Karnataka Health Promotion Trust

Bangalore, India

Karnataka Health Promotion Trust

Bangalore, India
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Gurav K.,Karnataka Health Promotion Trust | Bradley J.,University of Québec | Chandrashekhar Gowda G.,Swasti Health Resource Center | Alary M.,University of Québec
Culture, Health and Sexuality | Year: 2014

A qualitative study was conducted to obtain a detailed understanding of two key determinants of condom breakage - 'rough sex' and poor condom fit - identified in a recent telephone survey of female sex workers, in Bangalore, India. Transcripts from six focus-group discussions involving 35 female sex workers who reported condom breakage during the telephone survey were analysed. Rough sex in different forms, from over-exuberance to violence, was often described by sex workers as a result of clients' inebriation and use of sexual stimulants, which, they report, cause tumescence, excessive thrusting and sex that lasts longer than usual, thereby increasing the risk of condom breakage. Condom breakage in this setting is the result of a complex set of social situations involving client behaviours and power dynamics that has the potential to put the health and personal lives of sex workers at risk. These findings and their implications for programme development are discussed. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

Ramesh B.M.,University of Manitoba | Ramesh B.M.,Karnataka Health Promotion Trust | Beattie T.S.H.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Shajy I.,Karnataka Health Promotion Trust | And 7 more authors.
Sexually Transmitted Infections | Year: 2010

Objectives: To examine the impact of a large-scale HIV prevention programme for female sex workers (FSW) in Karnataka state, south India, on the prevalence of HIV/ sexually transmitted infections (STI), condom use and programme coverage. Methods: Baseline and follow-up integrated biological and behavioural surveys were conducted on random samples of FSW in five districts in Karnataka between 2004 and 2009. Results: 4712 FSW participated in the study (baseline 2312; follow-up 2400), with follow-up surveys conducted 28e37 months after baseline. By follow-up, over 85% of FSW reported contact by a peer educator and having visited a project STI clinic. Compared with baseline, there were reductions in the prevalence of HIV (19.6% vs 16.4%, adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.81, 95% CI 0.67 to 0.99, p=0.04); high-titre syphilis (5.9% vs 3.4%, AOR 0.53, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.77, p=0.001); and chlamydia and/ or gonorrhoea (8.9% vs 7.0%, AOR 0.72, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.94, p=0.02). Reported condom use at last sex increased significantly for repeat clients (66.1% vs 84.1%, AOR 1.98, 95% CI 1.58 to 2.48, p<0.001) and marginally for occasional clients (82.9% vs 88.0%, AOR 1.22, 95% CI 0.89 to 1.66, p=0.2), but remained stable for regular partners (32%). Compared with street and home-based FSW, brothel-based FSW were at highest risk of HIV and STI, despite high levels of reported condom use. Conclusions: This large-scale HIV prevention programme for FSW achieved reductions in HIV and STI prevalence, high rates of condom use with clients and high rates of programme coverage. Improved strategies to increase condom use with regular partners and reduce the vulnerability of brothel-based FSW to HIV are required.

Beattie T.S.H.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Bhattacharjee P.,Karnataka Health Promotion Trust | Suresh M.,Karnataka Health Promotion Trust | Isac S.,Karnataka Health Promotion Trust | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health | Year: 2012

Background: Despite high HIV prevalence rates among most-at-risk groups, utilisation of HIV testing, treatment and care services was relatively low in Karnataka prior to 2008. The authors aimed to understand the barriers to and identify potential solutions for improving HIV service utilisation. Methods: Focus group discussions were carried out among homogeneous groups of female sex workers, men who have sex with men and transgenders, and programme peer educators in six districts across Karnataka in March and April 2008. Results: 26 focus group discussions were conducted, involving 302 participants. Participants had good knowledge about HIV and HIV voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) services, but awareness of other HIV services was low. The fear of the psychological impact of a positive HIV test result and the perceived repercussions of being seen accessing HIV services were key personal and interpersonal barriers to HIV service utilisation. Previous experiences of discrimination at government healthcare services, coupled with discriminatory attitudes and behaviours by VCT staff, were key structural barriers to VCT service uptake among those who had not been HIV tested. Among those who had used government-managed prevention of parent to child transmission and antiretroviral treatment services, poor physical facilities, long waiting times, lack of available treatment, the need to give bribes to receive care and discriminatory attitudes of healthcare staff presented additional structural barriers. Conclusions: Embedding some HIV care services within existing programmes for vulnerable populations, as well as improving service quality at government facilities, are suggested to help overcome the multiple barriers to service utilisation. Increasing the uptake of HIV testing, treatment and care services is key to improving the quality and longevity of the lives of HIV-infected individuals. Copyright Article author (or their employer) 2012.

