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Hooshmand B.,Karolinska Institutet | Hooshmand B.,Karolinska Institute Alzheimers Disease Research Center | Polvikoski T.,Vitality | Kivipelto M.,Karolinska Institutet | And 14 more authors.
Brain | Year: 2013

Elevated plasma total homocysteine is associated with increased risk of dementia/Alzheimer's disease, but underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are not fully understood. This study investigated possible links between baseline homocysteine, and post-mortem neuropathological and magnetic resonance imaging findings up to 10 years later in the Vantaa 85+ population including people aged >85 years. Two hundred and sixty-five individuals had homocysteine and autopsy data, of which 103 had post-mortem brain magnetic resonance imaging scans. Methenamine silver staining was used for amyloid-β and modified Bielschowsky method for neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic plaques. Macroscopic infarcts were identified from cerebral hemispheres, brainstem and cerebellum slices. Standardized methods were used to determine microscopic infarcts, cerebral amyoloid angiopathy, and α-synuclein pathology. Magnetic resonance imaging was used for visual ratings of the degree of medial temporal lobe atrophy, and periventricular and deep white matter hyperintensities. Elevated baseline homocysteine was associated with increased neurofibrillary tangles count at the time of death: for the highest homocysteine quartile, odds ratio (95% confidence interval) was 2.60 (1.28-5.28). The association was observed particularly in people with dementia, in the presence of cerebral infarcts, and with longer time between the baseline homocysteine assessment and death. Also, elevated homocysteine tended to relate to amyloid-β accumulation, but this was seen only with longer baseline-death interval: odds ratio (95% confidence interval) was 2.52 (0.88-7.19) for the highest homocysteine quartile. On post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging, for the highest homocysteine quartile odds ratio (95% confidence interval) was 3.78 (1.12-12.79) for more severe medial temporal atrophy and 4.69 (1.14-19.33) for more severe periventricular white matter hyperintensities. All associations were independent of several potential confounders, including common vascular risk factors. No relationships between homocysteine and cerebral macro- or microinfarcts, cerebral amyoloid angiopathy or α-synuclein pathology were detected. These results suggest that elevated homocysteine in adults aged >85 years may contribute to increased Alzheimer-type pathology, particularly neurofibrillary tangles burden. This effect seems to be more pronounced in the presence of cerebrovascular pathology. Randomized controlled trials are needed to determine the impact of homocysteine-lowering treatments on dementia-related pathology. © 2013 The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved.

Dehvari N.,University of Stockholm | Dehvari N.,Karolinska Institute Alzheimers Disease Research Center | Mahmud T.,Karolinska Institute Alzheimers Disease Research Center | Persson J.,Karolinska Institute Alzheimers Disease Research Center | And 6 more authors.
Neurochemistry International | Year: 2012

Aggresomes are cytoplasmic inclusions which are localized at the microtubule organizing center (MTOC) as a result of induced proteasome inhibition, stress or over-expression of certain proteins. Aggresomes are linked to the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative diseases. Here we studied whether amyloid precursor protein (APP), a type-I transmembrane glycoprotein, is localized in aggresomes after exposure to stress condition. Using confocal microscopy we found that APP is located in aggresomes and co-localized with vimentin, γ-tubulin, 20S and ubiquitin at the MTOC in response to proteasome dysfunction. An interaction between vimentin and APP was found after proteasome inhibition suggesting that APP is an additional protein constituent of aggresomes. Suppression of the proteasome system in APP-HEK293 cells overexpressing APP or transfected with APP Swedish mutation caused an accumulation of stable, detergent-insoluble forms of APP containing poly-ubiquitinated proteins. In addition, brain homogenates from transgenic mice expressing human APP with the Arctic mutation demonstrated an interaction between APP and the aggresomal-marker vimentin. These data suggest that malfunctioning of the proteasome system caused by mutation or overexpression of pathological or non-pathological proteins may lead to the accumulation of stable aggresomes, perhaps contributing to the neurodegeneration. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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