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Stockholm, Sweden

Karolinska Institutet is a medical university in Solna within the Stockholm urban area, Sweden, and one of Europe's largest and most prestigious medical universities. It was founded in 1810 on Kungsholmen on the west side of Stockholm; the main campus was relocated decades later to Solna, just outside Stockholm. A second campus was established more recently in Flemingsberg, Huddinge, south of Stockholm.Karolinska Institute is Sweden's third oldest medical school, after Uppsala University and Lund University . Research at Karolinska Institute accounts for more than 40% of all academic medical research in Sweden. Karolinska Institute consistently ranks among the top universities in the world on a number of prestigious ranking tables, and is currently the eighth best medical university in the world. According to the 2012 Times Higher Education World University Rankings, Karolinska Institute is ranked 32nd worldwide, 5th in Europe behind Oxford university, Cambridge university and UCL, 1st in the Nordic region and according to the 2011 Academic Ranking of World Universities, Karolinska Institute is ranked 11th in the world in the field of clinical medicine and pharmacology, 18th in life science and 3rd in pharmacy.The Karolinska University Hospital, located in Solna and Huddinge, is associated with the university as a research and teaching hospital. Together they form an academic health science centre. It is one of Sweden's largest centres for training and research, accounting for 30 percent of the medical training and 40 percent of the medical academic research conducted nationwide. While most of the medical programs are taught in Swedish, the bulk of the Ph.D. projects are conducted in English.A committee of the institute appoints the laureates for the Nobel prize in Physiology or Medicine. The Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institutet is a body at Karolinska Institutet that awards the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. The Nobel Assembly consists of fifty professors from various medical disciplines at the Karolinska Institute. Wikipedia.

Larsson S.C.,Karolinska Institutet
American Journal of Epidemiology | Year: 2014

High consumption of red meat and processed meat has been associated with increased risk of several chronic diseases. We conducted a meta-analysis to summarize the evidence from prospective studies on red meat and processed meat consumption in relationship to all-cause mortality. Pertinent studies were identified by searching PubMed through May 2013 and by reviewing the reference lists of retrieved articles. Prospective studies that reported relative risks with 95% confidence intervals for the association of red meat or processed meat consumption with all-cause mortality were eligible. Study-specific results were combined by using a random-effects model. Nine prospective studies were included in the meta-analysis. The summary relative risks of all-cause mortality for the highest versus the lowest category of consumption were 1.10 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.98, 1.22; n = 6 studies) for unprocessed red meat, 1.23 (95% CI: 1.17, 1.28; n = 6 studies) for processed meat, and 1.29 (95% CI: 1.24, 1.35; n = 5 studies) for total red meat. In a dose-response meta-analysis, consumption of processed meat and total red meat, but not unprocessed red meat, was statistically significantly positively associated with all-cause mortality in a nonlinear fashion. These results indicate that high consumption of red meat, especially processed meat, may increase all-cause mortality. © 2013 The Author.

Friberg L.,Karolinska Institutet
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | Year: 2014

Objectives The aim of this study was to examine mortality and liver disease among patients exposed to dronedarone. Background There has been concern about the safety of dronedarone, especially for patients with heart failure and permanent atrial fibrillation (AF). There have also been suspicions about liver toxicity. Methods All 174,995 patients with a diagnosis of AF during 2010 to 2012 were identified in the Swedish Patient Register. Of these, 4,856 patients had received dronedarone according to the Swedish Drug Register, and 170,139 patients who had not were used as a control population. Mean follow-up was 1.6 years, with a minimal follow-up of 6 months. Results Patients prescribed dronedarone were younger (age 65.5 years vs. 75.7 years, p < 0.0001) and healthier than control patients. The annual mortality rate among patients who received dronedarone was 1.3% compared with 14.0% in the control population. There were no sudden cardiac deaths and no deaths related to liver failure among patients who received treatment with dronedarone. After propensity score matching and adjustment for cofactors, patients who received dronedarone had lower mortality than other AF patients (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.41; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.33 to 0.51). Dronedarone patients with heart failure had lower mortality than other heart failure patients (HR: 0.40; 95% CI: 0.30 to 0.53). They also had lower mortality than expected from the general population (standardized mortality ratio: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.55 to 0.78), which indicates the selection of low-risk patients. The risk of liver disease was not increased (HR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.34 to 0.92). Conclusions Dronedarone, as prescribed to AF patients in Sweden, has not exposed patients to increased risks of death or liver disease. © 2014 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation Published by Elsevier Inc.

Klingberg T.,Karolinska Institutet
Trends in Cognitive Sciences | Year: 2014

Theories view childhood development as being either driven by structural maturation of the brain or being driven by skill-learning. It is hypothesized here that working memory (WM) development during childhood is partly driven by training effects in the environment, and that similar neural mechanisms underlie training-induced plasticity and childhood development. In particular, the functional connectivity of a fronto-parietal network is suggested to be associated with WM capacity. The striatum, dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) activity, and corticostriatal white-matter tracts, on the other hand, seem to be more important for plasticity and change of WM capacity during both training and development. In this view, the development of WM capacity during childhood partly involves the same mechanisms as skill-learning. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Klingberg T.,Karolinska Institutet
Trends in Cognitive Sciences | Year: 2010

Working memory (WM) capacity predicts performance in a wide range of cognitive tasks. Although WM capacity has been viewed as a constant trait, recent studies suggest that it can be improved by adaptive and extended training. This training is associated with changes in brain activity in frontal and parietal cortex and basal ganglia, as well as changes in dopamine receptor density. Transfer of the training effects to non-trained WM tasks is consistent with the notion of training-induced plasticity in a common neural network for WM. The observed training effects suggest that WM training could be used as a remediating intervention for individuals for whom low WM capacity is a limiting factor for academic performance or in everyday life. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Human natural killer (NK) cells are functionally regulated by killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) and their interactions with HLA class I molecules. As KIR expression in a given NK cell is genetically hard-wired, we hypothesized that KIR repertoire perturbations reflect expansions of unique NK-cell subsets and may be used to trace adaptation of the NK-cell compartment to virus infections. By determining the human "KIR-ome" at a single-cell level in more than 200 donors, we were able to analyze the magnitude of NK cell adaptation to virus infections in healthy individuals. Strikingly, infection with human cytomegalovirus (CMV), but not with other common herpesviruses, induced expansion and differentiation of KIR-expressing NK cells, visible as stable imprints in the repertoire. Education by inhibitory KIRs promoted the clonal-like expansion of NK cells, causing a bias for self-specific inhibitory KIRs. Furthermore, our data revealed a unique contribution of activating KIRs (KIR2DS4, KIR2DS2, or KIR3DS1), in addition to NKG2C, in the expansion of human NK cells. These results provide new insight into the diversity of KIR repertoire and its adaptation to virus infection, suggesting a role for both activating and inhibitory KIRs in immunity to CMV infection.

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