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Raja M.,Karpaga Vinayaga Institute of Dental science | Ummer F.,Karpagavinayaga Institute of Dental science | Dhivakar C.P.,MES Dental College
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2014

Strong evidence is available on Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A.a) on its role as the causative agent of localised juvenile periodontitis (LJP), a disease characterised by rapid destruction of the tooth-supporting tissues. This organism possesses a large number of virulence factors with a wide range of activities which enable it to colonise the oral cavity, invade periodontal tissues, evade host defences, initiate connective tissue destruction and interfere with tissue repair. Adhesion to epithelial and tooth surfaces is dependent on the presence of surface proteins and structures such as microvesicles and fimbriae. Invasion has been demonstrated in vivo and in vitro. The organism has a number of means of evading host defences which include: (i) production of leukotoxin; (ii) producing immunosuppressive factors; (iv) secreting proteases capable of cleaving IgG; and (v) producing Fc-binding.


PubMed | SRM University, Karpaga Vinayaga Institute of Dental science and University of Cape Town
Type: | Journal: Life sciences | Year: 2016

Despite the development of several therapeutic strategies in the past decades, clinicians have failed to improve the survival rate of oral squamous cell carcinoma patients due to the highly metastatic nature of the disease and its high recurrence rate. However, there is accumulating evidence that aberrant Notch4 expression has a critical role in tumorigenesis but its prognostic value and function in OSCC remains uncertain. This study therefore investigates (1) the expression of Notch4 and its downstream target, myelin associated glycoprotein (MAG) in tissue samples representative of different stages of OSCC with varied clinicopathological features and (2) the possible involvement of Notch4 in the proliferation and migration of OSCC cells.Sixty patients reported positive for OSCC were obtained along with the clinicopathological parameters and we performed immunohistochemistry, western blotting and RT-PCR for Notch4 and MAG expression. Further, the metastatic role of Notch4 was analyzed in the HSC-3 cell line by cell proliferation and migration assays.Our findings reveal that Notch4 and MAG expression are significantly upregulated in specifically late stages of OSCC tumor sections and perineural invasion (PNI) positive cases. In addition, depletion of Notch4 by siRNA inhibited the proliferative and migratory ability of the highly metastatic HSC-3 OSCC cells.Our study indicates that the aberrant activation of Notch4 promotes OSCC metastasis through perineural spread and ascertains its value as a significant prognostic marker and potential therapeutic target to treat this highly aggressive malignancy.


PubMed | Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital and Karpaga Vinayaga Institute of Dental science
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The journal of contemporary dental practice | Year: 2016

The aim and objectives of this study are to identify oral changes in certain gastrointestinal (GI) diseases, namely gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), ulcerative colitis, gastritis, and to evaluate these oral symptoms as indicators for assessing GI disorders.In this study, the oral manifestations of various GI disorders were assessed in a varying age group of 250 patients in Government Stanley Medical College and Hospital, Chennai. Out of 250 patients, 142 were affected by GERD, 99 were affected by gastritis, and 9 patients were affected by ulcerative colitis. Of these patients, 177 were males and 73 were females.Evaluation of patients with gastritis revealed that 66.7% affected with gingivitis, 19.2% with dental erosion on the palatal and lingual aspects of maxillary and mandibular teeth predominantly in the anterior region, 10.1% with periodontitis, 2% with gingival erythema. Among the patients with GERD, 44% of the cases showed dental erosion, 25.5% periodontitis, 9.9% gingivitis, 5.7% gingival erythema, 2.8% palatal erythema, 2.1% gingival ulcers, glossitis 2%, 1.4% floor of the mouth erythema, and 0.7% erythema of the tongue. Patients with ulcerative colitis showed 44.4% of gingival erythema, 33.3% of dental erosions, and 22.2% of gingival ulcers and periodontitis.In our study of 250 patients, oral manifestations were observed in 88% of the patients. Both soft tissue and hard tissue changes were evident. There was a high correlation between various GI disease and dental erosion, erythema at various sites of the oral cavity, oral ulcers, gingivitis, periodontitis, and glossitis. Careful evaluation of oral cavity may unveil many GI disorders and help the patient by providing early diagnosis, which further facilitates the prognosis.


