Santhi T.,Karpagam University |
Manonmani S.,PSG College of Technology |
Smitha T.,Karpagam University
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2010
The use of low-cost, locally available, highly efficient and eco-friendly adsorbents has been investigated as an ideal alternative to the current expensive methods of removing dyes from wastewater. This study investigates the potential use of activated carbon prepared from the epicarp of Ricinus communis for the removal of malachite green (MG) dye from simulated wastewater. The effects of different system variables, adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, pH and contact time were investigated and optimal experimental conditions were ascertained. The results showed that as the amount of the adsorbent increased, the percentage of dye removal increased accordingly. Optimum pH value for dye adsorption was 7.0. Maximum dye was sequestered within 50min of the start of every experiment. The adsorption of malachite green followed the pseudo-second-order rate equation and fits the Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) and Tempkin equations well. The maximum removal of MG was obtained at pH 7 as 99.04% for adsorbent dose of 1g50mL-1 and 25mgL-1 initial dye concentration at room temperature. Activated carbon developed from R. communis can be an attractive option for dye removal from diluted industrial effluents since test reaction made on simulated dyeing wastewater showed better removal percentage of MG. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.
Santhi T.,Karpagam University |
Manonmani S.,PSG College of Technology
Clean - Soil, Air, Water | Year: 2011
This study investigates the potential use of activated carbon prepared from the peel of Cucumis sativa fruit for the removal of malachite green (MG) dye from simulated wastewater. The effects of different system variables, adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, pH, and contact time were investigated and optimal experimental conditions were ascertained. The results showed that when the amount of the adsorbent increased, the percentage of dye removal increased accordingly. Optimum pH value for dye adsorption was 6.0. Maximum dye was sequestered within 50min of the start of every experiment. The adsorption of MG followed the pseudo-second-order rate equation and fits the Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R), and Tempkin equations well. The maximum removal of MG was obtained at pH 6 as 99.86% for adsorbent dose of 1g/50mL and 25mgL-1 initial dye concentration at room temperature. Activated carbon developed from the peel of C. sativa fruit can be an attractive option for dye removal from diluted industrial effluents since test reaction made on simulated dyeing wastewater showed better removal percentage of MG. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the possibility of using dried peel of C. sativa fruit as a new low cost activated carbon and to study its application for the removal of methyl red from simulated wastewater. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Thangamani A.,Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati |
Thangamani A.,Karpagam University
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2010
Reaction of (E)-3-aryl-1-(thiophen-2-yl)prop-2-en-1-ones with azomethine ylide (generated in situ via decarboxylative condensation of isatin with l-proline) in refluxing methanol afforded 1′-(aryl)-2′-(2- thienylcarbonyl)-spiro[3H-indole-3,3′-[3H]pyrrolizin]-2-ones as the sole product in a regiospecific manner. The synthesized compounds have been characterized by their elemental, analytical and spectral studies. The synthesized compounds were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities against a spectrum of microbial organisms. These studies proved that compounds 1′-(p-chlorophenyl)-2′-(2-thienylcarbonyl)-spiro[3H- indole-3,3′-[3H]pyrrolizin]-2-one (4b), 1′-(p-fluorophenyl)- 2′-(2-thienylcarbonyl)-spiro[3H-indole-3,3′-[3H]pyrrolizin]-2-one (4d) and 1′-(p-methoxyphenyl)-2′-(2-thienylcarbonyl)-spiro[3H- indole-3,3′-[3H]pyrrolizin]-2-one (4h) against Staphylococcus aureus, 1′-(p-chlorophenyl)-2′-(2-thienylcarbonyl)-spiro[3H-indole-3, 3′-[3H]pyrrolizin]-2-one (4b), 1′-(p-methylphenyl)-2′-(2- thienylcarbonyl)-spiro[3H-indole-3,3′-[3H]pyrrolizin]-2-one (4c) and 1′-(p-fluorophenyl)-2′-(2-thienylcarbonyl)-spiro[3H-indole-3, 3′-[3H]pyrrolizin]-2-one (4d) against Salmonella typhi show maximum inhibition potency at low concentration (6.25 μg/mL) whereas 4d against Candida albicans and 4b and 4d against Rhizopus sp. showed beneficial antifungal activity at minimum concentration. © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Sangeetha G.,Karpagam University |
Rajeshwari S.,Karpagam University |
Venckatesh R.,Government of Tamilnadu
Materials Research Bulletin | Year: 2011
Biological methods for nanoparticle synthesis using microorganisms, enzymes, and plants or plant extracts have been suggested as possible ecofriendly alternatives to chemical and physical methods. In this paper, we report on the synthesis of nanostructured zinc oxide particles by both chemical and biological method. Highly stable and spherical zinc oxide nanoparticles are produced by using zinc nitrate and Aloe vera leaf extract. Greater than 95% conversion to nanoparticles has been achieved with aloe leaf broth concentration greater than 25%. Structural, morphological and optical properties of the synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized by using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, FTIR, Photoluminescence, SEM, TEM and XRD analysis. SEM and TEM analysis shows that the zinc oxide nanoparticles prepared were poly dispersed and the average size ranged from 25 to 40 nm. The particles obtained have been found to be predominantly spherical and the particle size could be controlled by varying the concentrations of leaf broth solution. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Thomas T.K.,Karpagam University
American Journal of Managed Care | Year: 2011
Health insurers in India currently face many challenges, including poor consumer awareness, strict regulations, and inefficient business practices. They operate under a combination of stifling administrative costs and high medical expense ratios which have ensured that insurers operate under steep losses. External factors (eg, onerous regulations, lack of standards, high claims payouts) and internal factors (eg, high administrative costs, dependence on indemnity models that cover inpatient treatment costs only) have forced the health insurance industry into a regressive spiral. To overcome these challenges, health insurers need to innovate in their product offerings and tighten their existing processes and cost structures. But as a long-term strategy, it is imperative that health insurers deploy managed care concepts, which will go a long way toward addressing the systemic issues in the current operational models of health plans. © Managed Care & Healthcare Communications, LLC.