Pickles M.,Imperial College London | Pickles M.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Boily M.-C.,Imperial College London | Vickerman P.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | And 17 more authors.
The Lancet Global Health | Year: 2013

Background: Avahan, the India AIDS initiative of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, was a large-scale, targeted HIV prevention intervention. We aimed to assess its overall effectiveness by estimating the number and proportion of HIV infections averted across Avahan districts, following the causal pathway of the intervention. Methods: We created a mathematical model of HIV transmission in high-risk groups and the general population using data from serial cross-sectional surveys (integrated behavioural and biological assessments, IBBAs) within a Bayesian framework, which we used to reproduce HIV prevalence trends in female sex workers and their clients, men who have sex with men, and the general population in 24 South Indian districts over the first 4 years (2004-07 or 2005-08 dependent on the district) and the full 10 years (2004-13) of the Avahan programme. We tested whether these prevalence trends were more consistent with self-reported increases in consistent condom use after the implementation of Avahan or with a counterfactual (assuming consistent condom use increased at slower, pre-Avahan rates) using a Bayes factor, which gave a measure of the strength of evidence for the effectiveness estimates. Using regression analysis, we extrapolated the prevention effect in the districts covered by IBBAs to all 69 Avahan districts. Findings: In 13 of 24 IBBA districts, modelling suggested medium to strong evidence for the large self-reported increase in consistent condom use since Avahan implementation. In the remaining 11 IBBA districts, the evidence was weaker, with consistent condom use generally already high before Avahan began. Roughly 32 700 HIV infections (95% credibility interval 17 900-61 600) were averted over the first 4 years of the programme in the IBBA districts with moderate to strong evidence. Addition of the districts with weaker evidence increased this total to 62 800 (32 000-118 000) averted infections, and extrapolation suggested that 202 000 (98 300-407 000) infections were averted across all 69 Avahan districts in South India, increasing to 606 000 (290 000-1 193 000) over 10 years. Over the first 4 years of the programme 42% of HIV infections were averted, and over 10 years 57% were averted. Interpretation: This is the first assessment of Avahan to account for the causal pathway of the intervention, that of changing risk behaviours in female sex workers and high-risk men who have sex with men to avert HIV infections in these groups and the general population. The findings suggest that substantial preventive effects can be achieved by targeted behavioural HIV prevention initiatives.

Mishra S.,Imperial College London | Mishra S.,University of Toronto | Sgaier S.K.,Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation | Thompson L.H.,University of Manitoba | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background: To design HIV prevention programmes, it is critical to understand the temporal and geographic aspects of the local epidemic and to address the key behaviours that drive HIV transmission. Two methods have been developed to appraise HIV epidemics and guide prevention strategies. The numerical proxy method classifies epidemics based on current HIV prevalence thresholds. The Modes of Transmission (MOT) model estimates the distribution of incidence over one year among risk-groups. Both methods focus on the current state of an epidemic and provide short-term metrics which may not capture the epidemiologic drivers. Through a detailed analysis of country and sub-national data, we explore the limitations of the two traditional methods and propose an alternative approach. Methods and Findings: We compared outputs of the traditional methods in five countries for which results were published, and applied the numeric and MOT model to India and six districts within India. We discovered three limitations of the current methods for epidemic appraisal: (1) their results failed to identify the key behaviours that drive the epidemic; (2) they were difficult to apply to local epidemics with heterogeneity across district-level administrative units; and (3) the MOT model was highly sensitive to input parameters, many of which required extraction from non-regional sources. We developed an alternative decision-tree framework for HIV epidemic appraisals, based on a qualitative understanding of epidemiologic drivers, and demonstrated its applicability in India. The alternative framework offered a logical algorithm to characterize epidemics; it required minimal but key data. Conclusions: Traditional appraisals that utilize the distribution of prevalent and incident HIV infections in the short-term could misguide prevention priorities and potentially impede efforts to halt the trajectory of the HIV epidemic. An approach that characterizes local transmission dynamics provides a potentially more effective tool with which policy makers can design intervention programmes. © 2012 Mishra et al.

