The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology is one of the largest and most prestigious research and education institutions in Germany known for its high quality of research work around the world.KIT was created in 2009 when the University of Karlsruhe , founded in 1825 as public research university and also known as "Fridericiana", merged with the Karlsruhe Research Centre Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, which was originally established as a national nuclear research centre in 1956.KIT is one of the leading universities in the Engineering and Natural science in Europe, ranking sixth overall in citation impact. KIT is a member of the TU9 German Institutes of Technology e.V. As part of the German Universities Excellence Initiative KIT was accredited with the excellence status in 2006. In the 2011 performance ranking of scientific papers, Karlsruhe ranked first in Germany and among the top ten universities in Europe in engineering and natural science.In the 2013 QS World University Rankings the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology achieved 116th place in the global ranking across all disciplines and 33rd and 34th place in engineering and natural science, respectively. In the 2013 Taiwan ranking, KIT remained the best German University in the engineering and natural science, ranked in the engineering science ahead of the RWTH Aachen , the Technical University of Munich and the Technical University of Dresden . For the natural science KIT led the domestic comparison against the LMU Munich , the University of Heidelberg and the Technical University of Munich . Wikipedia.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: SGA-RIA | Phase: FETFLAGSHIP | Award Amount: 89.00M | Year: 2016
Understanding the human brain is one of the greatest scientific challenges of our time. Such an understanding can provide profound insights into our humanity, leading to fundamentally new computing technologies, and transforming the diagnosis and treatment of brain disorders. Modern ICT brings this prospect within reach. The HBP Flagship Initiative (HBP) thus proposes a unique strategy that uses ICT to integrate neuroscience data from around the world, to develop a unified multi-level understanding of the brain and diseases, and ultimately to emulate its computational capabilities. The goal is to catalyze a global collaborative effort. During the HBPs first Specific Grant Agreement (SGA1), the HBP Core Project will outline the basis for building and operating a tightly integrated Research Infrastructure, providing HBP researchers and the scientific Community with unique resources and capabilities. Partnering Projects will enable independent research groups to expand the capabilities of the HBP Platforms, in order to use them to address otherwise intractable problems in neuroscience, computing and medicine in the future. In addition, collaborations with other national, European and international initiatives will create synergies, maximizing returns on research investment. SGA1 covers the detailed steps that will be taken to move the HBP closer to achieving its ambitious Flagship Objectives.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: ERA-NET-Cofund | Phase: NMP-14-2015 | Award Amount: 49.69M | Year: 2016
M-ERA.NET 2 aims at coordinating the research efforts of the participating EU Member States, Associated States and Regions as well as of selected global partners in materials research and innovation, including materials for low carbon energy technologies and related production technologies. A large network of 43 national and regional funding organisations from 23 EU Members States and Associated States and 5 countries outside Europe will implement joint calls to fund excellent innovative transnational RTD cooperation, including one call for proposals with EU co-funding and additional non-cofunded calls. Continuing the activities started under the predecessor project M-ERA.NET (2/2012-1/2016), the M-ERA.NET 2 consortium will support relevant thematic areas, such as -for example- surfaces, coatings, composites, additive manufacturing or computational materials engineering. Research on materials enabling low carbon energy technologies will be particularly highlighted as a main target of the cofunded call (Call 2016) with a view to implementing relevant parts of the Materials Roadmap Enabling Low Carbon Energy Technologies (SEC(2011)1609), and relevant objectives of the SET-Plan (COM (2009)519). The appropriate scope of the cofunded call and the additional joint calls will be defined in cooperation with relevant stakeholders including national and regional RTD communities, the EC and the EMIRI (Energy Materials Industrial Research Initiative) as well as an external Strategic Experts Group. M-ERA.NET 2 will support the whole innovation chain, clarifying for each topic the appropriate Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) to be addressed through the transnational RTD projects. The consortium will be aware of the TRLs which are covered by the EC through Horizon 2020 topics as well as by other schemes. Gaps will be identified and M-ERA.NET 2 will aim at offering a complementary support scheme.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: ICT-29-2016 | Award Amount: 15.57M | Year: 2017
