Karlsruhe, Germany

The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology is one of the largest and most prestigious research and education institutions in Germany known for its high quality of research work around the world.KIT was created in 2009 when the University of Karlsruhe , founded in 1825 as public research university and also known as "Fridericiana", merged with the Karlsruhe Research Centre Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, which was originally established as a national nuclear research centre in 1956.KIT is one of the leading universities in the Engineering and Natural science in Europe, ranking sixth overall in citation impact. KIT is a member of the TU9 German Institutes of Technology e.V. As part of the German Universities Excellence Initiative KIT was accredited with the excellence status in 2006. In the 2011 performance ranking of scientific papers, Karlsruhe ranked first in Germany and among the top ten universities in Europe in engineering and natural science.In the 2013 QS World University Rankings the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology achieved 116th place in the global ranking across all disciplines and 33rd and 34th place in engineering and natural science, respectively. In the 2013 Taiwan ranking, KIT remained the best German University in the engineering and natural science, ranked in the engineering science ahead of the RWTH Aachen , the Technical University of Munich and the Technical University of Dresden . For the natural science KIT led the domestic comparison against the LMU Munich , the University of Heidelberg and the Technical University of Munich . Wikipedia.


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Rodi W.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
Journal of Hydraulic Engineering | Year: 2017

The paper reviews in condensed form and from a historical perspective the various methods for treating and simulating turbulence and its effects in hydraulic flows. After highlighting the main characteristic features of turbulence and the role it plays in hydraulics, a necessarily brief overview is given of the main methods used in hydraulic flow calculations for dealing with turbulence and its effects. These are (1) empirical relations, (2) methods solving the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with the aid of statistical turbulence models, (3) direct numerical simulations (DNS), and (4) large-eddy simulations (LES). Brief comments are made on the historical development of the different methods, and for RANS, DNS, and LES methods some application examples are presented. For details on the individual methods and further application examples, the reader is directed to the very extensive literature. © 2016 American Society of Civil Engineers.


Frese M.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
WCTE 2016 - World Conference on Timber Engineering | Year: 2016

Strength values of timber products, obtained by computer simulations, must be checked with regard to its absolute level and its apparent variation due to changes, inter alia, in the load configurations. In this paper, the focus is on the issue whether those apparent strength variations are reproduced correctly by the numerical procedure used. From physical perspective, apparent strength variations are caused by the interaction between the actual natural strength variability, changes in the load configuration and/or the member volume and the brittle material behaviour. The material used for this study is glulam modelled with brittle tensile failure. Finally, both the numerical and analytical procedure lead to almost identical results. Therefore, the comparison proves that the numerical approach more or less correctly reflects the basic principles of the Weibull theory since no contradictions between numerically and analytically determined strength variations exist. The study generally shows that corresponding analytical methods, if available, are a beneficial tool to verify and validate computational procedures.


Sandhaas C.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
WCTE 2016 - World Conference on Timber Engineering | Year: 2016

Dowel-laminated timber (DLT) elements consist of lamellae arranged side-by-side that are connected with beech dowels. Due to the glue-free DLT element layup, joints and shear walls potentially suffer from considerable reduction of stiffness and load carrying capacity as metal fasteners inserted perpendicular to the element plane may be placed in gaps between the single lamellae. Tests on typical joints showed that, depending on the fastener diameter, the remaining load carrying capacity of joints in DLT in comparison to joints in solid wood may be only 25%. Tests on DLT shear walls with different sheeting proved that the use of DLT structures as shear walls is only possible if at least one-sided sheeting is used. Cyclic tests on DLT shear walls demonstrated that the DLT construction typology has energy dissipation properties similar to traditional timber frame construction. Analogously, preliminary behaviour factors for DLT buildings evaluated with numerical models were also similar to those for timber frame buildings.


Pacher M.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Puchta H.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
Plant Journal | Year: 2017

Production of mutants of crop plants by the use of chemical or physical genotoxins has a long tradition. These factors induce the natural DNA repair machinery to repair damage in an error-prone way. In the case of radiation, multiple double-strand breaks (DSBs) are induced randomly in the genome, leading in very rare cases to a desirable phenotype. In recent years the use of synthetic, site-directed nucleases (SDNs) - also referred to as sequence-specific nucleases - like the CRISPR/Cas system has enabled scientists to use exactly the same naturally occurring DNA repair mechanisms for the controlled induction of genomic changes at pre-defined sites in plant genomes. As these changes are not necessarily associated with the permanent integration of foreign DNA, the obtained organisms per se cannot be regarded as genetically modified as there is no way to distinguish them from natural variants. This applies to changes induced by DSBs as well as single-strand breaks, and involves repair by non-homologous end-joining and homologous recombination. The recent development of SDN-based 'DNA-free' approaches makes mutagenesis strategies in classical breeding indistinguishable from SDN-derived targeted genome modifications, even in regard to current regulatory rules. With the advent of new SDN technologies, much faster and more precise genome editing becomes available at reasonable cost, and potentially without requiring time-consuming deregulation of newly created phenotypes. This review will focus on classical mutagenesis breeding and the application of newly developed SDNs in order to emphasize similarities in the context of the regulatory situation for genetically modified crop plants. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and the Society for Experimental Biology.


Dulov O.V.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
CEUR Workshop Proceedings | Year: 2016

The paper provides a project status, system architecture, and future work for bwCloud. The purpose of the bwCloud project is to build a prototype for cross-site Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) system, based on the set of universities in Baden-Württemberg (Germany). This differentiates from the typical IaaS systems, where sites located into one data center or into one service provider's organization. The federative approach is the core concept for the project: it starts from the system architecture, follows through the resource sharing and user management for the scientific community in the region. The concept for production-ready cross-site IaaS is another output from the project. This concept can be used by any other universities or research centers to connect to bwCloud or setup their own cross-site IaaS platform. There are some design ideas introduced and some technological stacks analyzed. © 2016 Oleg V. Dulov.


Jin X.Z.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
Fusion Engineering and Design | Year: 2017

Safety analysis for the design basis accident (DBA) is essential to support DEMO blanket concept design. It is necessary to study the pressure behaviour in the blanket and the connected systems during the loss of coolant accident (LOCA) in a blanket module, as well as the temperature evolution in the coolant flow and the associated structures. For the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) blanket concept (version 2014) three representative accidental sequences of LOCA have been simulated using system code MELCOR 1.8.6 for fusion. The LOCA is identified to be the failure of cooling channels in the stiffening grid, in the FW or in the breeder unit. Simulation results are discussed in this paper. © 2017 The Author.


Prunsche B.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
Nature Photonics | Year: 2017

Stimulated emission depletion (STED) fluorescence nanoscopy is a powerful super-resolution imaging technique based on the confinement of fluorescence emission to the central subregion of an observation volume through de-excitation of fluorophores in the periphery via stimulated emission. Here, we introduce stimulated emission double depletion (STEDD) as a method to selectively remove artificial background intensity. In this approach, a first, conventional STED pulse is followed by a second, delayed Gaussian STED pulse that specifically depletes the central region, thus leaving only background. Thanks to time-resolved detection we can remove this background intensity voxel by voxel by taking the weighted difference of photons collected before and after the second STED pulse. STEDD thus yields background-suppressed super-resolved images as well as STED-based fluorescence correlation spectroscopy data. Furthermore, the proposed method is also beneficial when considering lower-power, less redshifted depletion pulses. © 2017 Nature Publishing Group


Emelyanov S.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
Nuclear Physics B | Year: 2017

We compute the value of effective photon mass mγat one-loop level in QED in the background of small (1010�16 g) spherically symmetric black hole in asymptotically flat spacetime. This effect is associated with the modification of electron/positron propagator in presence of event horizon. Physical manifestations of black-hole environment are compared with those of hot neutral plasma. We estimate the distance to the nearest black hole from the upper bound onγobtained in the Coulomb-law test. We also find that corrections to electron mass meand fine structure constant α at one-loop level in QED are negligible in the weak gravity regime. © 2017 The Author(s)


Huege T.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment | Year: 2017

Radio detection of extensive air showers initiated in the Earth's atmosphere has made tremendous progress in the last decade. Today, radio detection is routinely used in several cosmic-ray observatories. The physics of the radio emission in air showers is well-understood, and analysis techniques have been developed to determine the arrival direction, the energy and an estimate for the mass of the primary particle from the radio measurements. The achieved resolutions are competitive with those of more traditional techniques. In this article, I shortly review the most important achievements and discuss the potential for future applications. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


Friedl-Vallon F.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
Optics InfoBase Conference Papers | Year: 2016

The presentation gives an overview of scientific capabilities demonstrated and technical improvements achieved during five years of operation of the airborne imaging infrared limb sounder GLORIA. © OSA 2016.


Bruckner G.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Rutter I.,TU Eindhoven
Proceedings of the Annual ACM-SIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms | Year: 2017

Let G = (V;E) be a directed graph and : V ! [k] := f1; : : : ; kg a level assignment such that ℓ(u) < ℓ(v) for all directed edges (u; v) 2 E. A level planar drawing of G is a drawing of G where each vertex v is mapped to a unique point on the horizontal line i with y-coordinate ℓ(v), and each edge is drawn as a y-monotone curve between its endpoints such that no two curves cross in their interior. In the problem Constrained Level Planarity (CLP for short), we are further given a partial ordering ℓi of Vi := 1(i) for i 2 [k], and we seek a level planar drawing where the order of the vertices on i is a linear extension of ℓi. A special case of this is the problem Partial Level Planarity (PLP for short), where we are asked to extend a given level-planar drawing H of a subgraph H ⊆ G to a complete drawing G of G without modifying the given drawing, i.e., the restriction of G to H must coincide with H. We give a simple polynomial-time algorithm with running time O(n5) for CLP of single-source graphs that is based on a simplified version of an existing levelplanarity testing algorithm for single-source graphs. We introduce a modified type of PQ-tree data structure that is capable of efficiently handling the arising constraints to improve the running time to O(n + kℓ), where is the size of the constraints. We complement this result by showing that PLP is NP-complete even in very restricted cases. In particular, PLP remains NPcomplete even when G is a subdivision of a triconnected planar graph with bounded degree. Copyright © by SIAM.


News Article | April 20, 2017
Site: phys.org

Dried fruit, gravel or waste – all this is sorted on belt systems by size and quality. Credit: Fraunhofer IOSB Sand, gravel, coal, deicing salt or diamonds, grain, sugar, coffee or grapes and waste – a lot of everyday goods are more or less grainy. To classify this bulk material by quality and size, it must be sorted in a sophisticated process. Tens of thousands of belt-type sorting plants operate in Germany alone. Scientists of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) and the Fraunhofer Institute for Optronics, Systems Technology and Image Evaluation (IOSB) have developed a system that is able to sort much faster, more cheaply and more accurately than previous techniques. Bulk materials are processed in nearly all industries, including building construction, logistics, chemistry and agriculture. Given the large number of plants, any improvement of the sorting steps necessary everywhere could save billions. "The economic benefit of this project can hardly be overestimated; enormous resources could be saved," explains Professor Uwe Hanebeck at the KIT in describing the new technology. Because of the patterns of movement of objects to be sorted, much more precise classification is possible than in conventional sorting systems. Industry had already shown interest in the new technology, says Professor Thomas Längle, responsible for the project at the Fraunhofer IOSB. "Classical belt-type sorting systems scan the material to be sorted by means of a camera; parts not to be treated are blown out by means of pressurized air nozzles," explains Georg Maier of the IOSB. There is a problem: The cameras now in use scan the objects only on a short belt section, which allows only rough classification. As a consequence, several runs are necessary to achieve a satisfactory result. The team led by Längle and Hanebeck developed a sorting system in which cameras operating from different perspectives capture a more precise view of the bulk material. In this way, objects of different categories can be distinguished more effectively. In addition, algorithms based on the images predict how objects are going to move on the belt. In this way, it is possible to sort out foreign bodies much more precisely. The advantages of the new sorting system are explained by Benjamin Noack of the ISAS by the example of spheres and hemispheres: "When seen from the top, they look alike. While hemispheres normally remain on the belt, spheres are restless, thus additionally aggravating the sorting process. However, when seen from the side, spheres and hemispheres can be distinguished." In addition, the system was now able to predict the behavior of these objects and then adjust its operation accordingly and, in this way, also achieve better classification, says Noack. The scientists also found a way to increase the accuracy of existing sorting systems quickly and at low cost. "This requires but a software update," explains Hanebeck. Besides the KIT and IOSB, also the Ruhr University of Bochum (RUB) and the Technical University of Berlin (TUB) are involved in the project. Scientists at those institutions in particular work on realistic simulations of bulk material and the numerical design of sorting systems. Explore further: Sorting black plastics according to type enables previously impossible recycling


