The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology is one of the largest and most prestigious research and education institutions in Germany known for its high quality of research work around the world.KIT was created in 2009 when the University of Karlsruhe , founded in 1825 as public research university and also known as "Fridericiana", merged with the Karlsruhe Research Centre Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, which was originally established as a national nuclear research centre in 1956.KIT is one of the leading universities in the Engineering and Natural science in Europe, ranking sixth overall in citation impact. KIT is a member of the TU9 German Institutes of Technology e.V. As part of the German Universities Excellence Initiative KIT was accredited with the excellence status in 2006. In the 2011 performance ranking of scientific papers, Karlsruhe ranked first in Germany and among the top ten universities in Europe in engineering and natural science.In the 2013 QS World University Rankings the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology achieved 116th place in the global ranking across all disciplines and 33rd and 34th place in engineering and natural science, respectively. In the 2013 Taiwan ranking, KIT remained the best German University in the engineering and natural science, ranked in the engineering science ahead of the RWTH Aachen , the Technical University of Munich and the Technical University of Dresden . For the natural science KIT led the domestic comparison against the LMU Munich , the University of Heidelberg and the Technical University of Munich . Wikipedia.
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology and International Business Machines Corporation | Date: 2014-01-09
Carbon nanotubes can be aligned with compatibility with semiconductor manufacturing processes, with scalability for forming smaller devices, and without performance degradation related to structural damages. A planar structure including a buried gate electrode and two embedded electrodes are formed. After forming a gate dielectric, carbon nanotubes are assembled in a solution on a surface of the gate dielectric along the direction of an alternating current (AC) electrical field generated by applying a voltage between the two embedded electrodes. A source contact electrode and a drain contact electrode are formed by depositing a conductive material on both ends of the carbon nanotubes. Each of the source and drain contact electrodes can be electrically shorted to an underlying embedded electrode to reduce parasitic capacitance.
Paradies J.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition
The metal-free activation of hydrogen by frustrated Lewis pairs (FLPs) is a valuable method for the hydrogenation of polarized unsaturated molecules ranging from imines, enamines, and silyl enol ethers to heterocycles. However, one of the most important applications of hydrogenation technology is the conversion of unsaturated hydrocarbons into alkanes or alkenes. Despite the fast development of the FLP chemistry, such reactions proved as highly challenging. This Minireview provides an overview of the basic concepts of FLP chemistry, the challenge in the hydrogenation of unsaturated hydrocarbons, and first solutions to this central transformation. Recent metal-free approaches to the hydrogenation of nonpolar double and triple bonds using molecular hydrogen are described. Despite transition-metal-based methodologies for these fundamental chemical transformations, metal-free alternatives are highly desirable. Such technology has only been recently introduced with the aid of frustrated Lewis pairs. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source
Schnockel H.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
A comprehensive review of structures and properties of metalloid Al and Ga clusters showing diversity and complexity of fundamental chemical and physical processes during formation and dissolution of metals is presented. The relation between metalloid and naked metal atom clusters was studied through successive fragmentation of the structurally characterized metalloid cluster anion in the gas phase. The reaction in which AlCl is converted to AlCl3 takes place with the release of a reaction energy of the order of -534 kJ mol -1. Experiments have shown that spin conservation has a significant impact on the reactivity of aluminum clusters and oxygen, and this finding is supported by quantum chemical calculations. The distorted framework structures of a metalloid cluster anion show significant changes in bond length with the switch from the neutral to the anionic cluster. Source
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-01-09
In a sensor system for determining the control signal supplied to the ciliary muscles of an eye for adjusting the focal length of the lens of an eye, a contact element of an electrically non-conductive material and provided with sensors is disposed on the cornea of the eye so that the sensors are arranged in contact with an annular area of the cornea next to the ciliary eye muscles so as to be able to sense the focal adjustment signals supplied to the ciliary muscles and the sensed adjustment signals are supplied to a signal processing unit which provides a control signal to a lens system with adjustable focal length for adjusting the focal length thereof depending on the focal adjustment signals of the ciliary eye muscles.
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-06-12
In a material-interlocking connection between aluminum and copper in a layer assembly comprising an aluminum layer disposed on a copper element and a copper layer disposed on the aluminum layer, a weld seam is formed on the top copper layer so as to form a weld which extends through to top copper layer and the aluminum layer into the copper element so as to form in the weld seam an alloy of copper and aluminum.