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Stockholm, Sweden

Li N.,Karolinska University Hospital
Thrombosis and Haemostasis | Year: 2013

Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory and thrombotic disease, in which both CD4+ T cells and platelets play important roles throughout all stages of atherogenesis. CD4+ T cells are the most abundant T cells present in atherosclerotic lesions. They are primarily seen as type 1 T helper (Th1) cells, while the other CD4+ T cell subsets Th2, Th17, and regulatory T (Treg) cells are also found in the lesions with lower frequencies. CD4+ T effector cells release various cytokines, which exert paracrine or autocrine effects among different CD4+ T cell subsets and other lesional cells and subsequently modulate inflammatory processes in the lesions. Platelets are instrumental in thrombosis and haemostasis, but also play important regulatory roles in immune response, inflammation, and angiogenesis. The present review summarises the current knowledge and/or understanding on how platelets regulate recruitment, activation, differentiation, and cytokine production of different CD4+ T cell subsets, as well as impacts of the platelet-CD4+ T cell interactions on atherogenesis. The research perspectives of platelet-CD4+ T cell interaction in atherosclerosis are also discussed. © Schattauer 2013. Source

Andersson U.,Karolinska University Hospital | Tracey K.J.,Feinstein Institute for Medical Research
Annual Review of Immunology | Year: 2011

A key question in immunology concerns how sterile injury activates innate immunity to mediate damaging inflammation in the absence of foreign invaders. The discovery that HMGB1, a ubiquitous nuclear protein, mediates the activation of innate immune responses led directly to the understanding that HMGB1 plays a critical role at the intersection of the host inflammatory response to sterile and infectious threat. HMGB1 is actively released by stimulation of the innate immune system with exogenous pathogen-derived molecules and is passively released by ischemia or cell injury in the absence of invasion. Established molecular mechanisms of HMGB1 binding and signaling through TLR4 reveal signaling pathways that mediate cytokine release and tissue damage. Experimental strategies that selectively target HMGB1 and TLR4 effectively reverse and prevent activation of innate immunity and significantly attenuate damage in diverse models of sterile and infection-induced threat. © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source

Increasing evidence suggests that tumor-initiating cells (TICs), also called cancer stem cells, are partly responsible for resistance to DNA-damaging treatment. Here we addressed if such a phenotype may contribute to radio- and cisplatin resistance in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We showed that four out of eight NSCLC cell lines (H125, A549, H1299 and H23) possess sphere-forming capacity when cultured in stem cell media and three of these display elevated levels of CD133. Indeed, sphere-forming NSCLC cells, hereafter called TICs, showed a reduced apoptotic response and increased survival after irradiation (IR), as compared with the corresponding bulk cell population. Decreased cytotoxicity and apoptotic signaling manifested by diminished poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage and caspase 3 activity was also evident in TICs after cisplatin treatment. Neither radiation nor cisplatin resistance was due to quiescence as H125 TICs proliferated at a rate comparable to bulk cells. However, TICs displayed less pronounced G2 cell cycle arrest and S/G2-phase block after IR and cisplatin, respectively. Additionally, we confirmed a cisplatin-refractory phenotype of H125 TICs in vivo in a mouse xenograft model. We further examined TICs for altered expression or activation of DNA damage repair proteins as a way to explain their increased radio- and/or chemotherapy resistance. Indeed, we found that TICs exhibited increased basal γH2AX (H2A histone family, member X) expression and diminished DNA damage-induced phosphorylation of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM), Krüppel-associated protein 1 (KAP1) and monoubiquitination of Fanconi anemia, complementation group D2 (FANCD2). As a proof of principle, ATM inhibition in bulk cells increased their cisplatin resistance, as demonstrated by reduced PARP cleavage. In conclusion, we show that reduced apoptotic response, altered DNA repair signaling and cell cycle perturbations in NSCLC TICs are possible factors contributing to their therapy resistance, which may be exploited for DNA damage-sensitizing purposes. Source

Renne T.,Karolinska University Hospital
Seminars in Immunopathology | Year: 2012

The contact system is a plasma protease cascade that is initiated by coagulation factor XII activation on cardiovascular cells. The system starts procoagulant and proinflammatory reactions, via the intrinsic pathway of coagulation or the kallikrein-kinin system, respectively. The biochemistry of the contact system in vitro is well understood, however, its in vivo functions are just beginning to emerge. Data obtained in genetically engineered mice have revealed an essential function of the contact system for thrombus formation. Severe deficiency in contact system proteases impairs thrombus formation but does not reduce the hemostatic capacity of affected individuals. The system is activated by an inorganic polymer, polyphosphate that is released from activated platelets. Excessive inherited activation of the contact system causes a life-threatening swelling disorder, hereditary angioedema. Activation of the contact system by pathogens contributes to leakage in bacterial infections. Mast-cell-derived heparin triggers contact-system-mediated edema formation with implications for allergic disease states. Here we present an overview about the plasma contact system in occlusive and inflammatory disease and its contribution to health and pathology. © Springer-Verlag 2011. Source

Aperia A.,Karolinska University Hospital
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology | Year: 2012

The ability of cells to maintain sharp ion gradients across their membranes is the foundation for the molecular transport and electrical excitability. Across animal species and cell types, Na +,K +-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) is arguably the most powerful contributor to this phenomenon. By producing a steep concentration difference of sodium and potassium between the intracellular and extracellular milieu, Na +,K +-ATPase in the tubules provides the driving force for renal sodium reabsorption. Pump activity is downregulated by natriuretic hormones, such as dopamine, and is upregulated by antinatriuretic hormones, such as angiotensin. In the past decade, studies have revealed a novel and surprising role: that Na +,K +-ATPase is a transducer of signals from extracellular to intracellular compartments. The signaling function of Na +,K +ATPase is activated by ouabain, a mammalian steroid hormone, at far lower concentrations than those that inhibit pump activity. By promoting growth and inhibiting apoptosis, activation of Na +,K +-ATPase exerts tissue-protective effects. Ouabain-stimulated Na +,K +-ATPase signaling has recently shown clinical promise by protecting the malnourished embryonic kidney from adverse developmental programming. A deeper understanding of the tissue-protective role of Na +,K +-ATPase signaling and the regulation of Na +,K +-ATPase pumping activity is of fundamental importance for the understanding and treatment of kidney diseases and kidney-related hypertension. Copyright © 2012 by the American Society of Nephrology. Source

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