News Article | May 2, 2017
Site: www.rdmag.com

3D printing by direct laser writing produces micrometer-sized structures with precisely defined properties. Researchers of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) have now developed a method to erase the ink used for 3D printing. In this way, the small structures of up to 100 nm in size can be erased and rewritten repeatedly. One nanometer corresponds to one millionth of a millimeter. This development opens up many new applications of 3D fabrication in biology or materials sciences, for instance. Direct laser writing means that a computer-controlled, focused laser beam generates the structure in a photoresist similar to a pen. "Developing an ink that can be erased again was one of the big challenges in direct laser writing," Professor Christopher Barner-Kowollik of KIT's Institute for Chemical Technology and Polymer Chemistry says. The scientists have now met with success: They have developed an ink with reversible bonding, the building blocks of which can be separated from each other. The printed structure is simply erased by immersing it into a chemical solvent. At the point of erasure, a new structure can be written. In this way, the structure can be modified repeatedly. The process was developed in close cooperation with the group of Professor Martin Wegener at the Institute of Applied Physics and the Institute of Nanotechnology of KIT. The physicists developed highly specialized 3D printers that produce scaffolds of up to 100 nm in size by direct laser writing. "The ink with defined breaking points can be used for a variety of applications," doctoral student and first author Markus Zieger says. Structures written with erasable ink can be integrated into structures made of non-erasable ink: Support constructions can be produced by 3D printing, which are similar to those used when building bridges and removed later on. It is also possible to further develop 3D designer petri dishes for use in biology. Recently, such structures were designed by KIT to grow cell cultures in three dimensions on the laboratory scale. "During cell growth, parts of the 3D microscaffold could be removed again to study how the cells react to the changed environment," Martin Wegener explains. According to the scientists, it is also feasible to produce reversible wire bonds from erasable conducting structures in the future. A permanent ink can be mixed with a non-permanent ink to influence the properties of the printed material and make it more or less porous, for instance. The new process is presented in the renowned journal Angewandte Chemie under the heading "Cleaving Direct Laser Written Microstructures on Demand." The reviewers rated this publication a "very important paper." 3D printing already is indispensable in many fabrication areas. Its importance is increasing. "According to estimations, some 10 percent of all goods will be produced by 3D printing in 2030," Barner-Kowollik and Wegener say.


News Article | April 19, 2017
Site: news.yahoo.com

Scientists in Germany have 3D printed very intricate tiny objects using glass. And of course, one of these objects is a pretzel. In the future, the technique could be used to 3D print more useful things, like complex lenses, filters, and even ornaments that generally need highly skilled artisans to make. The researchers used a type of “liquid glass” to make complex shapes that are smooth, transparent, and have a very high resolution, according to a study published today in Nature. More importantly, the glass objects were created using standard and commonly used 3D printers. The technique, however, also requires the use of a high-temperature oven you’re not likely to have in your apartment for baking a pie. Regardless, the study opens up the possibility of making an extremely important material accessible to one of the most revolutionizing technologies of our time. Today, 3D printers are used to make all sorts of things — from shoes to airplane parts — with a variety of materials, usually plastics but also metal and ceramic. Glass has some pretty unique properties — it’s hard, long-lasting, can insulate against heat and electricity, and is key for creating the highest quality lenses for anything from your glasses to your camera. But the material is hard to 3D print because it melts at extremely high temperatures. “Glass is one of the oldest materials known to mankind,” says study co-author Bastian Rapp of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, “and it has been pretty much ignored in the 3D printing revolution of the 21st century.” Scientists have 3D printed glass before. Scientists at MIT have made transparent glass objects using a special 3D printer that heats up to about 1,900 degrees Fahrenheit. Other attempts have resulted in mostly weak and cloudy glass objects. The technique described in today’s study is different because it uses 3D printing technology that’s already widely available, Rapp says. The special sauce is the liquid glass The special sauce is in the material Rapp and his team used. The “liquid glass” they designed is a glass powder embedded into a liquid polymer. Here’s how it works: a standard 3D printer uses the liquid glass to print an object. The object is then processed in a high-temperature oven where the glass particles fuse together, becoming transparent. The technique was used to make objects like a castle gate, a pretzel, and a honeycomb structure that are a few millimeters in size, and have features as small as a few tens of micrometers. (The resolution, however, can be even higher by using a higher-resolution 3D printer.) The objects could also withstand temperatures as high as 1,472 degrees Fahrenheit. This “allows us to process one of the oldest material with some of the most astonishing optical, mechanical, and physical properties by state of the art modern 3D printing instruments,” Rapp says. “Our aim was to close this material gap.” In the future, this technique could be used to 3D print complex lenses for things like smartphone cameras, and parts for next-generation microprocessors, Rapp says. But the applications are really limitless — from glass ornaments to intricate glass panels used in buildings. I just hope 3D printing won’t actually replace the traditional glass blowing techniques mastered in places like Murano, Italy. I always get a kick out of seeing those sweaty glass blowers moulding the scorching hot, orange material. I’m pretty sure a 3D printer isn’t as artistic!


News Article | April 27, 2017
Site: www.cemag.us

Tiny, individual crystals on the underside of a Mexican butterfly’s wings give the insect a distinctive green color that allows it to hide from predators. Researchers at the University of Fribourg’s Adolphe Merkle Institute (AMI), the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (FAU) in Germany, and Murdoch University in Western Australia, have shown for the first time how these crystals might grow. The scientists investigated the nanostructure on the wing scales of the green Hairstreak butterfly. What they found on each wing scale were structured nanocrystals that were surprisingly not interconnected. Rather they were a series of regularly spaced points where so-called gyroid photonic structures had grown. Gyroids are labyrinth-like three-dimensional structures first described by NASA scientist Allan Schoen. These structures, which are partially pigmented, are responsible for the butterfly’s green color. According to the researchers, the repetition of these nanostructures is similar to the wavelength of visible light which explains its peculiar optical property of producing a green color without any pigment. This was the first time this pattern was observed in butterflies, which are known for their particularly diverse wing scale structures. These structures are important to the insects for multiple functions such as signaling and water repellency. How the complex structures develop remains to this day largely unknown since it is impossible to observe on living specimens. The researchers were however able to infer that the structure they observed, using electron and x-ray microscopy, grew in a multistep process. In a first stage, an enveloping casing or mold develops. Then it is filled by a biopolymeric gyroid structure with a different chemical composition. This growth pattern contradicts previous theories. “Previous theories lacked the sampling and/or time resolution needed for the investigation,” explains Bodo Wilts, the lead AMI researcher on the project. “The unique structure found in these scales looks like it is still ‘growing’. Theories so far were based on single time points of the development. With our dataset, we are able to infer whether these are correct.” The results give insights into how butterfly wing cells develop, but could also provide inspiration for new nanoscale assembly techniques. The structures are not only precisely formed, but also developed under normal temperature and pressure conditions. “With optics and photovoltaics, we have taken inspiration from nature in terms of what structures we can copy and adapt. But we seem to neglect that we can also learn from the mechanisms nature employs to make these structures,” says Murdoch University’s Gerd Schroeder-Turk, one of the study’s co-authors. “Efficiencies and innovations are sure to be revealed if we can unpick these processes.” The results have been published in Science Advances, an open-access journal.


