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Manjula B.V.,Bangalore Baptist Hospital | Augustine S.,Bangalore Baptist Hospital | Selvam S.,St Johns Research Institute | Mohan A.M.,Karpaga Vinayaga Institute of Dental science
Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery | Year: 2014

Invasive tumor front (ITF) is the deepest three to six cell layers or detached tumor cell groups at the advancing edge of the tumor. Tumor budding is defined as presence of isolated single cells or small cell clusters scattered in the stroma ahead of the ITF and is characteristic of aggressive cancer. It is recognized as an adverse prognostic factor in several human cancers like colorectal, oesophageal, laryngeal cancers and more recently tongue cancers. However, the prognostic value of tumor budding has not been reported in GBCSCC. The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of pattern of invasion (POI) at the ITF, Tumor budding and other clinicopathological parameters in predicting nodal metastases and prognosis in GBCSCC. 33 patients with primary GBCSCC were prospectively evaluated at a tertiary care referral centre. Tumor budding and type of POI was examined in detail and data documented. Statistical analyses were carried out to assess the correlation of tumor budding, POI, and other clinicopathologic parameters (stage, grade of the tumor, tumor thickness, PNI, LVI) with nodal metastases and predict prognosis. Cox regression was used for both Univariate and multivariate analysis. Significant predictors of nodal metastases on Univariate analysis were male gender (p = 0.021), smoking (p = 0.046), Tumor budding (p = 0.014) and diffuse infiltrative/worst POI (p = 0.004), where as on multivariate analysis only worst POI was significantly associated with positive lymph nodes (p = 0.004). Presence of nodal metastases (p = 0.01) and tumor thickness >5 mm (p = 0.009) were independent negative prognostic factors on multivariate analysis. Significant single risk factor predictive of positive lymph nodes is worst POI in GBCSCC. Nodal metastases and >5 mm tumor thickness are independent risk factors for disease free survival. © 2014, Association of Otolaryngologists of India. Source

Raja M.,Karpaga Vinayaga Institute of Dental science | Ummer F.,Karpagavinayaga Institute of Dental science | Dhivakar C.P.,MES Dental College
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2014

Strong evidence is available on Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A.a) on its role as the causative agent of localised juvenile periodontitis (LJP), a disease characterised by rapid destruction of the tooth-supporting tissues. This organism possesses a large number of virulence factors with a wide range of activities which enable it to colonise the oral cavity, invade periodontal tissues, evade host defences, initiate connective tissue destruction and interfere with tissue repair. Adhesion to epithelial and tooth surfaces is dependent on the presence of surface proteins and structures such as microvesicles and fimbriae. Invasion has been demonstrated in vivo and in vitro. The organism has a number of means of evading host defences which include: (i) production of leukotoxin; (ii) producing immunosuppressive factors; (iv) secreting proteases capable of cleaving IgG; and (v) producing Fc-binding. Source

Prabhu R.,Thai Mogambigai Dental College and Hospital | Bhaskaran S.,Karpaga Vinayaga Institute of Dental science | Prabhu K.R.G.,Thai Mogambigai Dental College and Hospital | Eswaran M.A.,Thai Mogambigai Dental College and Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences | Year: 2015

Purpose of the Study: The aim of this study was to evaluate clinically the performance of composite resin used to restore midline diastema between the maxillary and mandibular central incisors. Methodology: Direct composite restorations were done for 45 patients with midline diastema between the maxillary and mandibular central incisors. Standard protocols were followed for the placement of composite resin for the diastema closure, and recall visits were made for every 6 months for a period of 60 months for evaluation of the success of these restorations made. Qualified dental personnel examined the restorations made. Results: Clinical evaluations were done after the restorations had been in place for an average of 6 months. Results indicate that none of the restorations were totally lost, and resulting in a 91% overall retention rate for the period of 60 months. About 62% of the restorations made had no noticeable color difference with that of the adjacent tooth, and gingival health indicated 73% of the sample was without any signs of inflammation. Conclusions: Composites restored for diastemas exhibit satisfactory survival rates placed with recommended placement protocols and without occlusal loading. © 2015 Journal of Pharmacy And Bioallied Sciences | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow. Source

Sambandham T.,Raja Muthiah Dental College | Masthan K.M.K.,Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital | Sathish Kumar M.,Karpaga Vinayaga Institute of Dental science | Jha A.,Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2013

This article depicts the various applications of Vizilite plus in oral cancer. The oral cavity demonstrates a variety of red and white, pigmented and vesiculo- bullous lesions. Oral cancer still happens to carry the highest mortality worldwide, especially in India. In India, the prime focus is on the downstreaming of oral cancer from an advanced stage to an early diseased state. The techniques that are promoted to facilitate an earlier detection and diagnosis of an oral malignancy include Toluidine blue, ViziLite Plus with TBlue, ViziLite, Microlux DL, Orascoptic DK, VEL scope, Oral CDx and brush biopsy. Source

Harishankar M.K.,SRM University | Prince S.,University of Cape Town | Mohan A.M.,Karpaga Vinayaga Institute of Dental science | Krishnan K.V.,Karpaga Vinayaga Institute of Dental science | Devi A.,SRM University
Life Sciences | Year: 2016

Aims Despite the development of several therapeutic strategies in the past decades, clinicians have failed to improve the survival rate of oral squamous cell carcinoma patients due to the highly metastatic nature of the disease and its high recurrence rate. However, there is accumulating evidence that aberrant Notch4 expression has a critical role in tumorigenesis but its prognostic value and function in OSCC remains uncertain. This study therefore investigates (1) the expression of Notch4 and its downstream target, myelin associated glycoprotein (MAG) in tissue samples representative of different stages of OSCC with varied clinicopathological features and (2) the possible involvement of Notch4 in the proliferation and migration of OSCC cells. Main methods Sixty patients reported positive for OSCC were obtained along with the clinicopathological parameters and we performed immunohistochemistry, western blotting and RT-PCR for Notch4 and MAG expression. Further, the metastatic role of Notch4 was analyzed in the HSC-3 cell line by cell proliferation and migration assays. Key findings Our findings reveal that Notch4 and MAG expression are significantly upregulated in specifically late stages of OSCC tumor sections and perineural invasion (PNI) positive cases. In addition, depletion of Notch4 by siRNA inhibited the proliferative and migratory ability of the highly metastatic HSC-3 OSCC cells. Significance Our study indicates that the aberrant activation of Notch4 promotes OSCC metastasis through perineural spread and ascertains its value as a significant prognostic marker and potential therapeutic target to treat this highly aggressive malignancy. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

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