewater showed better removal percentage of MG. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the possibility of using dried peel of C. sativa fruit as a new low cost activated carbon and to study its application for the removal of methyl red from simulated wastewater. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Thangamani A.,Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati |
Thangamani A.,Karpagam University
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2010
Reaction of (E)-3-aryl-1-(thiophen-2-yl)prop-2-en-1-ones with azomethine ylide (generated in situ via decarboxylative condensation of isatin with l-proline) in refluxing methanol afforded 1′-(aryl)-2′-(2- thienylcarbonyl)-spiro[3H-indole-3,3′-[3H]pyrrolizin]-2-ones as the sole product in a regiospecific manner. The synthesized compounds have been characterized by their elemental, analytical and spectral studies. The synthesized compounds were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities against a spectrum of microbial organisms. These studies proved that compounds 1′-(p-chlorophenyl)-2′-(2-thienylcarbonyl)-spiro[3H- indole-3,3′-[3H]pyrrolizin]-2-one (4b), 1′-(p-fluorophenyl)- 2′-(2-thienylcarbonyl)-spiro[3H-indole-3,3′-[3H]pyrrolizin]-2-one (4d) and 1′-(p-methoxyphenyl)-2′-(2-thienylcarbonyl)-spiro[3H- indole-3,3′-[3H]pyrrolizin]-2-one (4h) against Staphylococcus aureus, 1′-(p-chlorophenyl)-2′-(2-thienylcarbonyl)-spiro[3H-indole-3, 3′-[3H]pyrrolizin]-2-one (4b), 1′-(p-methylphenyl)-2′-(2- thienylcarbonyl)-spiro[3H-indole-3,3′-[3H]pyrrolizin]-2-one (4c) and 1′-(p-fluorophenyl)-2′-(2-thienylcarbonyl)-spiro[3H-indole-3, 3′-[3H]pyrrolizin]-2-one (4d) against Salmonella typhi show maximum inhibition potency at low concentration (6.25 μg/mL) whereas 4d against Candida albicans and 4b and 4d against Rhizopus sp. showed beneficial antifungal activity at minimum concentration. © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Thomas T.K.,Karpagam University
American Journal of Managed Care | Year: 2011
Health insurers in India currently face many challenges, including poor consumer awareness, strict regulations, and inefficient business practices. They operate under a combination of stifling administrative costs and high medical expense ratios which have ensured that insurers operate under steep losses. External factors (eg, onerous regulations, lack of standards, high claims payouts) and internal factors (eg, high administrative costs, dependence on indemnity models that cover inpatient treatment costs only) have forced the health insurance industry into a regressive spiral. To overcome these challenges, health insurers need to innovate in their product offerings and tighten their existing processes and cost structures. But as a long-term strategy, it is imperative that health insurers deploy managed care concepts, which will go a long way toward addressing the systemic issues in the current operational models of health plans. © Managed Care & Healthcare Communications, LLC.
Kavitha B.,Bharathiar University |
Karthikeyan D.S.,Applied Information Sciences |
Sheeba Maybell P.,Karpagam University
Knowledge-Based Systems | Year: 2012
In the real world it is a routine that one must deal with uncertainty when security is concerned. Intrusion detection systems offer a new challenge in handling uncertainty due to imprecise knowledge in classifying the normal or abnormal behaviour patterns. In this paper we have introduced an emerging approach for intrusion detection system using Neutrosophic Logic Classifier which is an extension/combination of the fuzzy logic, intuitionistic logic, paraconsistent logic, and the three-valued logics that use an indeterminate value. It is capable of handling fuzzy, vague, incomplete and inconsistent information under one framework. Using this new approach there is an increase in detection rate and the significant decrease in false alarm rate. The proposed method tripartitions the dataset into normal, abnormal and indeterministic based on the degree of membership of truthness, degree of membership of indeterminacy and degree of membership of falsity. The proposed method was tested up on KDD Cup 99 dataset. The Neutrosophic Logic Classifier generates the Neutrosophic rules to determine the intrusion in progress. Improvised genetic algorithm is adopted in order to detect the potential rules for performing better classification. This paper exhibits the efficiency of handling uncertainty in Intrusion detection precisely using Neutrosophic Logic Classifier based Intrusion detection System. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Natarajan S.B.,Karpagam University
Current drug delivery | Year: 2013
A melt dispersion technique was employed to prepare ofloxacin lipospheres, by using cetyl alcohol (polar lipid). Effects of various process parameters such as selection of surfactants (gelatin, Tween 40 and poly vinyl alcohol) and selection of stirring speed were studied. Lipospheres were evaluated for morphology, drug entrapment and in vitro drug release profiles. The optimized liposphere batch was selected and formulated as tablets and evaluated the in vitro drug release profile. These studies showed that ofloxacin loaded lipospheres were able to control the drug release for a period of 16h.