News Article | April 17, 2017
Site: www.spie.org

Novel hybrid polymers for fabrication of advanced micro-optics The enduring search for innovative materials, as solutions for the fabrication of advanced micro-optics, remains a crucial part in achieving the commercial success of emerging production technologies. In this regard, innovative optical polymers pave the way for easy, cost-effective, and reliable fabrication of micro-optical devices. To enable a broad range of applications, however, it is necessary for these materials to satisfy numerous requirements. These requirements derive from both the initial processing itself (e.g., the need for broad and reliable process windows) and from the final application (e.g., the need for transparency at a certain wavelength or wavelength bands, as well as non-yellowing, specific refractive index, and high-temperature stability properties). On the basis of Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft's ORMOCER® technology, UV-curable inorganic-organic hybrid polymers have become established materials that are used in industry for a variety of optical applications (e.g., microlens arrays, diffractive gratings, and wafer-level optics).1 These hybrid polymers consist of inorganic and organic components that are covalently bonded at the molecular level. The materials thus exhibit a combination of the favorable properties of both material classes and satisfy many different requirements for industrial micro- and nanofabrication. In addition, these materials can be processed with the use of standard UV-exposure setups,2, 3 as well as UV-molding and laser lithography systems,4 which means they can be implemented into mass-production environments. Since their original commercialization in the early 2000s, our team at microresist technology GmbH has achieved a continued upscaling in production volume of these hybrid materials. As a result, a total volume of these materials of more than 1000kg has now been produced and they are supplied to a constantly growing number of users and consumers worldwide (in academia and industry). These innovative hybrid materials are therefore a viable consumable for industrial fabrication of hybrid polymeric micro-optics.5 Direct fabrication of individual high-precision 3D photonic structures from the hybrid materials, however, is currently limited by the available generic techniques (including UV lithography, UV molding, and laser-direct writing). To further extend the potential applications of UV-curable inorganic-organic hybrid materials, we have thus investigated the fabrication of optical interconnects made from these materials.6 For this work, which we conducted in collaboration with Multiphoton Optics GmbH (MPO),7 we used the two-photon absorption (TPA) lithography technique4, 8 because it allows the direct fabrication of individual high-precision 3D photonic structures. In the first part of the study (at MPO), we used TPA to fabricate different optical elements that have almost no limitation in shape or size. As an example, we show a 133μm-diameter Fresnel lens in Figure 1. Figure 1. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of a Fresnel lens (top view). The lens has a diameter of 133μm and was fabricated using two-photon absorption (TPA) lithography and a generic ORMOCER-based hybrid polymer. (Image courtesy of Multiphoton Optics GmbH, MPO.) We have also developed new formulations of the hybrid polymers so that we can obtain ideal conditions for the fabrication process of single-mode and multimode waveguides. In our preliminary assessment, we found that some of our novel hybrid polymer formulations have a significantly increased processing window (i.e., where fabrication of waveguides is feasible and no material overexposure occurs) compared with generic formulations (i.e., commercially available hybrid polymers). For instance, in Figure 2 we illustrate the changes in lithographic performance (in terms of writing laser power and writing velocity) of our TPA-modified hybrid polymers that we can achieve in the high-precision 3D-printing process. Figure 2. Illustration of the lithographic performance of TPA-modified ORMOCER-based hybrid polymers that can be achieved in a high-precision TPA 3D-printing process. In both plots the exposure dose (power) is plotted as a function of the writing speed (velocity) and the colored (blue) area indicates the available processing window, i.e., where no material malfunction (such as blistering) occurs. In (a) there is only a limited process window. In (b), however, the process window has been substantially increased by altering the photoinitiator (the same base material was used in both cases). The material in (b) was used as the novel TPA-adapted hybrid polymer system in this study. As a proof-of-principle, we fabricated a specimen to demonstrate pitch adaption (see Figure 3). This demonstrator consisted of six waveguides, and we adapted its pitch from 125 to 62.5μm (left to right). The embedded 3D waveguides in this structure were written over a 500μm gap between two glass substrates. In this way we were able to ‘simulate’ a chip-to-chip connection and demonstrate that 3D waveguides—which form a connection between different optical elements—are feasible in adapted hybrid polymers. This optical interconnect technique is a promising candidate for implementation in industry because it can be used as substitute for the tedious process of actively and passively aligning different optical elements within assemblies. Our process is more simplified because it only requires passive alignment and consists of three processing steps: that is, coating of the components with the hybrid polymer resin, pre-exposure of the polymer material via a UV-flash exposure, and fabrication of the waveguides via the TPA process. Figure 3. Top-view optical microscope image of six waveguide cores embedded in a cladding matrix of an ORMOCER-based hybrid polymer. The pitch of the waveguides has been adapted from 125 to 62.5μm (left to right). As a proof-of-principle for chip-to-chip coupling, the waveguides were fabricated on two glass substrates (with a gap of about 500μm between them) at a height of 150–170μm. (Image courtesy of MPO.) In another part of our work, we have investigated the generation of a high-precision 3D optical micropattern. In this basic parameter study we examined woodpile-like microstructures (see Figure 4), and we thus experimentally verified the large processing window of hybrid polymers. Furthermore, we observed different degrees of stiffness in the material, i.e., we categorized the structures of the woodpiles as ‘excellent’ or ‘collapsing.’ We observed ‘partly collapsing’ structures when the energy dose was too small to sufficiently cross-link the material (by TPA-induced polymerization), which may be an advantageous setting for facilitating applications where material flexibility is required. Figure 4. Top-view SEM image of a woodpile-like microstructure that has been exposed to varying extents by changing the TPA lithography parameters. From left to right, the average fabrication power was increased from 1 to 10mW. From top to bottom, the writing velocity was increased from 0.1 to 1mm/s. The total fabrication time was about 2 hours. This structure is thus an experimental verification of the broad processing window of the modified ORMOCER-based hybrid polymers. (Image courtesy of MPO.) In summary, we have evaluated the properties of novel ORMOCER-based hybrid polymers that have been adapted for high-precision 3D printing by using TPA lithography. We found that some of our TPA modifications significantly increase the processing windows of the polymers compared to generic formulations. We thus selected certain TPA-tailored polymer materials for our demonstrations and characterizations. From these novel materials, we fabricated a number of advanced optical elements (e.g., pitch-adapted 3D-embedded waveguides and a woodpile-like optical micropattern). The results thus illustrate that hybrid polymers are not only viable materials for industrial fabrication of polymeric micro-optics (with the use of conventional processes such as UV molding), but that they are also potential candidates for fabricating optical waveguide systems (down to the chip level) when emerging and innovative manufacturing techniques based on TPA are eventually implemented in industrial environments. ORMOCER-based hybrid polymers can therefore, because of their versatility, continue to meet the increasing expectations of dynamically growing micro-optics markets. In our future research we will further investigate the perspective of system integration because the hybrid polymers may facilitate mix-and-match approaches (i.e., where advanced TPA-based processing is combined with generic photolithography or inkjet printing). micro resist technology GmbH Arne Schleunitz received his PhD from the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany) in 2009 and was a postdoctoral researcher at the Paul Scherrer Institut (Switzerland) until 2012. With his in-depth knowledge of nanolithography processes, he joined micro resist technology as head of technology management. He was promoted to chief technology officer in 2016. Jan Klein earned his PhD in organic chemistry from Humboldt University of Berlin (Germany) in 2011. He has since been working as a research scientist and project leader at micro resist technology, with goal of innovating the field of hybrid polymers. In 2013 he became the product manager for hybrid polymers. Multiphoton Optics GmbH Ruth Houbertz is a physicist and has been the chief executive officer and managing director of Multiphon Optics since 2014. She obtained her PhD from the University of Ulm, Germany, in 1993, and between 1993 and 1999 she went on to build a team at the University of Saarbrücken, Germany. She then held different technical and management positions at the Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research, Germany, between 2000 and 2012, and from 1999 to 2000 she worked at Sandia National Laboratories, CA. She holds more than 90 patents and has received numerous awards, including the Joseph von Fraunhofer Award in 2007, the Green Photonics Award in 2013, and the Cowin Award of Entrepreneurship in 2014. Alexander Krupp studied physics at the Technical University in Munich (Germany) and received his diploma at the Walther-Meißner-Institute for Low-Temperature Research (Germany) in 2010, where he studied ferromagnetic Heusler compound thin films. In 2014, he finished his PhD on ultracold rubidium Rydberg atoms and molecules in Stuttgart (Germany). Since 2015 he has been a dedicated application engineer at Multiphoton Optics. 1. C. Gimkiewicz, M. Moser, S. Obi, C. Urban, J. S. Pedersen, H. Thiele, C. Zschokke, M. T. Gale, Wafer-scale replication and testing of micro-optical components for VCSELs, Proc. SPIE 5453, p. 13-26, 2004. doi:10.1117/12.544793 3. U. Streppel, P. Dannberg, C. Waechter, A. Braeuer, P. Nicole, L. Froehlich, R. Houbertz, M. Popall, Development of a new fabrication method for stacked optical waveguides using inorganic-organic copolymers, IEEE Conf. Polym. Adhes. Microelectron. Photon., 2001. doi:10.1109/POLYTR.2001.973304 4. R. Houbertz, S. Steenhusen, T. Stichel, G. Sextl, Two-photon polymerization of inorganic-organic hybrid polymers as scalable technology using ultra-short laser pulses, Coherence and Ultrashort Pulse Laser Emission, p. 583-608, InTech, 2010. doi:10.5772/13203 6. A. Schleunitz, J. J. Klein, A. Krupp, B. Bender, R. Houbertz, G. Grützner, Evaluation of hybrid polymers for high-precision manufacturing of 3D optical interconnects by two-photon absorption lithography, Proc. SPIE 10109, p. 1010905, 2017. doi:10.1117/12.2252318 8. T. Stichel, B. Hecht, R. Houbertz, G. Sextl, Two-photon polymerization as method for the fabrication of large scale biomedical scaffold applications, J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 5, p. 209-212, 2010.


News Article | April 21, 2017
Site: www.gizmag.com

The 3D-printing of glass objects has been achieved before – we've seen it done by extruding molten glass, and even via a modern take on an ancient Egyptian technique. A new process developed at Germany's Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, however, is claimed to produce complex glass items of a higher quality than has ever previously been possible. Created by a team led by mechanical engineer Dr. Bastian E. Rapp, the process starts with a solution made up of a light-sensitive liquid polymer and nanoparticles of high-purity quartz glass. Using a technique known as stereolithography, an ultraviolet laser is focused onto that solution at various points, causing it to cure and harden at those locations. In that way, the object is progressively built up from the solution, a layer at a time. A solvent bath is subsequently used to wash away any leftover uncured solution, leaving a rough version of the desired structure behind – it's still rather porous and unstable. That structure is then heated at a high temperature, however, causing the glass nanoparticles to melt and fuse together. The end result is a smooth, solid object ranging in size from a few micrometers up to several centimeters. It has been suggested that the technology could find use in fields such as optics, data transmission, and biotechnology. A paper on the research was recently published in the journal Nature.


News Article | May 2, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

3D printing by direct laser writing produces micrometer-sized structures with precisely defined properties. Researchers of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) have now developed a method to erase the ink used for 3D printing. In this way, the small structures of up to 100 nm in size can be erased and rewritten repeatedly. One nanometer corresponds to one millionth of a millimeter. This development opens up many new applications of 3D fabrication in biology or materials sciences, for instance. Direct laser writing means that a computer-controlled, focused laser beam generates the structure in a photoresist similar to a pen. "Developing an ink that can be erased again was one of the big challenges in direct laser writing," Professor Christopher Barner-Kowollik of KIT's Institute for Chemical Technology and Polymer Chemistry says. The scientists have now met with success: They have developed an ink with reversible bonding, the building blocks of which can be separated from each other. The printed structure is simply erased by immersing it into a chemical solvent. At the point of erasure, a new structure can be written. In this way, the structure can be modified repeatedly. The process was developed in close cooperation with the group of Professor Martin Wegener at the Institute of Applied Physics and the Institute of Nanotechnology of KIT. The physicists developed highly specialized 3D printers that produce scaffolds of up to 100 nm in size by direct laser writing. "The ink with defined breaking points can be used for a variety of applications," doctoral student and first author Markus Zieger says. Structures written with erasable ink can be integrated into structures made of non-erasable ink: Support constructions can be produced by 3D printing, which are similar to those used when building bridges and removed later on. It is also possible to further develop 3D designer petri dishes for use in biology. Recently, such structures were designed by KIT to grow cell cultures in three dimensions on the laboratory scale. "During cell growth, parts of the 3D microscaffold could be removed again to study how the cells react to the changed environment," Martin Wegener explains. According to the scientists, it is also feasible to produce reversible wire bonds from erasable conducting structures in the future. A permanent ink can be mixed with a non-permanent ink to influence the properties of the printed material and make it more or less porous, for instance. The new process is presented in the renowned journal Angewandte Chemie under the heading "Cleaving Direct Laser Written Microstructures on Demand." The reviewers rated this publication a "very important paper." 3D printing already is indispensable in many fabrication areas. Its importance is increasing. "According to estimations, some 10 percent of all goods will be produced by 3D printing in 2030," Barner-Kowollik and Wegener say. Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) pools its three core tasks of research, higher education, and innovation in a mission. With about 9,300 employees and 25,000 students, KIT is one of the big institutions of research and higher education in natural sciences and engineering in Europe. KIT - The Research University in the Helmholtz Association For further information, please contact:


News Article | April 19, 2017
Site: cen.acs.org

3-D printing has been growing in popularity, but the materials it’s been able to shape have been limited to polymers, ceramics, and metals, says Bastian Rapp, a polymer chemist at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. The method creates elaborately structured objects that are difficult to form with a mold, and it enables mass customization. For example, Adidas and 3-D-printing company Carbon announced earlier this month that they plan to begin printing customized insoles for athletic shoes. So far, it hasn’t been practical to put glass in a 3-D printer. Glass is useful—it’s transparent, resistant to chemical and thermal damage, and electrically insulating. But to work with the material, it’s necessary to heat it to more than 1,000 °C, then pour the melted substance into molds or work it by stretching and blowing. “Making fine features in glass is challenging,” Rapp says. The glass must be chemically etched or mechanically polished. The complexity of the process means that manufacturers often choose to make optical parts such as the lenses inside cellphones from polymers instead. And the optical properties of those polymers are not as stellar. Researchers have tried to 3-D print glass in the past, but the high melting temperature of the material has been a challenge. For instance, feeding and melting a glass filament in a 3-D printer or sintering a bed of silica particles has resulted in parts with low resolution—on the order of millimeters—and resulted in objects with rough surfaces not suitable for use in optics. To overcome these difficulties, Rapp and coworkers adapted a “liquid glass” composite—a mixture of silica nanoparticles and ultraviolet-curable hydroxyethylmethacrylate monomers—that they’d previously developed for making molded glass objects. To make the material compatible with a 3-D printing method called stereolithography, they had to make a few modifications. Stereolithography uses projected patterns of UV light to turn monomers into polymers, building objects layer by layer. To make their ink more transparent, the researchers removed a solvent from the mixture. “If it scatters light, it’s a blurry mess,” Rapp says. They also had to make sure the material could mechanically withstand the printing process. So they made it stiffer by adding higher molecular weight triacrylates. This material can be printed like a polymer but ultimately generates a pure glass object. After a 3-D printer generates an object with the liquid glass ink, the researchers heat it once to burn off the polymer, then a second time up to 1,300 °C to sinter the nanoparticles, leaving a pure, transparent fused-silica part. Using these inks, the team made glass objects including a microlens array, a microfluidic chip, and a pretzel, with a resolution of tens of micrometers. Rapp says when the ink is used with higher resolution printing methods, the ultimate resolution should be 150 to 500 nm, about ten times the size of the original silica particles. Nicholas Fang, a nanophotonics researcher at MIT, says the use of stereolithography to make optically transparent parts is “quite exciting.” Fang notes that the new ink could be used to print photonic crystals, which are usually made by more laborious methods. Photonic crystals use patterned nanostructures to control light and show promise for optical computing and other applications. In addition, Rapp thinks the material could be used to create glass microreactors for making drugs and other compounds. Existing microreactor parts are made of metal or polymer and can’t withstand harsh reactions or extreme temperatures and pressures.