PIXAPP will establish the worlds first open access Photonic Integrated Circuit (PIC) assembly & packaging Pilot Line. It combines a highly-interdisciplinary team of Europes leading industrial & research organisations. PIXAPP provides Europes SMEs with a unique one-stop-shop, enabling them to exploit the breakthrough advantages of PIC technologies. PIXAPP bridges the valley of death, providing SMEs with an easy access route to take R&D results from lab to market, giving them a competitive advantage over global competition. Target markets include communications, healthcare & security, which are of great socio-economic importance to Europe. PIXAPPs manufacturing capabilities can support over 120 users per year, across all stages of manufacturing, from prototyping to medium scale manufacture. PIXAPP bridges missing gaps in the value chain, from assembly & packaging, through to equipment optimisation, test and application demonstration. To achieve these ambitious objectives, PIXAPP will; 1) Combine a group of Europes leading industrial & research organisations in an advanced PIC assembly & packaging Pilot Line facility.2) Develop an innovative Pilot Line operational model that coordinates activities between consortium partners & supports easy user access through a single entry point. 3) Establish packaging standards that provide cost-efficient assembly & packaging solutions, enabling transfer to full-scale industrial manufacture. 4) Create the highly-skilled workforce required to manage & operate these industrial manufacturing facilities.5) Develop a business plan to ensure Pilot Line sustainability & a route to industrial manufacturing. PIXAPP will deliver significant impacts to a wide stakeholder group, highlighting how industrial & research sectors can collaborate to address emerging socio-economic challenges.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: SGA-RIA | Phase: FETFLAGSHIP | Award Amount: 89.00M | Year: 2016
This project is the second in the series of EC-financed parts of the Graphene Flagship. The Graphene Flagship is a 10 year research and innovation endeavour with a total project cost of 1,000,000,000 euros, funded jointly by the European Commission and member states and associated countries. The first part of the Flagship was a 30-month Collaborative Project, Coordination and Support Action (CP-CSA) under the 7th framework program (2013-2016), while this and the following parts are implemented as Core Projects under the Horizon 2020 framework. The mission of the Graphene Flagship is to take graphene and related layered materials from a state of raw potential to a point where they can revolutionise multiple industries. This will bring a new dimension to future technology a faster, thinner, stronger, flexible, and broadband revolution. Our program will put Europe firmly at the heart of the process, with a manifold return on the EU investment, both in terms of technological innovation and economic growth. To realise this vision, we have brought together a larger European consortium with about 150 partners in 23 countries. The partners represent academia, research institutes and industries, which work closely together in 15 technical work packages and five supporting work packages covering the entire value chain from materials to components and systems. As time progresses, the centre of gravity of the Flagship moves towards applications, which is reflected in the increasing importance of the higher - system - levels of the value chain. In this first core project the main focus is on components and initial system level tasks. The first core project is divided into 4 divisions, which in turn comprise 3 to 5 work packages on related topics. A fifth, external division acts as a link to the parts of the Flagship that are funded by the member states and associated countries, or by other funding sources. This creates a collaborative framework for the entire Flagship.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INFRADEV-04-2016 | Award Amount: 9.95M | Year: 2017
The EOSCpilot project will support the first phase in the development of the European Open Science Cloud (EOSC) as described in the EC Communication on European Cloud Initiatives . It will establish the governance framework for the EOSC and contribute to the development of European open science policy and best practice; It will develop a number of pilots that integrate services and infrastructures to demonstrate interoperability in a number of scientific domains; and It will engage with a broad range of stakeholders, crossing borders and communities, to build the trust and skills required for adoption of an open approach to scientific research . These actions will build on and leverage already available resources and capabilities from research infrastructure and e-infrastructure organisations to maximise their use across the research community. The EOSCpilot project will address some of the key reasons why European research is not yet fully tapping into the potential of data. In particular, it will: reduce fragmentation between data infrastructures by working across scientific and economic domains, countries and governance models, and improve interoperability between data infrastructures by demonstrating how data and resources can be shared even when they are large and complex and in varied formats, In this way, the EOSC pilot project will improve the ability to reuse data resources and provide an important step towards building a dependable open-data research environment where data from publicly funded research is always open and there are clear incentives and rewards for the sharing of data and resources.