Deering K.N.,University of British Columbia | Bhattacharjee P.,Karnataka Health Promotion Trust | Mohan H.L.,Karnataka Health Promotion Trust | Bradley J.,Laval University | And 6 more authors.
Sexually Transmitted Diseases | Year: 2013

Background: This study characterized the type and frequency of violence against female sex workers (FSWs) perpetrated by their clients and their main intimate or other nonpaying partner (NPP) and examined the relationship between violence and inconsistent condom use (ICU, G100%). The factors associated with client violence were also assessed. Methods: Data were analyzed from cross-sectional surveys of FSWs in Karnataka state (2007Y2008), India. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the following: (1) relationship between client or NPP violence (physical and/or sexual) and ICU by occasional/repeat clients or the NPP and (2) relationship between social and environmental factors and client violence. Results: Of 1219 FSWs, 9.6% (111) and 3.7% (42) reported experiencing violence by clients and the NPP, respectively. In multivariable analysis, after adjusting for social and environmental factors, the odds of ICU by occasional clients were significantly higher for women who had experienced client violence (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.7; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.6Y4.4). Similar results were found with repeat clients (AOR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.4Y3.4). Nonpaying partner violence was not significantly associated with ICU by the NPP. In multivariable analysis, only being recently arrested remained significantly associated with experiencing client violence (AOR, 1.8; 95% CIs, 1.0Y3.3). Conclusions: The findings from this study provide evidence of a relationship between experiencing client violence and ICU by occasional and repeat clients, and a relationship between being arrested and client violence. Comprehensive structural/policy programming for FSWs, including within HIV-focused prevention programs, is urgently needed to help reduce FSWs' vulnerability to violence. Copyright © 2013 American Sexually Transmitted Diseases Association All rights reserved.

Prakash R.,Karnataka Health Promotion Trust | Singh A.,International Institute for Population Sciences | Pathak P.K.,Shivaji University | Parasuraman S.,International Institute for Population Sciences
Journal of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care | Year: 2011

Background and methodology: Early marriage, women's poor reproductive health and child well-being are important areas of concern, especially in developing countries like India. Data from the third wave of National Family Health Survey (NFHS, 2005-2006) was used to examine the effects of early marriage on the reproductive health status of women and on the well-being of their children. Bivariate analyses, multiple linear regression and logistic regression were used for analyses. Results: The results show that early age at marriage had detrimental effects on the reproductive health status of women. Women married at an early age were exposed to frequent childbearing, unplanned motherhood and abortions, which negatively affected their nutritional status. Children born to mothers with poor reproductive health had lower chances of survival and a higher likelihood of anthropometric failure (i.e. stunting, wasting and underweight). Discussion and conclusions: Programmes should focus on delaying entry of adolescents into wedlock and motherhood through information, education and communication. More emphasis needs to be put on meeting the reproductive needs of poor adolescent mothers, and improving the nutritional status of their children, to break the vicious circle of poor reproductive health and poverty.

Sitruk-Ware R.,Center for Biomedical Research | Nath A.,Karnataka Health Promotion Trust
Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2015

Emerging science will make an important contribution towards the development of improved contraceptives. While long-acting reversible contraceptives remain the most effective method, new user-controlled, mid-acting methods will avoid the need for procedures requiring trained providers. Contraceptives combined with other agents may bring additional health benefits, such as dual protection against both pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Emerging research areas in proteomics allowed the discovery of new reproductive targets that may lead to non-hormonal contraceptives for both men and women. Current research objectives include the improvement of existing contraceptive methods, as well as discovery of new materials able to deliver new molecules more specifically to their target without systemic actions. © Informa UK, Ltd.