With the help of the bike scanner, athletes can adapt their racing bike optimally to their body. Credit: KIT/Markus Breig Participants in the hardest bicycle races in the world, such as the Race Across America (4800 km), the Race Around Austria (2200 km and 30,000 meters difference in altitude) or Cape Epic in South Africa (700 km, 14,500 m difference in altitude and almost insurmountable terrain), should not only prepare their bodies optimally, but also adjust their sports equipment. Scientists of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) have now developed a measurement system by means of which cyclists can adapt their sitting position exactly to their physical conditions. "Our bike scanner uses a laser to measure both the athlete and racing bike. Then, a self-developed software calculates the optimum sitting position," Marian Hoffmann of the BioMotion Center of KIT's Institute of Sports and Sport Science (ISS) says. "In this way, overloading or inappropriate straining of the knees and the lower back in particular are avoided and energy consumption can be optimized," the sports scientist explains. The hardware, a type of over-dimensioned bicycle stand, was built by Bernd Hermann, who is responsible for the development and construction of measurement equipment at the BioMotion Center. This stand allows for the precise measurement of the athlete's body and the racing bike. Measurements are made at anthropometric points of the locomotive system and at relevant points of the bike. Then, the measured data are processed by a self-developed software. On the basis of biomechanical model calculations, the most favorable sitting height and the best possible distance between saddle and handle bar are determined. "This yields the optimum individual sitting position of the cyclist," Hoffmann says. Accompanying studies by students of sports science with active racing cyclists revealed that this optimization of the settings is successful, Hoffmann reports. However, the bike scanner is not only useful for competitive athletes. The researchers of KIT plan to apply the system to other bicycle types, such as mountain bikes or city bikes. The bicycle was invented 200 years ago. With the original version, a walking machine without pedal, its inventor Karl Drais, who lived in Karlsruhe, (1785 to 1851), went from Mannheim to Schwetzingen, i.e. 14 km, within one hour on June 12, 1817. Individual adjustment of the handle bar and saddle height, however, was impossible at that time. Explore further: Customized bikes to improve physical performance and prevent injuries


News Article | April 25, 2017
Site: www.treehugger.com

We've seen 3D printers make things from plastic, ceramic and even metals, but until now, glass was the one material that just wasn't feasible. When researchers would attempt to extrude melted glass through a nozzle and build an object, the resulting structure would be porous and rough and filled with air bubbles, but times they are a changing. Researchers at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology have developed a method to effectively 3D print glass objects, even in intricate shapes. The new process involves mixing nanoparticles of quartz glass with a tiny amount of liquid polymer. This mixture is then cured at certain points by ultraviolet light using stereolithography. This makes those locations harden while the rest of the material remains liquid, essentially building up the shape of the object one layer at a time. When this step is done, the object is then washed in a solvent bath and heated to form a fully fused and strong structure. The university says that this breakthrough will allow 3D printing of glass structures in the fields of optics, data transmission and biotechnology. Computers, eye glasses, medical equipment and more could soon feature glass made with this method. “The next plus one generation of computers will use light, which requires complicated processor structures; 3D-technology could be used, for instance, to make small, complex structures out of a large number of very small optical components of different orientations,” said mechanical engineer Dr. Bastian E. Rapp. The ability to build highly customized, precise glass pieces in a short amount of time could advance all of those fields and there are probably many more applications that we haven't even thought of yet.


News Article | May 3, 2017
Site: phys.org

The sulfur-based technology for the storage of solar energy will be tested at the Jülich solar power tower. Credit: DLR Researchers of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) and their European partners plan to develop an innovative sulfur-based storage system for solar power. Large-scale chemical storage of solar power and its overnight use as a fuel are to be achieved by means of a closed sulfur-sulfuric acid cycle. In the long term, this might be the basis of an economically efficient renewable energy source capable of providing base-load power. The pre-development work under the PEGASUS project will be funded by the EU with about EUR 4.7 million. "Solar power plants effectively capture process heat and sulfur might be a suitable storage material to use this power for base-load electricity production," Professor Dimosthenis Trimis of KIT's Engler-Bunte Institute says. Sulfur and sulfuric acid are used in many industrial applications. Numerous chemical processes have already been established for e.g. vulcanization, sulfuric acid production, or flue gas desulfurization. "To use the combustion of sulfur as a sustainable energy source on an industrial scale, we already have a large kit of process technologies." The long-term goal of PEGASUS is the development and demonstration of an innovative solar power tower facility. A solar absorber is combined with a thermochemical solar power storage system based on elementary sulfur and sulfuric acid. Compared to current concepts, this promises to reduce costs significantly. The technology will be tested under real conditions at the Jülich Solar Power Tower Facility (STJ) in Germany. PEGASUS is coordinated by the Institute of Solar Research of the German Aerospace Center DLR. The partial project executed by KIT focuses on the technical implementation of combustion. It is planned to develop a lab-scale sulfur burner for stable combustion in the range from 10 to 50 kilowatts at high power densities under atmospheric conditions and temperatures higher than 1400°C. Power density in particular allows for the effective use of sulfur as a fuel for electricity production. "Although combustion often is associated with fossil technologies, we want to show that it also is an important element in the context of the energy transition," Trimis says. Elementary sulfur is produced by the disproportionation of sulfur dioxide, i.e. conversion of sulfur dioxide into sulfur and sulfuric acid. The focused sunlight of the solar power plant supplies the process heat with the energy and temperature required to close the sulfur cycle and to convert sulfuric acid back into sulfur dioxide in the presence of suited catalysts. Sulfur dioxide also is the combustion product of sulfur. In cooperation with the project partners, feasibility of the overall process shall be demonstrated. A detailed flowsheet is planned to be drafted and the optimized integrated process scaled to the 5 MW thermal power level shall be analyzed. It is planned to develop prototypes of the key components, such as the solar absorber, sulfuric acid evaporator, sulfur trioxide decomposer, and sulfur burner and to test them at the solar power tower facility. In addition, the materials required for heat absorption, transfer, and storage and for the catalysts of the chemical reactions are planned to be tested for efficiency and long-term stability. The concept envisaged for solar power tower facilities is characterized by the use of an inexpensive heat storage medium. Use of the stored energy in a burner makes these power plants capable of providing base-load power. In the long term, system costs will be lower than estimated for photovoltaic systems. Explore further: Direct utilization of elemental sulfur for microporous polymer synthesis


News Article | May 4, 2017
Site: www.theengineer.co.uk

Researchers in Germany have claimed a first with the development of a process that is able to 3D print structures made of glass. According to the team from the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), the process could open a range of fresh applications for glass in next generation computers and medical devices. The method – which is reported in the journal Nature – uses a feedstock of nanoparticles of high-purity quartz glass and a small quantity of liquid polymer. This is cured at specific points using stereolithography. To produce a finished component the remaining liquid is then washed out in a solvent bath, the polymer still mixed in this glass structure is removed by heating, and finally the glass is sintered so that the individual glass particles are fused together. According to the group, the technique represents a major advance on previous efforts to process glass into structures. “We present a new method, an innovation in materials processing, in which the material of the piece manufactured is high-purity quartz glass with the respective chemical and physical properties,” said the project’s leader Dr Bastian E Rapp. Rapp added that the glass structures made using the new process show resolutions in the range of a few micrometres. Thanks to its transparency, thermal stability and resistance to acids, glass is increasingly widely used for a variety of industrial applications. According to the team, the ability to 3D print the material could open up new applications in areas such as optics, data transmission, and biotechnology. “The next plus one generation of computers will use light, which requires complicated processor structures; 3D-technology could be used, for instance, to make small, complex structures out of a large number of very small optical components of different orientations,” explained Rapp. Other potential applications identified by the group include the manufacture of miniaturised glass tubes for medical analytical systems and a variety of 3D-shaped optical components for use in everything from eyeglasses to lenses in laptop cameras.


News Article | April 20, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

200 years after the invention of the bicycle by Karl Drais, KIT's bike scanner helps to adjust a racing bike to the cyclist Participants in the hardest bicycle races in the world, such as the Race Across America (4800 km), the Race Around Austria (2200 km and 30,000 meters difference in altitude) or Cape Epic in South Africa (700 km, 14,500 m difference in altitude and almost insurmountable terrain), should not only prepare their bodies optimally, but also adjust their sports equipment. Scientists of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) have now developed a measurement system, by means of which cyclists can adapt their sitting position exactly to their physical conditions. "Our bike scanner uses a laser to measure both the athlete and racing bike. Then, a self-developed software calculates the optimum sitting position," Marian Hoffmann of the BioMotion Center of KIT's Institute of Sports and Sport Science (ISS) says. "In this way, overloading or inappropriate straining of the knees and the lower back in particular are avoided and energy consumption can be optimized," the sports scientist explains. The hardware, a type of overdimensioned bicycle stand, was built by Bernd Hermann, who is responsible for the development and construction of measurement equipment at the BioMotion Center. This stand allows for the precise measurement of the athlete's body and the racing bike. Measurements are made at anthropometric points of the locomotive system and at relevant points of the bike. Then, the measured data are processed by a self-developed software. On the basis of biomechanical model calculations, the most favorable sitting height and the best possible distance between saddle and handle bar are determined. "This yields the optimum individual sitting position of the cyclist," Hoffmann says. The settings determined are then transferred to a bicycle ergometer. Here, researchers can additionally measure the forces acting during pedaling. The athlete is subjected to a three-dimensional motion and strain analysis as well as to a respiratory gas analysis to determine energy consumption. "On this basis, the old bicycle setting can be compared with the new one," Hoffmann explains. Accompanying studies by students of sports science with active racing cyclists revealed that this optimization of the settings is successful, Hoffmann reports. However, the bike scanner is not only useful for competitive athletes. The researchers of KIT plan to apply the system to other bicycle types, such as mountain bikes or city bikes. The bicycle was invented 200 years ago. With the original version, a walking machine without pedal, its inventor Karl Drais, who lived in Karlsruhe, (1785 to 1851), went from Mannheim to Schwetzingen, i.e. 14 km, within one hour on June 12, 1817. Individual adjustment of the handle bar and saddle height, however, was impossible at that time. For further information, please contact: Dr. Felix Mescoli, Press Officer, Phone: +49 721 608-48120, Fax: +49 721 608-43658, Email: felix.mescoli@kit.edu Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) pools its three core tasks of research, higher education, and innovation in a mission. With about 9,300 employees and 25,000 students, KIT is one of the big institutions of research and higher education in natural sciences and engineering in Europe. KIT - The Research University in the Helmholtz Association Since 2010, the KIT has been certified as a family-friendly university. This press release is available on the internet at http://www. .