Paradies J.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2014
The metal-free activation of hydrogen by frustrated Lewis pairs (FLPs) is a valuable method for the hydrogenation of polarized unsaturated molecules ranging from imines, enamines, and silyl enol ethers to heterocycles. However, one of the most important applications of hydrogenation technology is the conversion of unsaturated hydrocarbons into alkanes or alkenes. Despite the fast development of the FLP chemistry, such reactions proved as highly challenging. This Minireview provides an overview of the basic concepts of FLP chemistry, the challenge in the hydrogenation of unsaturated hydrocarbons, and first solutions to this central transformation. Recent metal-free approaches to the hydrogenation of nonpolar double and triple bonds using molecular hydrogen are described. Despite transition-metal-based methodologies for these fundamental chemical transformations, metal-free alternatives are highly desirable. Such technology has only been recently introduced with the aid of frustrated Lewis pairs. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Butterbach-Bahl K.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences | Year: 2013
Although it is well established that soils are the dominating source for atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O), we are still struggling to fully understand the complexity of the underlying microbial production and consumption processes and the links to biotic (e.g. inter- and intraspecies competition, food webs, plant-microbe interaction) and abiotic (e.g. soil climate, physics and chemistry) factors. Recent work shows that a better understanding of the composition and diversity of the microbial community across a variety of soils in different climates and under different land use, as well as plant-microbe interactions in the rhizosphere, may provide a key to better understand the variability of N2O fluxes at the soil-atmosphere interface. Moreover, recent insights into the regulation of the reduction of N2O to dinitrogen (N2) have increased our understanding of N2O exchange. This improved process understanding, building on the increased use of isotope tracing techniques and metagenomics, needs to go along with improvements in measurement techniques for N2O (and N2) emission in order to obtain robust field and laboratory datasets for different ecosystem types. Advances in both fields are currently used to improve process descriptions in biogeochemical models, which may eventually be used not only to test our current process understanding from the microsite to the field level, but also used as tools for up-scaling emissions to landscapes and regions and to explore feedbacks of soil N2O emissions to changes in environmental conditions, land management and land use.
Huege T.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
Physics Reports | Year: 2016
In 1965 it was discovered that cosmic ray air showers emit impulsive radio signals at frequencies below 100 MHz. After a period of intense research in the 1960s and 1970s, however, interest in the detection technique faded almost completely. With the availability of powerful digital signal processing techniques, new attempts at measuring cosmic ray air showers via their radio emission were started at the beginning of the new millennium. Starting with modest, small-scale digital prototype setups, the field has evolved, matured and grown very significantly in the past decade. Today's second-generation digital radio detection experiments consist of up to hundreds of radio antennas or cover areas of up to 17 km2. We understand the physics of the radio emission in extensive air showers in detail and have developed analysis strategies to accurately derive from radio signals parameters which are related to the astrophysics of the primary cosmic ray particles, in particular their energy, arrival direction and estimators for their mass. In parallel to these successes, limitations inherent in the physics of the radio signals have also become increasingly clear. In this article, we review the progress of the past decade and the current state of the field, discuss the current paradigm of the radio emission physics and present the experimental evidence supporting it. Finally, we discuss the potential for future applications of the radio detection technique to advance the field of cosmic ray physics. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: NMBP-18-2016 | Award Amount: 9.03M | Year: 2017
Sustainability of energy systems goes through high penetration of renewable energy with huge volumes of electricity to transmit over long distances. The most advanced solution is the HVDC Supergrid. But fault currents remain an issue even if DC circuit breakers have emerged. These are not satisfying, whereas Superconducting Fault Current Limiters (SCFCLs) using REBCO tapes bring an attractive solution. SCFCLs have already proved their outstanding performances in MVAC systems, with a few commercial devices in service. However, present REBCO conductors cannot be readily used at very high voltages: the electrical field under current limitation is too low and leads to too long tapes and high cost. FASTGRID aims to improve and modify the REBCO conductor, in particular its shunt, in order to significantly enhance (2 to 3 times) the electric field and so the economical SCFCL attractiveness. A commercial tape will be upgraded to reach a higher critical current and enhanced homogeneity as compared to todays standards. For safer and better operation, the tapes normal zone propagation velocity will be increased by at least a factor of 10 using the patented current flow diverter concept. The shunt surface will also be functionalized to boost the thermal exchanges with coolant. This advanced conductor will be used in a smart DC SCFCL module (1 kA 50 kV). This one will include new functionalities and will be designed as sub-element of a real HVDC device. In parallel to this main line of work, developments will be carried out on a promising breakthrough path: ultra high electric field tapes based on sapphire substrates. FASTGRID will bring this to the next levels of technology readiness. In conclusion, FASTGRID project aims at improving significantly existing REBCO conductor architecture to make SCFCLs economically attractive for HVDC Supergrids. However, availability of such an advanced conductor will have an impact on virtually all other applications of HTS tapes.
Schnockel H.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2010
A comprehensive review of structures and properties of metalloid Al and Ga clusters showing diversity and complexity of fundamental chemical and physical processes during formation and dissolution of metals is presented. The relation between metalloid and naked metal atom clusters was studied through successive fragmentation of the structurally characterized metalloid cluster anion in the gas phase. The reaction in which AlCl is converted to AlCl3 takes place with the release of a reaction energy of the order of -534 kJ mol -1. Experiments have shown that spin conservation has a significant impact on the reactivity of aluminum clusters and oxygen, and this finding is supported by quantum chemical calculations. The distorted framework structures of a metalloid cluster anion show significant changes in bond length with the switch from the neutral to the anionic cluster.