Blanchard A.K.,University of Manitoba | Mohan H.L.,Karnataka Health Promotion Trust | Shahmanesh M.,University College London | Prakash R.,Karnataka Health Promotion Trust | And 6 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2013

Background: While community mobilization has been widely endorsed as an important component of HIV prevention among vulnerable populations such as female sex workers (FSWs), there is uncertainty as to the mechanism through which it impacts upon HIV risk. We explored the hypothesis that individual and collective empowerment of FSW is an outcome of community mobilization, and we examined the means through which HIV risk and vulnerability reduction as well as personal and social transformation are achieved. Methods. This study was conducted in five districts in south India, where community mobilization programs are implemented as part of the Avahan program (India AIDS Initiative) of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. We used a theoretically derived "integrated empowerment framework" to conduct a secondary analysis of a representative behavioural tracking survey conducted among 1,750 FSWs. We explored the associations between involvement with community mobilization programs, self-reported empowerment (defined as three domains including power within to represent self-esteem and confidence, power with as a measure of collective identity and solidarity, and power over as access to social entitlements, which were created using Principal Components analysis), and outcomes of HIV risk reduction and social transformation. Results: In multivariate analysis, we found that engagement with HIV programs and community mobilization activities was associated with the domains of empowerment. Power within and power with were positively associated with more program contact (p <.01 and p <.001 respectively). These measures of empowerment were also associated with outcomes of "personal transformation" in terms of self-efficacy for condom and health service use (p <.001). Collective empowerment (power with others) was most strongly associated with "social transformation" variables including higher autonomy and reduced violence and coercion, particularly in districts with programs of longer duration (p <.05). Condom use with clients was associated with power with others (p <.001), while power within was associated with more condom use with regular partners (p <.01) and higher service utilization (p <.05). Conclusion: These findings support the hypothesis that community mobilization has benefits for empowering FSWs both individually and collectively. HIV prevention is strengthened by improving their ability to address different psycho-social and community-level sources of their vulnerability. Future challenges include the need to develop social, political and legal contexts that support community mobilization of FSWs, and to prospectively measure the impact of combined community-level interventions on measures of empowerment as a means to HIV prevention. © 2013 Blanchard et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

McClarty L.M.,University of Manitoba | Lorway R.R.,University of Manitoba | Ramanaik S.,Karnataka Health Promotion Trust | Wylie J.,University of Manitoba | Becker M.L.,University of Manitoba
Vaccine | Year: 2015

The HIV epidemic in the south Indian state of Karnataka disproportionately burdens key populations of men who have sex with men and female sex workers. Despite having successfully reduced HIV incidence among certain key populations through the use of targeted intervention, India's HIV epidemic remains one of its greatest public health issues. The best long-term strategy for managing the global HIV epidemic might involve a preventive vaccine; however, vaccine availability cannot guarantee its accessibility or acceptability. Vaccine recommendations from frontline health service providers have previously been identified as useful strategies to enhance vaccine uptake among target groups. This study used structured interviews to explore frontline health service providers' self-identified likelihood to recommend a future, preventive HIV vaccine to key populations in Karnataka. A modified social ecological model was then used to categorise factors that might prevent health service providers from recommending an HIV vaccine. Overall, 83% of health service providers reported that they would be very likely to recommend an HIV vaccine to men who have sex with men and female sex workers, while less than one-third of participants identified one or more barrier to vaccine recommendation. Intrapersonal, interpersonal, and structural/political factors were most commonly reported to act as potential barriers to future HIV vaccine recommendation among health service providers in Karnataka. This study adds to the limited body of literature focussing on future HIV vaccine acceptability in low- and middle-income countries and highlights some of the several complexities surrounding vaccine acceptability and uptake among key populations in Karnataka. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

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