News Article | April 20, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Most everyday goods pass through sorting machines -- KIT and IOSB researchers make bulk material systems more perfect -- optimization of many thousands of plants could save billions Sand, gravel, coal, deicing salt or diamonds, grain, sugar, coffee or grapes and waste - a lot of everyday goods are more or less grainy. To classify this bulk material by quality and size, it must be sorted in a sophisticated process. Tens of thousands of belt-type sorting plants are run in Germany alone. Scientists of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) and the Fraunhofer Institute for Optronics, Systems Technology and Image Evaluation (IOSB) have developed a system which is able to sort much faster, more cheaply and more accurately than previous techniques. Bulk materials are processed in nearly all industries, be it building construction, logistics, chemistry or agriculture. Given the large number of plants, any improvement of the sorting steps necessary everywhere could save billions. "The economic benefit of this project can hardly be overestimated; enormous resources could be saved," explains Professor Uwe Hanebeck of the Chair of Intelligent Sensor - Actuator Systems (ISAS) at the KIT in describing the new technology. Because of the patterns of movement of objects to be sorted, much more precise classification is possible than in conventional sorting systems. Industry had already shown interest in the new technology, says Professor Thomas Längle, responsible for the project at the Fraunhofer IOSB. "Classical belt-type sorting systems scan the material to be sorted by means of a camera; parts not to be treated are blown out by means of pressurized-air nozzles," explains Georg Maier of the IOSB. There is a problem: The cameras now in use scan the objects only on a short belt section, which allows only rough classification. As a consequence, several runs are necessary to achieve a satisfactory result. The team around Längle and Hanebeck developed a sorting system in which cameras operating from different perspectives take a more precise view of the bulk material. In this way, objects of different categories can be distinguished more effectively. In addition, algorithms based on the images predict how objects are going to move on the belt. In this way, it is possible to sort out foreign bodies much more precisely. The advantages of the new sorting system are explained by Benjamin Noack of the ISAS by the example of spheres and hemispheres: "When seen from the top, they look alike. While hemispheres normally remain on the belt, spheres are restless, thus additionally aggravating the sorting process. However, when seen from the side, spheres and hemispheres can be distinguished." In addition, the system was now able to predict the behavior of these objects and then adjust its operation accordingly and, in this way, also achieve better classification, says Noack. The scientists also found a way to increase the accuracy of existing sorting systems quickly and at low cost. "This requires but a software update," explains Hanebeck. Besides the KIT and IOSB, also the Ruhr University of Bochum (RUB) and the Technical University of Berlin (TUB) are involved in the project. Scientists at those institutions in particular work on realistic simulations of bulk material and the numerical design of sorting systems. For further information, please contact: Dr. Felix Mescoli, Press Officer , Phone: +49 721 608-48120, Fax: +49 721 608-43658, Email: felix.mescoli@kit.edu The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) pools its three core tasks of research, higher education, and innovation in a mission. With about 9,300 employees and 25,000 students, the KIT is one of the big institutions of research and higher education in natural sciences and engineering in Europe. KIT - The Research University in the Helmholtz Association Since 2010, the KIT has been certified as a family-friendly university. This press release is available on the internet at http://www. .


News Article | April 21, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

New procedure allows complex forms of glass to be made by 3-D-printing, publication in Nature, presentation also at Hanover Fair Glass is one of mankind's oldest materials. It was used as far back as in ancient Egypt and ancient Rome and has found a place now also in manufacturing technology of the 21st century. An interdisciplinary team at the KIT led by mechanical engineer Dr. Bastian E. Rapp developed a process using glass for additive manufacturing techniques. The scientists mix nanoparticles of high-purity quartz glass and a small quantity of liquid polymer and allow this mixture to be cured by light at specific points - by means of stereolithography. The material, which has remained liquid, is washed out in a solvent bath, leaving only the desired cured structure. The polymer still mixed in this glass structure is subsequently removed by heating. "The shape initially resembles that of a pound cake; it is still unstable, and therefore the glass is sintered in a final step, i.e. heated so that the glass particles are fused," explains Rapp. He conducts research at the KIT Institute of Microstructure Technology and heads a working group of chemists, electrical engineers, and biologists. The scientists present the method in the Nature journal under the title of "Three-dimensional Printing of Transparent Fused Silica Glass." The variety of 3D-printing techniques available so far have been used on polymers or metals, but never on glass. Where glass was processed into structures, for instance by melting and application by means of a nozzle, the surface turned out to be very rough, the material was porous and contained voids. "We present a new method, an innovation in materials processing, in which the material of the piece manufactured is high-purity quartz glass with the respective chemical and physical properties," explains Rapp. The glass structures made by the KIT scientists show resolutions in the range of a few micrometers - one micrometer corresponding to one thousandth of a millimeter. However, the structures may have dimensions in the range of a few centimeters, emphasizes Rapp. 3D-formed glass can be used, for instance, in data technology. "The next plus one generation of computers will use light, which requires complicated processor structures; 3D-technology could be used, for instance, to make small, complex structures out of a large number of very small optical components of different orientations," explains the mechanical engineer. For biological and medical technologies, very small analytical systems could be made out of miniaturized glass tubes. In addition, 3D-shaped microstructures of glass could be employed in a variety of optical areas, from eyeglasses meeting special requirements to lenses in laptop cameras. The development by scientists under Junior Scientist Group Leader Bastian E. Rapp is a result of the "NanoMatFutur" junior scientist funding scheme run by the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF) to support the development of innovative materials for industry and society. The work performed by the research group headed by Rapp has been funded by the BMBF since 2014 for a total of four years to the tune of approx. € 2.8 million. "Our research benefits very much from the interdisciplinary cooperation of various KIT institutes. Besides the Institute of Microstructure Technology, colleagues of the Institute of Nuclear Waste Management and the Institute of Applied Materials, among others, are involved in the project," says Rapp. Videos and more information about the current publication and the precursor project can be found under http://www. The technology presented here is one of the topics shown at the KIT booth at the Hanover Fair between April 24 and 28, 2017 (Hall 2, B16 - "Research and Technology"). Further information can be found under http://www. Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) pools its three core tasks of research, higher education, and innovation in a mission. With about 9,300 employees and 25,000 students, KIT is one of the big institutions of research and higher education in natural sciences and engineering in Europe. KIT - The Research University in the Helmholtz Association For further information, please contact:


News Article | May 4, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Eating insects instead of beef could help tackle climate change by reducing harmful emissions linked to livestock production, research suggests. Replacing half of the meat eaten worldwide with crickets and mealworms would cut farmland use by a third, substantially reducing emissions of greenhouse gases, researchers say. While consumers' reluctance to eat insects may limit their consumption, even a small increase would bring benefits, the team says. This could potentially be achieved by using insects as ingredients in some pre-packaged foods. Using data collected primarily by the UN's Food and Agriculture Organization, scientists have compared the environmental impacts of conventional meat production with those of alternative sources of food. It is the first study to do so. Researchers at the University of Edinburgh and Scotland's Rural College considered a scenario in which half of the current mix of animal products is replaced by insects, lab-grown meat or imitation meat. They found that insects and imitation meat -- such as soybean-based foods like tofu -- are the most sustainable as they require the least land and energy to produce. Beef is by far the least sustainable, the team says. In contrast to previous studies, lab-grown meat was found to be no more sustainable than chicken or eggs, requiring an equivalent area of land but using more energy in production. The team says halving global consumption of animal products by eating more insects or imitation meat would free up 1680 million hectares of land -- 70 times the size of the UK. Similar land savings could also be made by switching from the current mix of animal products to diets higher in chicken and eggs, the team says. They found that the land required to produce these was only marginally greater that for insects and imitation meat. As well as being a major contributor to human-induced greenhouse gas emissions, current livestock production has other environmental impacts. Globally, pasture covers twice the area of cropland, and livestock consume around a third of all harvested crops, researchers say. The research, published in the journal Global Food Security, was supported by the UK's Global Food Security Programme and the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme. It was carried out in collaboration with Scotland's Rural College, the University of York, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology and the Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research. Lead author Dr. Peter Alexander, of the University of Edinburgh's School of GeoSciences and Scotland's Rural College, said: "A mix of small changes in consumer behaviour, such as replacing beef with chicken, reducing food waste and potentially introducing insects more commonly into diets, would help achieve land savings and a more sustainable food system." Professor Dominic Moran, of the University of York and Scotland's Rural College, said: "The environmental challenges facing the global agricultural industry are increasing and this paper has studied some of the alternative foods that we can introduce into our diets to alleviate some of this pressure."


News Article | April 26, 2017
Site: news.yahoo.com

Need a building customized for a particular site quickly? Researchers say a 3D printer may be the answer — and could reduce the cost to boot. Researcher Steven Keating and colleagues write in this week’s Science Robotics a 3D system could reduce construction costs while speeding the process, incorporating different materials and densities as the process moves forward to produce optimal combinations of strength and other properties. Read: Apple More Interested In Apps Than Robotic Cars Themselves “Contemporary construction techniques are slow, labor-intensive, dangerous, expensive, and constrained to primarily rectilinear forms, often resulting in homogenous structures built using materials sourced from centralized factories,” the researchers said. Instead, they propose a digital construction platform, an “automated construction system capable of customized on-site fabrication of architectural-scale structures using real-time environmental data for process control.” To put their platform to the test, the researchers built an open dome structure in less than 13 1/2 hours, using a tracked vehicle with a large, industrial robotic arm equipped with a smaller, precision-motion robotic arm. Most 3D systems are confined and only can build parts that fit inside their enclosures. Keating’s system gives the platform a greater range. Read: Immune System Can Be Reprogrammed With Them, Researchers Say Keating said the system can be adapted to existing sites without the need to alter building codes and can be powered electrically, or even solar powered, making it ideal for use in remote areas in the developing world or for disaster relief. Keating led development of the system as his doctoral thesis in mechanical engineering and noted the construction industry is “doing things the way it has for hundreds of years.” He told Science magazine the goal is “to have something totally autonomous, that you could send to the moon or Mars or Antarctica, and it would just go out and make these buildings for years. … We also wanted to show that we could build something tomorrow that could be used right away." 3D printers have come a long way from just making items from plastic. They now can make items from ceramic, metals and even glass. Researchers at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology have developed a method of producing glass objects by mixing nanoparticles with quartz glass and liquid polymer, treehugger.com reported.


News Article | May 2, 2017
Site: phys.org

Solar cells based on perovskites reach high efficiencies: They convert more than 20 percent of the incident light directly into usable power. On their search for underlying physical mechanisms, researchers of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) have now detected strips of nanostructures with alternating directions of polarization in the perovskite layers. These structures might serve as transport paths for charge carriers. This is reported in the Energy & Environmental Science journal. The perovskites used by the KIT scientists are metal organic compounds with a special crystal structure and excellent photovoltaic properties. Since their discovery in 2009, perovskite solar cells have experienced a rapid development. Meanwhile, they reach power conversion efficiencies of more than 20 percent. This makes them one of the most promising photovoltaic technologies. Research into perovskite solar cells, however, faces two special challenges: The light-absorbing layers have to be made more robust to environmental impacts and the lead contained therein has to be replaced by environmentally more compatible elements. This requires in-depth understanding of physical mechanisms that enable the high conversion rate of absorbed solar energy into electric power. An interdisciplinary team of researchers headed by Dr. Alexander Colsmann, Head of the Organic Photovoltaics Group of KIT's Light Technology Institute (LTI) and KIT's Material Research Center for Energy Systems (MZE) analyzed perovskite solar cells by means of piezoresponse force microscopy, a special type of scanning force microscopy, and found ferroelectric nanostructures in the light-absorbing layers. Ferroelectric crystals form domains of identical electrical polarization direction. The KIT scientists observed that, during thin-layer development, lead iodide perovskites form about 100 nm wide stripes of ferroelectric domains with alternating electric fields. This alternating electric polarization in the material might play an important role in the transport of photogenerated charges out of the solar cell and, hence, explain the special photovoltaic properties of perovskites. "These ferroelectric structures of a few 10 nm in size might form nearly perfectly separated transport paths for charge carriers in the solar cell," Alexander Colsmann explains. Researchers have been looking for such structures for many years in order to improve the efficiency of solar cells. "In perovskite solar cells, these structures seem to develop by themselves under certain conditions," Professor Michael J. Hoffmann, Head of the Ceramic Materials and Technologies Division and director of KIT's Institute for Applied Materials (IAM-KWT), says. He knows similar ferroelectric structures from ceramics research. Former theoretical studies of other researchers already predicted these advantageous nanostructures. So far, however, no evidence has been found. More information: Holger Röhm et al. Ferroelectric domains in methylammonium lead iodide perovskite thin-films, Energy Environ. Sci. (2017). DOI: 10.1039/c7ee00420f