Kavitha B.,Bharathiar University |
Karthikeyan D.S.,Applied Information Sciences |
Sheeba Maybell P.,Karpagam University
Knowledge-Based Systems | Year: 2012
In the real world it is a routine that one must deal with uncertainty when security is concerned. Intrusion detection systems offer a new challenge in handling uncertainty due to imprecise knowledge in classifying the normal or abnormal behaviour patterns. In this paper we have introduced an emerging approach for intrusion detection system using Neutrosophic Logic Classifier which is an extension/combination of the fuzzy logic, intuitionistic logic, paraconsistent logic, and the three-valued logics that use an indeterminate value. It is capable of handling fuzzy, vague, incomplete and inconsistent information under one framework. Using this new approach there is an increase in detection rate and the significant decrease in false alarm rate. The proposed method tripartitions the dataset into normal, abnormal and indeterministic based on the degree of membership of truthness, degree of membership of indeterminacy and degree of membership of falsity. The proposed method was tested up on KDD Cup 99 dataset. The Neutrosophic Logic Classifier generates the Neutrosophic rules to determine the intrusion in progress. Improvised genetic algorithm is adopted in order to detect the potential rules for performing better classification. This paper exhibits the efficiency of handling uncertainty in Intrusion detection precisely using Neutrosophic Logic Classifier based Intrusion detection System. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Natarajan S.B.,Karpagam University
Current drug delivery | Year: 2013
A melt dispersion technique was employed to prepare ofloxacin lipospheres, by using cetyl alcohol (polar lipid). Effects of various process parameters such as selection of surfactants (gelatin, Tween 40 and poly vinyl alcohol) and selection of stirring speed were studied. Lipospheres were evaluated for morphology, drug entrapment and in vitro drug release profiles. The optimized liposphere batch was selected and formulated as tablets and evaluated the in vitro drug release profile. These studies showed that ofloxacin loaded lipospheres were able to control the drug release for a period of 16h.
Padmanabhan K.K.,Karpagam University
Energy and Buildings | Year: 2013
The velocity of wind in an urban location is comparatively lower than in rural or semirural locations. This paper deals with the study of a new methodology to increase the wind speed and power output of small turbines located in urban areas. The new methodology is adopted based on TRIZ (Theory of Solving Inventive Problems) principles. This idea was obtained from the different shapes adopted for the Roof Tops of Buildings at various locations. The methodology used here studies the impact of monoslide roof shape on wind speed using CFD. Majority of buildings in India have Flat Roofs. So, the paper suggests the use of adjustable roof so that the roofs could be tilted at various angles. The present study gives a diagrammatical representation of the new method and an analysis using CFD. Measuring the velocity of wind at an urban location at various altitudes and at various locations of the buildings is a complex task. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is already a necessary tool for modelling the wind over complex urban terrains. This study underlines a system to reduce the passiveness and idle time of wind turbines located in buildings. That could make the urban wind turbine more agile and active for higher power generation and resource utilization. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Jeyakumar R.P.S.,Karpagam University |
Chandrasekaran V.,Salem College
International Journal of Industrial Chemistry | Year: 2014
Background: Adsorption of lead(II) ions onto activated carbons prepared from the marine green Ulva fasciata sp. (CCUC, SSUC and SCUC) and commercially activated carbon (CAC) was investigated with the variation in the parameters of pH, contact time, lead(II) ions concentration and the adsorbent dose. The Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin models have been applied. Results: Results showed that the adsorption process was better described by the Langmuir model. Adsorption kinetics data obtained for the metal ions sorption were investigated using reversible first order, pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and intraparticle diffusion model. The maximum adsorption capacities (Q0) were 22.93 mg/g for CCUC, 24.15 mg/g for SSUC, 23.47 mg/g for SSUC and 15.62 mg/g for CAC. Conclusions: It was found that the kinetics data fitted well into the pseudo second-order kinetics and SSUC is a superior adsorbent for the removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution. © 2014, The Author(s).
Abdul Salam H.,Karpagam University |
Sivaraj R.,Karpagam University
Materials Letters | Year: 2014
Green Nanotechnology for nanoparticle synthesis using plants is gaining considerable interest among researchers as an eco-friendly alternative to conventional physical and chemical methods as this approach eliminates the use of toxic chemicals. The present study reports the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) using Ocimum basilicum L. var. purpurascens Benth.-Lamiaceae leaf extract and zinc nitrate. Hexagonal (wurtzite) shaped ZnO-NPs with size about 50 nm were synthesized and characterized using XRD, TEM and EDX analysis. © 2014 Published by Elsevier B.V.