PubMed | Qassim Private Colleges, Sree Anjaneya Institute of Dental science, Rajas Dental College and Hospital, Karpaga Vinayaga Institute of Dental science and Annamalai University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of pharmacy & bioallied sciences | Year: 2016

The objective of this study is to estimate and compare the serum and salivary immunoglobulin G and A (IgG, IgA) levels in various stages of oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) patients and relate it to total serum protein (TSP) and hemoglobin (Hb) levels.The sample for the present study comprised a total of 20 healthy controls, 20 OSMF patients. About 5 ml of blood and 2 ml of saliva were collected. Quantitative analysis of serum and salivary IgG, IgA was done by turbidometric immunoassay. TSP and Hb were estimated by Biuret and cyanmethemoglobin methods, respectively.Serum and salivary IgA and IgG levels were statistically significantly increased (The elevated levels of IgG and IgA are also in favor of polygammapathy, which are nonspecific and nondiagnostic objective reflections of an underlying disease. Decreased TSP is a result of host response and Hb, acts as an indicator of nutritional status plays an important role. It is also observed from the present study that the severity of OSMF was directly proportional to the estimated elevated levels of the major IgG and IgA. A need is also felt for the knowledge of immunoprofile estimation in etiology and pathogenesis that would prove a great asset in the proper assessment of this condition.


PubMed | Asan Memorial Dental College and Hospital and Karpaga Vinayaga Institute of Dental science
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of pharmacy & bioallied sciences | Year: 2016

Pediatricians and other health-care providers could play an invaluable role in ensuring the maintenance of optimal preventive as well as curative dental health in children. This study was aimed at assessing the pediatricians perspective on basic oral health care in children in Kanchipuram district.A questionnaire survey was carried out among Pediatricians which covered various aspects of knowledge, attitude, and role of pediatricians in preventive dental care. The collected data were tabulated, and percent frequency distributions for responses to every question were assessed.None of the participants reported that pediatricians are responsible for infant oral health presumes that pediatricians are not examining the oral cavity as a part of routine. All of the pediatricians gave nutritional counseling to the parents but only 7% of them of caries. All the pediatricians liked the concept of an association between lack of knowledge among pediatricians and pediatric dentist and establishment of a dental home along with a medical home.From the present study, we conclude that there is a lack of awareness about prevention of dental caries among pediatricians in Kanchipuram district. To overcome this, advocating dentists as part of well-child care and establishing dental home along with medical home. Publishing pediatric journals concerning about the oral health to improve the knowledge is also essential in promoting good oral health hygiene.


PubMed | Asan Memorial Dental College and Hospital and Karpaga Vinayaga Institute of Dental science
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of pharmacy & bioallied sciences | Year: 2016

Dental trauma is one of the most common and significant problems met in all dental offices almost every day. In particular, injury to the anterior teeth is more vulnerable as it may affect the psychosocial behavior, severe emotional complications can occur leading to disturbances in their mental attitude. Cosmetic (lingual) orthodontics is the recent development in the field of dentistry in the last few decades. Patients are more concerned about their appearance during the treatment and are affected by psychosocial issues because of labially placed brackets, thus leading to the evolution of lingual orthodontic appliances. In this article, we are sharing our clinical experience treating a complicated crown-root fracture using the lingual orthodontic technique.


Manjula B.V.,Bangalore Baptist Hospital | Augustine S.,Bangalore Baptist Hospital | Selvam S.,St Johns Research Institute | Mohan A.M.,Karpaga Vinayaga Institute of Dental science
Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery | Year: 2014