News Article | April 20, 2017
Site: phys.org

(Phys.org)—A team of researchers at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology in Germany has developed a way to 3-D print objects made of pure glass. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the group describes their technique and the ways they believe their new approach could be used. Karl Ziemelis, Physical, Chemical and Earth Sciences editor for Nature offers a News & Views piece on the work done by the team in the same edition. Over the past several years 3-D printing has taken off as printers have improved and prices have fallen. Objects made by such printers have become common across the globe, from research institutes to hobbyist's garages. But despite its popularity, such printers have had one glaring weakness—an inability to print glass objects—3-D printers of today print objects made of plastics, ceramics and even metal, but not glass, which is a shame, the researchers note, because materials made of them offer many advantages such as resistance to thermal and chemical damage. And of course, they are transparent. But now, it appears that has changed, as the team in Germany has found a way to print glass objects using ordinary 3-D printers. The new technique allows for 3-D printing glass objects based on the creation of a "liquid glass" the team developed—a glass nanocomposite with glass nanoparticles suspended in a photocurable prepolymer. In practice, the sandy glass nanoparticles are mixed into a liquid solution and the results are then used as the "ink" for the printer. Once printed in the traditional way, the glass object is transferred to an oven that cures the glass and burns off other extraneous materials. The result is an object made of pure, clear glass. The researchers note that the size and precision of the objects printed are limited only by the precision of the printer used, just as with other 3-D printed objects. To demonstrate their new technique, the researchers printed tiny pretzels and an equally tiny castle and a honeycomb. They suggest the new technique could be used to produce both very large and very small glass objects, from skyscraper facades to tiny camera lenses. They note also that they believe that one day, most people will own a 3-D printer, and because of that, may choose to fashion their own glass objects, such as fine glassware or ornate windows. Honeycomb structure printed in fused silica glass exposed to a flame of 800 °C showing the high thermal shock resistance of the printed glass part. Credit: NeptunLab/KIT More information: Frederik Kotz et al. Three-dimensional printing of transparent fused silica glass, Nature (2017). DOI: 10.1038/nature22061 Abstract Glass is one of the most important high-performance materials used for scientific research, in industry and in society, mainly owing to its unmatched optical transparency, outstanding mechanical, chemical and thermal resistance as well as its thermal and electrical insulating properties. However, glasses and especially high-purity glasses such as fused silica glass are notoriously difficult to shape, requiring high-temperature melting and casting processes for macroscopic objects or hazardous chemicals for microscopic features. These drawbacks have made glasses inaccessible to modern manufacturing technologies such as three-dimensional printing (3D printing). Using a casting nanocomposite5, here we create transparent fused silica glass components using stereolithography 3D printers at resolutions of a few tens of micrometres. The process uses a photocurable silica nanocomposite that is 3D printed and converted to high-quality fused silica glass via heat treatment. The printed fused silica glass is non-porous, with the optical transparency of commercial fused silica glass, and has a smooth surface with a roughness of a few nanometres. By doping with metal salts, coloured glasses can be created. This work widens the choice of materials for 3D printing, enabling the creation of arbitrary macro- and microstructures in fused silica glass for many applications in both industry and academia.


News Article | April 27, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Every year, worldwide wine industry suffers losses of more than ten billion US dollars from damaged assets, production losses, and lost profits due to extreme weather events and natural disasters. A multidisciplinary European-Australian team of researchers led by Dr. James Daniell of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) examines the extent to which regions are affected by the risks and how climate change influences wine industry. At the 2017 Annual Conference of the European Geosciences Union (EGU) in Vienna, Daniell presented a global risk index for wine regions. The wine regions of Mendoza and San Juan in Argentina are exposed to the highest risks due to extreme weather and natural hazards worldwide. Kakheti and Racha in Georgia come in at number 2, followed by Southern Cahul in Moldova (number 3), Northwest Slovenia (number 4), and Yaruqui in Ecuador and Nagano in Japan (number 5). These are the first results of a current worldwide study and the first release of the global risk index for wine regions presented by the head of the study, Dr. James Daniell, of the Geophysical Institute (GPI) and the Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology (CEDIM) of KIT at the 2017 Annual Conference of the European Geosciences Union (EGU) in Vienna in the session of "Natural hazard event analyses for risk reduction and adaptation." The EGU honored Daniell by granting him the "Early Career Scientist Award in Natural Hazards for 2017." The study is carried out and the index is developed in cooperation with seismologists, meteorologists, and representatives of other disciplines from KIT, Australian National University, University of Adelaide, Griffith University, University of New South Wales, and University College London as well as Risklayer GmbH, a company located in Karlsruhe. The "WineRisk" website summarizes the results of the study and presents solutions for wine regions: http://www. The study covers more than 7,500 wine regions in 131 countries. There is no wine region in the world that is not exposed to extreme weather or natural disasters. Events, such as frost, hail, floods, heat, drought, forest fires, and bushfires as well as earthquakes make worldwide wine industry lose more than 10 billion US$ every year according to conservative estimations. These losses result from damaged assets, losses of production, and lost profit. "Cold waves and frost have a large impact," James Daniell says. In the last few days, much frost occurred across Europe, with Slovakia, Bosnia, Serbia, Hungary, Austria, and Czech Republic having the worst impact. Hailstorms are one of the largest yearly natural threats to European winemakers. Traditional wine countries like France and Italy have seen huge losses in the past five years due to hail and frost, with many losses being recorded in the regions of Burgundy and Piedmont. The hail losses from 2012 to 2016 in some vineyards totaled 50 to 90 percent of the value of the crop and caused long-term damage to many old vines. It is not just Europe that is affected by hail. All over the world, winegrowing regions are affected by at least one hail event per year, which can cause damage to the single vintage or to multiple vintages depending on the growth phase of the vines. According to James Daniell, hail nets can save the crop in most cases, given a large hail event. "Cost-benefit analyses generally show that the premium wines should be the ones covered by hail nets, with insurance or other cheaper methods used for other wines." Earthquakes have the ability to knock out the infrastructure of entire wine regions for a number of years. In the past years, earthquakes struck Chile, New Zealand, and the USA, among other smaller events causing damage around the world. Over 125 million liters of wine were lost in Chile in 2010, mainly due to the failure of steel tanks. "Earthquake-resistant design could have saved many millions of liters," Daniell says. Earthquakes also cause large losses to buildings, tanks, barrels, equipment, and chemicals. Even small earthquakes do not only cause financial loss, but also historical loss by destroying tasting rooms and rare wine collections. A few dollars investment in stabilization mechanisms, such as quake wax, zip ties or bolts, can often save millions of dollars loss. In addition, natural disasters are associated with losses of jobs and tourism. Global climate change will have both positive and negative effects on wine industry, according to the study. Researchers expect a general shift of wine-growing regions southward and northward, while some wine regions closer to the equator may be lost. Many wines may indeed improve. "The English, Canadian, and Northern China wine regions will likely increase production markedly and continue to improve their market share and quality of production," predicts Dr. Daniell. The scientists expect that many wineries will master climate changes by changing grape varieties or harvest times. In addition, they will profit from new grape strains, innovative technologies to optimize production and reduce damage due to biological pathogens and insects, and new methods to overcome extreme weather events. The study also covers problems, such as bushfires causing smoke taint to vines. However, smaller-scale studies are required before the results can be included globally in the index. In addition, the effects of floods on vines are being explored. Nevertheless, a major volcanic eruption would likely cause the largest global impact to the wine industry, examples being the Laki eruption of 1783/84 or the Tambora eruption in 1815 which caused the famous "year without a summer" in 1816. Atmospheric changes, lack of sunlight, and global transport problems could cause major issues not only for the wine industry, other food security issues would likely be more important. Despite all these hazards, the wine industry continues to grow and diversify. "Through detailed natural hazard analysis, research can help winemakers and governments alike to prepare adequately for the natural hazards that they face and to reduce losses," Dr. James Daniell says. The geophysicist born in Australia also developed the CATDAT database covering socioeconomic data on natural disasters. Last year, he published CATDAT statistics, according to which 8 million people died and over 7 trillion US$ of loss were caused by natural disasters since 1900. The Biggest Wine Producers in the World and Their Main Threats: More about the KIT Climate and Environment Center: http://www. . Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) pools its three core tasks of research, higher education, and innovation in a mission. With about 9,300 employees and 25,000 students, KIT is one of the big institutions of research and higher education in natural sciences and engineering in Europe. KIT - The Research University in the Helmholtz Association Since 2010, the KIT has been certified as a family-friendly university. This press release is available on the internet at http://www. .


News Article | April 28, 2017
Site: www.chromatographytechniques.com

Every year, worldwide wine industry suffers losses of more than 10 billion U.S. dollars from damaged assets, production losses, and lost profits due to extreme weather events and natural disasters. A multidisciplinary European-Australian team of researchers led by James Daniell of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) examines the extent to which regions are affected by the risks and how climate change influences wine industry. At the 2017 Annual Conference of the European Geosciences Union (EGU) in Vienna, Daniell presented a global risk index for wine regions. The wine regions of Mendoza and San Juan in Argentina are exposed to the highest risks due to extreme weather and natural hazards worldwide. Kakheti and Racha in Georgia come in at number 2, followed by Southern Cahul in Moldova (number 3), Northwest Slovenia (number 4), and Yaruqui in Ecuador and Nagano in Japan (number 5). These are the first results of a current worldwide study and the first release of the global risk index for wine regions presented by the head of the study, Dr. James Daniell, of the Geophysical Institute (GPI) and the Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology (CEDIM) of KIT at the 2017 Annual Conference of the European Geosciences Union (EGU) in Vienna in the session of “Natural hazard event analyses for risk reduction and adaptation.” The EGU honored Daniell by granting him the “Early Career Scientist Award in Natural Hazards for 2017.” The study is carried out and the index is developed in cooperation with seismologists, meteorologists, and representatives of other disciplines from KIT, Australian National University, University of Adelaide, Griffith University, University of New South Wales, and University College London as well as Risklayer GmbH, a company located in Karlsruhe. The “WineRisk” website summarizes the results of the study and presents solutions for wine regions. The study covers more than 7,500 wine regions in 131 countries. There is no wine region in the world that is not exposed to extreme weather or natural disasters. Events such as frost, hail, floods, heat, drought, forest fires, and bushfires as well as earthquakes make worldwide wine industry lose more than $10 billion every year according to conservative estimations. These losses result from damaged assets, losses of production, and lost profit. “Cold waves and frost have a large impact,” James Daniell says. In the last few days, much frost occurred across Europe, with Slovakia, Bosnia, Serbia, Hungary, Austria, and Czech Republic having the worst impact. Hailstorms are one of the largest yearly natural threats to European winemakers. Traditional wine countries like France and Italy have seen huge losses in the past five years due to hail and frost, with many losses being recorded in the regions of Burgundy and Piedmont. The hail losses from 2012 to 2016 in some vineyards totaled 50 to 90 percent of the value of the crop and caused long-term damage to many old vines. It is not just Europe that is affected by hail. All over the world, winegrowing regions are affected by at least one hail event per year, which can cause damage to the single vintage or to multiple vintages depending on the growth phase of the vines. According to James Daniell, hail nets can save the crop in most cases, given a large hail event. “Cost-benefit analyses generally show that the premium wines should be the ones covered by hail nets, with insurance or other cheaper methods used for other wines.” Earthquakes have the ability to knock out the infrastructure of entire wine regions for a number of years. In the past years, earthquakes struck Chile, New Zealand, and the USA, among other smaller events causing damage around the world. Over 125 million liters of wine were lost in Chile in 2010, mainly due to the failure of steel tanks. “Earthquake-resistant design could have saved many millions of liters,” Daniell says. Earthquakes also cause large losses to buildings, tanks, barrels, equipment, and chemicals. Even small earthquakes do not only cause financial loss, but also historical loss by destroying tasting rooms and rare wine collections. A few dollars investment in stabilization mechanisms, such as quake wax, zip ties or bolts, can often save millions of dollars loss. In addition, natural disasters are associated with losses of jobs and tourism. Global climate change will have both positive and negative effects on wine industry, according to the study. Researchers expect a general shift of wine-growing regions southward and northward, while some wine regions closer to the equator may be lost. Many wines may indeed improve. “The English, Canadian, and Northern China wine regions will likely increase production markedly and continue to improve their market share and quality of production,” predicts Daniell. The scientists expect that many wineries will master climate changes by changing grape varieties or harvest times. In addition, they will profit from new grape strains, innovative technologies to optimize production and reduce damage due to biological pathogens and insects, and new methods to overcome extreme weather events. The study also covers problems, such as bushfires causing smoke taint to vines. However, smaller-scale studies are required before the results can be included globally in the index. In addition, the effects of floods on vines are being explored. Nevertheless, a major volcanic eruption would likely cause the largest global impact to the wine industry, examples being the Laki eruption of 1783/84 or the Tambora eruption in 1815 which caused the famous “year without a summer” in 1816. Atmospheric changes, lack of sunlight, and global transport problems could cause major issues not only for the wine industry, other food security issues would likely be more important. Despite all these hazards, the wine industry continues to grow and diversify. “Through detailed natural hazard analysis, research can help winemakers and governments alike to prepare adequately for the natural hazards that they face and to reduce losses,” James Daniell says. The geophysicist born in Australia also developed the CATDAT database covering socioeconomic data on natural disasters. Last year, he published CATDAT statistics, according to which 8 million people died and over $7 trillion of loss were caused by natural disasters since 1900. The Biggest Wine Producers in the World and Their Main Threats:


