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Karlsruhe, Germany

The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology is one of the largest and most prestigious research and education institutions in Germany known for its high quality of research work around the world.KIT was created in 2009 when the University of Karlsruhe , founded in 1825 as public research university and also known as "Fridericiana", merged with the Karlsruhe Research Centre Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, which was originally established as a national nuclear research centre in 1956.KIT is one of the leading universities in the Engineering and Natural science in Europe, ranking sixth overall in citation impact. KIT is a member of the TU9 German Institutes of Technology e.V. As part of the German Universities Excellence Initiative KIT was accredited with the excellence status in 2006. In the 2011 performance ranking of scientific papers, Karlsruhe ranked first in Germany and among the top ten universities in Europe in engineering and natural science.In the 2013 QS World University Rankings the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology achieved 116th place in the global ranking across all disciplines and 33rd and 34th place in engineering and natural science, respectively. In the 2013 Taiwan ranking, KIT remained the best German University in the engineering and natural science, ranked in the engineering science ahead of the RWTH Aachen , the Technical University of Munich and the Technical University of Dresden . For the natural science KIT led the domestic comparison against the LMU Munich , the University of Heidelberg and the Technical University of Munich . Wikipedia.

Hedde P.N.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
Nature communications | Year: 2013

Raster image correlation spectroscopy is a powerful tool to study fast molecular dynamics such as protein diffusion or receptor-ligand interactions inside living cells and tissues. By analysing spatio-temporal correlations of fluorescence intensity fluctuations from raster-scanned microscopy images, molecular motions can be revealed in a spatially resolved manner. Because of the diffraction-limited optical resolution, however, conventional raster image correlation spectroscopy can only distinguish larger regions of interest and requires low fluorophore concentrations in the nanomolar range. Here, to overcome these limitations, we combine raster image correlation spectroscopy with stimulated emission depletion microscopy. With imaging experiments on model membranes and live cells, we show that stimulated emission depletion-raster image correlation spectroscopy offers an enhanced multiplexing capability because of the enhanced spatial resolution as well as access to 10-100 times higher fluorophore concentrations.

Huege T.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
Physics Reports | Year: 2016

In 1965 it was discovered that cosmic ray air showers emit impulsive radio signals at frequencies below 100 MHz. After a period of intense research in the 1960s and 1970s, however, interest in the detection technique faded almost completely. With the availability of powerful digital signal processing techniques, new attempts at measuring cosmic ray air showers via their radio emission were started at the beginning of the new millennium. Starting with modest, small-scale digital prototype setups, the field has evolved, matured and grown very significantly in the past decade. Today's second-generation digital radio detection experiments consist of up to hundreds of radio antennas or cover areas of up to 17 km2. We understand the physics of the radio emission in extensive air showers in detail and have developed analysis strategies to accurately derive from radio signals parameters which are related to the astrophysics of the primary cosmic ray particles, in particular their energy, arrival direction and estimators for their mass. In parallel to these successes, limitations inherent in the physics of the radio signals have also become increasingly clear. In this article, we review the progress of the past decade and the current state of the field, discuss the current paradigm of the radio emission physics and present the experimental evidence supporting it. Finally, we discuss the potential for future applications of the radio detection technique to advance the field of cosmic ray physics. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Paradies J.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2014

The metal-free activation of hydrogen by frustrated Lewis pairs (FLPs) is a valuable method for the hydrogenation of polarized unsaturated molecules ranging from imines, enamines, and silyl enol ethers to heterocycles. However, one of the most important applications of hydrogenation technology is the conversion of unsaturated hydrocarbons into alkanes or alkenes. Despite the fast development of the FLP chemistry, such reactions proved as highly challenging. This Minireview provides an overview of the basic concepts of FLP chemistry, the challenge in the hydrogenation of unsaturated hydrocarbons, and first solutions to this central transformation. Recent metal-free approaches to the hydrogenation of nonpolar double and triple bonds using molecular hydrogen are described. Despite transition-metal-based methodologies for these fundamental chemical transformations, metal-free alternatives are highly desirable. Such technology has only been recently introduced with the aid of frustrated Lewis pairs. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Walther C.,Leibniz University of Hanover | Denecke M.A.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2013

A study was conducted to investigate actinide colloids and particles of environmental concern. Sources of actinide particles in the environment other than nuclear explosions and nuclear power plant accidents were naturally occurring radioactive matter or particle contaminants released from other military activities related to nuclear power production and from minor occurrences, such as nuclear powered satellites. These particles containing actinide element contaminants were found in the environment in a wide variety of forms or morphologies and compositions, exhibiting varying chemistries and stabilities. The morphology, elemental, and isotopic composition of actinide particles were obtained by a variety of experimental techniques, such as electron microscopy, mass spectrometry (MS), and some other techniques.

Stamatakis A.,Heidelberg Institute for Theoretical Studies | Stamatakis A.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
Bioinformatics | Year: 2014

Motivation: Phylogenies are increasingly used in all fields of medical and biological research. Moreover, because of the next-generation sequencing revolution, datasets used for conducting phylogenetic analyses grow at an unprecedented pace. RAxML (Randomized Axelerated Maximum Likelihood) is a popular program for phylogenetic analyses of large datasets under maximum likelihood. Since the last RAxML paper in 2006, it has been continuously maintained and extended to accommodate the increasingly growing input datasets and to serve the needs of the user community. Results: I present some of the most notable new features and extensions of RAxML, such as a substantial extension of substitution models and supported data types, the introduction of SSE3, AVX and AVX2 vector intrinsics, techniques for reducing the memory requirements of the code and a plethora of operations for conducting postanalyses on sets of trees. In addition, an up-to-date 50-page user manual covering all new RAxML options is available. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press.

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