Invasive tumor front (ITF) is the deepest three to six cell layers or detached tumor cell groups at the advancing edge of the tumor. Tumor budding is defined as presence of isolated single cells or small cell clusters scattered in the stroma ahead of the ITF and is characteristic of aggressive cancer. It is recognized as an adverse prognostic factor in several human cancers like colorectal, oesophageal, laryngeal cancers and more recently tongue cancers. However, the prognostic value of tumor budding has not been reported in GBCSCC. The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of pattern of invasion (POI) at the ITF, Tumor budding and other clinicopathological parameters in predicting nodal metastases and prognosis in GBCSCC. 33 patients with primary GBCSCC were prospectively evaluated at a tertiary care referral centre. Tumor budding and type of POI was examined in detail and data documented. Statistical analyses were carried out to assess the correlation of tumor budding, POI, and other clinicopathologic parameters (stage, grade of the tumor, tumor thickness, PNI, LVI) with nodal metastases and predict prognosis. Cox regression was used for both Univariate and multivariate analysis. Significant predictors of nodal metastases on Univariate analysis were male gender (p = 0.021), smoking (p = 0.046), Tumor budding (p = 0.014) and diffuse infiltrative/worst POI (p = 0.004), where as on multivariate analysis only worst POI was significantly associated with positive lymph nodes (p = 0.004). Presence of nodal metastases (p = 0.01) and tumor thickness >5 mm (p = 0.009) were independent negative prognostic factors on multivariate analysis. Significant single risk factor predictive of positive lymph nodes is worst POI in GBCSCC. Nodal metastases and >5 mm tumor thickness are independent risk factors for disease free survival. © 2014, Association of Otolaryngologists of India.


Thinakaran M.,Karpaga Vinayaga Institute of Dental science | Sivakumar P.,Karpaga Vinayaga Institute of Dental science | Ramalingam S.,Karpaga Vinayaga Institute of Dental science | Jeddy N.,Thai Mookambikai Dental College | Balaguhan S.,Karpaga Vinayaga Institute of Dental science
Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology | Year: 2012

Calcifying ghost cell odontogenic cyst (CGCOC) is a relatively uncommon odontogenic lesion characterized by varied clinical, radiographical features and biological behavior. CGCOC can exhibit either as a cystic or a solid lesion. Since its first description by Gorlin et al, in 1962, it has been known by different names and classified and sub-classified into various types. In this article we present a case of CGCOC and discuss the related literature regarding the terminology, classification and biological behavior of CGCOC.


Saravanan T.,Karpaga Vinayaga Institute of Dental science | Mohan M.A.,Karpaga Vinayaga Institute of Dental science | Thinakaran M.,Karpaga Vinayaga Institute of Dental science | Ahammed S.,Karpaga Vinayaga Institute of Dental science
Indian Journal of Palliative Care | Year: 2015

Myiasis is a pathologic condition in humans occurring because of parasitic infestation. Parasites causing myiasis belong to the order Diptera. Oral myiasis is seen secondary to oral wounds, suppurative lesions, and extraction wounds, especially in individuals with neurological deficit. In such cases, neglected oral hygiene and halitosis attracts the flies to lay eggs in oral wounds resulting in oral myiasis. We present a case of oral myiasis in 40-year-old male patient with mental disability and history of epilepsy. © 2015, Medknow Publications. All rights reserved.


Kannan S.V.,Karpaga Vinayaga Institute of Dental science
Journal of Craniofacial Surgery | Year: 2010

PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of pterygoid dysjunction for the surgical management of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain and dysfunction. MATERIALS: This study was composed of 10 patients (20 joints), of whom 2 patients had bilateral joint pain. Patients were those who complained of TMJ pain and dysfunction with mild to moderate internal derangement and who have failed to respond to all methods of conservative management. Only patients whose complaints of pain were confined to the pterygoid muscles on palpation were considered for this study. Clinical examination included pain and tenderness in relation to joint, muscles of mastication, movement of joint, and abnormal joint noises. METHODS: Under general anesthesia, pterygomaxillary dysjunction was done bilaterally, the pterygoid plates were pushed backward, and the outcome was evaluated using computed tomography. RESULTS: Immediately after operation, most patients were free from pain, and the intensity of pain was reduced in the rest of the patients. There was progressive improvement of mouth opening, and clicking was reduced in most of the patients in the late postoperative phase. Follow-up and regular counseling were done for 2 years. Clicking and mouth opening have considerable significance, but all patients were free from pain and were comfortable, except for some patients who have simple complaints, which are irrelevant to this study. CONCLUSIONS: Although the total number of patients was too small to arrive at any definitive conclusion, the encouraging results, especially the relief from pain, show that this technique has a significant role in the treatment of painful TMJ dysfunction, with mild to moderate internal derangement, and is devoid of other major complications. © 2010 by Mutaz B. Habal, MD.

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