Puchta H.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Hohn B.,Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research
Plant Cell | Year: 2012

Marker-transgene-dependent lines of Arabidopsis thaliana measuring somatic homologous recombination (SHR) have been available for almost two decades. Here we discuss mechanisms of marker-gene restoration, comment on results obtained using the reporter lines, and stress how caution must be applied to avoid experimental problems or false interpretation in the use of SHR reporter lines. Although theoretically possible, we conclude that explanations other than SHR are unlikely to account for restoration of marker gene expression in the SHR lines when used with appropriate controls. We provide an overview of some of the most important achievements obtained with the SHR lines, give our view of the limitations of the system, and supply the reader with suggestions on the proper handling of the SHR lines. We are convinced that SHR lines are and will remain in the near future a valuable tool to explore the mechanism and influence of external and internal factors on genome stability and DNA repair in plants. © 2012 American Society of Plant Biologists.


Hergert T.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Heidbach O.,German Research Center for Geosciences
Nature Geoscience | Year: 2010

The slip rate along a fault controls the accumulation of strain that is eventually released during an earthquake. Along a 150-km-long stretch of the North Anatolian fault near Istanbul, Turkey, strain has been building up 2 since the last large earthquake in 1766. Estimates of the geodetic slip rates along the main Marmara fault vary widely, ranging between 17 and 27.9 mm yr-1 (refs 2-5). This slip rate is difficult to quantify because of the lack of satellite observations offshore and the complexity of the submarine fault system that includes the main Marmara fault2,6,7. Here we estimate the right-lateral slip rate on the main Marmara fault using a three-dimensional geomechanical model that incorporates these structural complexities. From our simulations we infer slip rates between 12.8 and 17.8 mm yr-1; our estimates are smaller and more variable than previous results, primarily because of slip partitioning and internal deformation. Our model results reconcile geodetic observations and geological fault slip rates8-10, which had been considered conflicting previously. We suggest that the inferred variability in slip rate on the main Marmara fault favours segmented release of seismic moment during consecutive events over the failure of the whole seismic gap in one large earthquake. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Berg P.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Berg P.,Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute | Moseley C.,Max Planck Institute for Meteorology | Moseley C.,Helmholtz Center Geesthacht | Haerter J.O.,Copenhagen University
Nature Geoscience | Year: 2013

Precipitation changes can affect society more directly than variations in most other meteorological observables1-3, but precipitation is difficult to characterize because of fluctuations on nearly all temporal and spatial scales. In addition, the intensity of extreme precipitation rises markedly at higher temperature4-9, faster than the rate of increase in the atmosphere's water-holding capacity1,4, termed the Clausius-Clapeyron rate. Invigoration of convective precipitation (such as thunderstorms) has been favoured over a rise in stratiform precipitation (such as large-scale frontal precipitation) as a cause for this increase 4,10, but the relative contributions of these two types of precipitation have been difficult to disentangle. Here we combine large data sets from radar measurements and rain gauges over Germany with corresponding synoptic observations and temperature records, and separate convective and stratiform precipitation events by cloud observations. We find that for stratiform precipitation, extremes increase with temperature at approximately the Clausius-Clapeyron rate, without characteristic scales. In contrast, convective precipitation exhibits characteristic spatial and temporal scales, and its intensity in response to warming exceeds the Clausius-Clapeyron rate. We conclude that convective precipitation responds much more sensitively to temperature increases than stratiform precipitation, and increasingly dominates events of extreme precipitation. Copyright © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited.


Kawahara G.,Osaka University | Uhlmann M.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Van Veen L.,University of Ontario Institute of Technology
Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics | Year: 2011

Recent remarkable progress in computing power and numerical analysis is enabling us to fill a gap in the dynamical systems approach to turbulence. A significant advance in this respect has been the numerical discovery of simple invariant sets, such as nonlinear equilibria and periodic solutions, in well-resolved Navier-Stokes flows. This review describes some fundamental and practical aspects of dynamical systems theory for the investigation of turbulence, focusing on recently found invariant solutions and their significance for the dynamical and statistical characterization of low-Reynolds-number turbulent flows. It is shown that the near-wall regeneration cycle of coherent structures can be reproduced by such solutions. The typical similarity laws of turbulence, i.e., the Prandtl wall law and the Kolmogorov law for the viscous range, as well as the pattern and intensity of turbulence-driven secondary flow in a square duct can also be represented by these simple invariant solutions.


Gross S.,CNR Institute of Molecular Science and Technologies | Bauer M.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
Advanced Functional Materials | Year: 2010

The potential and application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) for structural investigations of organic-inorganic hybrid materials, with a special emphasis on systems consisting of inorganic building blocks (clusters) embedded into polymer backbones, is extensively reviewed. In the first part of the paper, the main features of organic-inorganic hybrid materials, their classification, the synthetic approaches for their preparation, and their applications are concisely presented, whereas the particular issues related to their characterization are discussed in more detail. In the second section of the paper, the principles and the theoretical background of the XAS method, including experimental design, data reduction, evaluation, analysis, and interpretation are described and discussed. Examples of potentialities of the method for the short-range structural investigation of inorganic nanostructures in hybrids are provided, and the state-of-the-art in the field of hybrid materials is reviewed. In the third part, six different case studies belonging to our past and present experience in this field are presented and discussed, with a particular focus on their XAS investigation. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Dmitriev I.A.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Dmitriev I.A.,RAS Ioffe Physical - Technical Institute | Mirlin A.D.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Mirlin A.D.,RAS Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute | And 2 more authors.
Reviews of Modern Physics | Year: 2012

Developments in the physics of 2D electron systems during the last decade revealed a new class of nonequilibrium phenomena in the presence of a moderately strong magnetic field. The hallmark of these phenomena is magnetoresistance oscillations generated by the external forces that drive the electron system out of equilibrium. The rich set of dramatic phenomena of this kind, discovered in high-mobility semiconductor nanostructures, includes, in particular, microwave radiation-induced resistance oscillations and zero-resistance states, as well as Hall field-induced resistance oscillations and associated zero-differential resistance states. The experimental manifestations of these phenomena and the unified theoretical framework for describing them in terms of a quantum kinetic equation are reviewed. This survey also contains a thorough discussion of the magnetotransport properties of 2D electrons in the linear-response regime, as well as an outlook on future directions, including related nonequilibrium phenomena in other 2D electron systems. © 2012 American Physical Society.


Plehn T.,University of Heidelberg | Salam G.P.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Spannowsky M.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Spannowsky M.,University of Oregon
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2010

At the LHC associated top quark and Higgs boson production with a Higgs boson decay to bottom quarks has long been a heavily disputed search channel. Recently, it has been found not to be viable. We show how it can be observed by tagging massive Higgs bosons and top jets. For this purpose we construct boosted top and Higgs taggers for standard-model processes in a complex QCD environment. © 2010 The American Physical Society.


Hackstein C.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Spannowsky M.,University of Oregon
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2010

Searches for a heavy standard model Higgs boson focus on the "gold plated mode" where the Higgs decays to two leptonic Z bosons. This channel provides a clean signature, in spite of the small leptonic branching ratios. We show that using fat jets the semileptonic ZZ mode significantly increases the number of signal events with a similar statistical significance as the leptonic mode. © 2010 The American Physical Society.


Hussain H.,University of Paderborn | Hussain H.,The University of Nizwa | Green I.R.,Stellenbosch University | Ahmed I.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2013

The various synthetic methods discussed in this review reveal that Oxone is a versatile reagent used in organic synthesis. Oxone is a cheap commercially available oxidant that easily oxidizes numerous functional groups. It is an efficient single oxygen-atom donor since it contains a nonsymmetrical O-O bond which is heterolytically cleaved during the oxidation cycle. It is an inexpensive reagent ($0.02-0.04/g), which compares favorably with hydrogen peroxide and bleach. Its byproducts do not pose an immediate threat to aquatic life upon disposal, and unlike chromium trioxide and bleach, it does not emit pungent vapors or pose a serious inhalation risk. The aqueous components of an organic Oxone reaction are oxidizing and acidic and should thus be quenched with sodium bisulfite followed by neutralization with sodium bicarbonate, thereby resulting in formation of a mixture of nonhazardous sulfate salts in water. These features make Oxone attractive for large-scale applications. Uses of other oxidizing agents lack the desired ingredients to attract the interest of industry because of tedious purification processes from their deoxygenated counterparts. The dioxirane (generated from reaction between Oxone and a ketone) epoxidation offers many advantages over traditional methods of epoxidation. Oxone is about one-half as expensive as m-chloroperoxybenzoic acid (mCPBA) and converted to KHSO4. KHSO4 during the reaction, while being relatively acidic, can easily be neutralized with dilute NaOH solution to produce nontoxic Na2SO4. Furthermore, the reaction conditions require the use of relatively nontoxic organic solvents plus water. Another advantage of dioxirane epoxidation is that acetone is recycled in the reaction, which means all of the extra oxygen in Oxone is incorporated into the respective alkenes. Dioxirane is also capable of oxidizing very unreactive olefins, and thus, isolation of some relatively unstable epoxides produced from glycals is possible. This represents a major advantage over the Sharpless and mCPBA protocols, which only epoxidize electron-rich olefins and allylic or homoallylic alcohols. These latter reagents also require a directing group. One drawback that dioxirane does have is the fact that it can also oxidize very reactive heteroatoms, hydroxyl groups, and unactivated C-H bonds during the epoxidation procedure. Oxone does have some disadvantages: (a) it is insoluble in organic solvents, (b) buffering is needed due to its acidity, and (c) it sometimes bleaches the metal catalysts and donor ligands during oxidation reactions. To overcome the need for aqueous conditions, some authors have used ionic liquids as solvent, and additionally, several tetraalkylammonium salts of Oxone have been reported. It has been found that when the cation in Oxone (i.e., K+) is changed to, e.g., n-Bu4N+, the oxidant also shows higher solubility in organic solvents, especially in dichloromethane. Tactical utilization of Oxone in synthetic plans is that it may replace tedious organic transformations with simpler routes. One other drawback which needs to be mentioned is that a relatively large excess of Oxone may be required in some reactions to consume all of the starting material. However, militating against this is that Oxone can be reused when it is in stoichiometric excess. Owing to the discovery of a variety of novel applications, Oxone is becoming an increasingly important reagent in synthetic organic chemistry. We hope that this review may act as a catalyst in boosting applications of Oxone in organic synthesis.


Wiescher M.,University of Notre Dame | Kappeler F.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Langanke K.,Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research | Langanke K.,TU Darmstadt | Langanke K.,Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies
Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2012

Nuclear reaction rates play a critical role in the understanding of stellar evolution and explosions. However, in many cases nuclear reaction rates still carry large uncertainties due to the paucity of experimental data and incomplete theoretical understanding of the underlying reaction mechanisms. New experimental methods and techniques, combined with the development of new theoretical tools, have exposed fresh avenues to pursue nuclear reactions of significance for nucleosynthesis at, or near, the actual temperatures of stellar burning. This review provides an overview of the most critical nuclear reactions for a number of nucleosynthesis environments. It also presents the current status of these reactions and provides insight into the specific uncertainties associated with the reaction rates. We identify existing shortcomings in the data and highlight the needs and opportunities for additional future experiments. Copyright © 2012 by Annual Reviews.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2009.1.1 | Award Amount: 5.50M | Year: 2010

ACCORDANCE introduces a novel ultra high capacity (even reaching the 100Gbps regime) extended reach optical access network architecture based on OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access) technology/protocols, implemented through the proper mix of state-of-the-art photonics and electronics. Such architecture is not only intended to offer improved performance compared to evolving TDMA-PON solutions but also inherently provide the opportunity for convergence between optical, radio and copper-based access.\nAlthough OFDM has been used in radio and copper-based communications, it is only recently that is making its way into optics and is expected to increase the system reach and transmission rates without increasing the required cost/complexity of optoelectronic components. ACCORDANCE hence aims to realize the concept of introducing OFDMA-based technology and protocols (Physical and Medium Access Control layer) to provide a variety of desirable characteristics, such as increased aggregate bandwidth and scalability, enhanced resource allocation flexibility, longer reach, lower equipment cost/complexity and lower power consumption, while also supporting multi-wavelength operation. In addition, it enables the convergence of the optical infrastructure with standard wireless solutions, thus offering a way to integrate dominant wired and wireless technologies in a hybrid access network supporting seamless ubiquitous broadband services.\nACCORDANCE, despite being a focused STREP, is supported by 4 major EU industry partners who will contribute to EU leadership in the particular topics and will support the adoption of ACCORDANCE concepts as global standards. The partners strongly believe that the proposed architecture will provide fertile ground for the creation of wider market opportunities from new classes of applications and accelerated uptake of next generation services, by changing the way low-cost ultra-broadband connectivity is provided to end users.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA | Phase: ICT-2007.3.5 | Award Amount: 825.02K | Year: 2008

In the next ten years scientific developments in the field of nanophotonics as a key driving force in photonics will influence many different industrial branches e.g. automotive and avionics, industrial automation ICT, health and well-being, environment or safety and security. In these industrial sectors many SMEs are involved as traditional suppliers, start-ups or producers of high tech products. In order to remain competitive on these markets, the companies have to integrate these new results and developments in their commercial vision for future products.\n\nThe project PhotonicRoadSME will develop technology roadmaps roadmaps to identify future RTD strategies for Europe in three domains [related nanophotonic materials / novel photonic devices and components / related key fabrication technologies] comprising the latest high level scientific results. Their functions will be\na.\tto identify trends in research and development and\nb.\tto associate them to product and application visions.\nThey will outline, which of them are technically and economically promising or possess high potentials for problem-solving and where potential risks and relevant investigation requirements are assumed or social discussion requirement could prevail. Therefore, four different industrial branches will be analyzed (ICT, health and well-being, environment and safety and security).\nThe validation of the roadmap results will be done by a consensus building process by integrating industrial and scientific experts from Europe and third countries.\n\nIn a second step these roadmaps will be adapted to the SME industrial culture in order to facilitate the integration of the European photonic RTD results in the different industrial branches.\n\nThe project involves well-known European research organisations and networks, which are leaders in the domain of photonics, European experts in the development of technology roadmaps and organisations from 5 European countries.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CPCSA | Phase: INFRA-2011-1.2.2. | Award Amount: 16.27M | Year: 2011

EUDAT is our proposal for the next stage in the realisation of the vision of data as infrastructure. The EUDAT consortium includes representatives from each stage of the value chain that has evolved to deliver scientific knowledge to researchers, citizens, industry and society as a whole. It includes funding agencies that invest in research infrastructures and programmes of research, infrastructure operators and research communities who rely on the availability of data-management services, national data centres and providers of connectivity and, of course, the users who rely on the availability of data and services, innovators who add value to the raw results of scientific research.\n\nEUDAT is a three-year project that will deliver a Collaborative Data Infrastructure (CDI) with the capacity and capability for meeting future researchers needs in a sustainable way. Its design will reflect a comprehensive picture of the data service requirements of the research communities in Europe and beyond. This will become increasingly important over the next decade as we face the challenges of massive expansion in the volume of data being generated and preserved (the so-called data tsunami) and in the complexity of that data and the systems required to provide access to it.\n\nAlthough those user requirements will vary between scientific disciplines, the micro-systems from which each communitys services are built are largely generic. This commonality will make it easier to achieve the minimum critical mass of users necessary for significant economies of scale to be achieved. The ability to rapidly provide bespoke responses to the evolving needs of our research communities additionally strengthens the business case for those communities. With the inclusion of disciplines from across the spectrum of scientific endeavour sharing a common infrastructure, EUDAT also provides the opportunity for data-sharing between disciplines and cross-fertilisation of ideas.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: LCE-09-2015 | Award Amount: 27.97M | Year: 2016

This proposal is an application to the EU programme Horizon 2020 and its topic Large scale energy storage (LCE-09-2015). The presented project STORE&GO will demonstrate three innovative Power to Gas storage concepts at locations in Germany, Switzerland and Italy in order to overcome technical, economic, social and legal barriers. The demonstration will pave the way for an integration of PtG storage into flexible energy supply and distribution systems with a high share of renewable energy. Using methanation processes as bridging technologies, it will demonstrate and investigate in which way these innovative PtG concepts will be able to solve the main problems of renewable energies: fluctuating production of renewable energies; consideration of renewables as suboptimal power grid infrastructure; expensive; missing storage solutions for renewable power at the local, national and European level. At the same time PtG concepts will contribute in maintaining natural gas or SNG with an existing huge European infrastructure and an already advantageous and continuously improving environmental footprint as an important primary/secondary energy carrier, which is nowadays in doubt due to geo-political reasons/conflicts. So, STORE&GO will show that new PtG concepts can bridge the gaps associated with renewable energies and security of energy supply. STORE&GO will rise the acceptance in the public for renewable energy technologies in the demonstration of bridging technologies at three living best practice locations in Europe.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: AAT-2007-6.1-02 | Award Amount: 9.76M | Year: 2008

ALFA-BIRD aims at developing the use of alternative fuels in aeronautics. In a context where the price of oil is increasing and with impact of fossil fuels on climate change, the sustainable growth of the civil aviation is conditioned by the respect of the environment. In this context, using biofuels and alternative fuels in aeronautics is a great challenge, since the operational constraints (e.g. flight in very cold conditions) are very strict, and due to the long lifetime of current civil aircraft (almost 50 years). To address this challenge, ALFA-BIRD gathers a multi-disciplinary consortium with key industrial partners from aeronautics (engine manufacturers, aircraft manufacturers) and fuel industry, and research organisation covering a large spectrum of expertise in the fields of aeronautics, biochemistry, combustion as well as industrial safety. Bringing together their knowledge, the consortium will develop the whole chain for clean alternative fuels for aviation. The most promising solutions will be examined during the project, from classical ones (plant oils, synthetic fuels) to the most innovative, such as new organic molecules. Based on a first selection of the most relevant alternative fuels, a detailed analysis of up to 5 new fuels will be performed with tests in realistic conditions. Then, at the end of the project, the review of the performance of these new alternative fuels will be made regarding the economical, environmental and technical efficiency. Based on this result the most relevant strategy for future alternative fuels for aircraft will be defined, as well as an implementation plan and industrial applications. The impact of such a project will be of first importance for the evolution of aviation within the next 5 decades. Developing alternative fuels will improve each countrys energy independence, lessen global-warming effects, and soften the economic uncertainty of crude oil peaking.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2015-ETN | Award Amount: 3.90M | Year: 2015

Development of fuel injection equipment (FIE) able to reduce pollutant emissions from liquid-fueled transportation and power generation systems is a top industrial priority in order to meet the forthcoming EU 2020 emission legislations. However, design of new FIE is currently constrained by the incomplete physical understanding of complex micro-scale processes, such as in-nozzle cavitation, primary and secondary atomization. Unfortunately, todays computing power does not allow for an all-scale analysis of these processes. The proposed program aims to develop a large eddy simulation (LES) CFD model that will account for the influence of unresolved sub-grid-scale (SGS) processes to engineering scales at affordable computing time scales. The bridging parameter between SGS and macro-scales flow processes is the surface area generation/destruction occurring during fuel atomisation; relevant SGS closure models will be developed through tailored experiments and DNS and will be implemented into the LES model predicting the macroscopic spray development as function of the in-nozzle flow and surrounding air conditions. Validation of the new simulation tool, currently missing from todays state-of-the-art models, will be performed against new benchmark experimental data to be obtained as part of the programme, in addition to those provided by the industrial partners. This will demonstrate the applicability of the model as an engineering design tool suitable for IC engines, gas turbines, fuel burners and even rocket engine fuel injectors. The proposed research and training programme will be undertaken by 15ESRs funded by the EU and one ESR funded independently from an Australian partner; ESRs will be recruited/seconded by universities, research institutes and multinational fuel injection and combustion systems manufacturers that will represent in the best possible way the international, interdisciplinary and intersectoral requirements of the Marie Curie Action guidelines.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-EID | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2015-EID | Award Amount: 3.86M | Year: 2016

The target of this project is to prepare and train future engineers for the design challenges and opportunities provided by modern optics technology. Such challenges include lossless photon management, modelling at the system, components and feature level, and the link between design and technology. Today all optical designs are often perceived following different approaches, namely geometrical optics, physical optics and nano-photonics. Traditionally these approaches are linked to the different lengths-scale that are important to the system. Starting from the entire system that is macroscopic and uses geometrical optics, over the miniaturized unit that is based on micro-optics and needs physical optics design, down to the active nano-photonics entity that allows steering light truly at the nano-scale but which requires to be designed with rigorous methods that provide full wave solutions to the governing Maxwells equations. A design for manufacture of next generation optical applications necessarily requires to bridge the gap between the different length scales and to consider the design at a holistic level. At the core are optical simulation models developed and used in the academic research and the one used for optical designs in industry. Up to now, only the academic partners apply an integral approach to include micro- and nano-photonics in their simulations. Together with the industrial partners projects will be launched to promote the academic developments in optical design and simulation over different length scales towards the industry. The industry will use the know-how to consolidate their expertise, expand their businesses, and occupy new fields of activities. For each research subject, may it be nano-photonics, micro-optics or system engineering, a channel can be provided to access particular knowledge and/or stimulate collaborations.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2013.4.2 | Award Amount: 8.48M | Year: 2014

Miniaturisation, progress with energy issues and cost reductions have resulted in rapid growth in deployment of networked devices and sensors, very strongly connecting the internet with the physical world. With wide adoption of smartphones and social media, also people have become key sources of information about the physical world, corresponding events and the intents and plans of many individuals. With more than a billion of people organizing their lives electronically and sharing information via social platforms on the Internet and with the number of devices connected to the Internet already exceeding the number of people on earth and still growing to an estimated 50 billion devices by 2020, handling these massive amounts of data becomes a huge challenge. Surmounting this challenge, however, may give us previously unattainable understanding of events and changes in our surrounding environments. EPPICS will develop large scale adaptive methods to enable pervasive modelling, monitoring and predicting of events in the real world by extracting and combining data and information from physical and social sensors. Such methods will be integrated into a platform that will support citizens, authorities and organizations in taking informed and timely decisions when tackling real world events. Application domains will cover the intelligent management in urban settings with a particular focus on city-wide events management as well as water management, specifically monitoring and reacting to widespread floods. EPPICS will provide the technological and methodological framework for the capturing, integrating, modeling and forecasting of the large-scale hybrid information deriving from hundreds of sensors, thousands of cars and large-scale social media. The technology will enable the authorities a huge leap in terms of the ability to manage large events where hundreds of thousands of people are involved at the same time.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: NOE | Phase: ICT-2009.4.3 | Award Amount: 3.69M | Year: 2010

PlanetData aims to establish a sustainable European community of researchers that supports organizations in exposing their data in new and useful ways. The ability to effectively and efficiently make sense out of the enormous amounts of data continuously published online, including data streams, (micro)blog posts, digital archives, eScience resources, public sector data sets, and the Linked Open Data Cloud, is a crucial ingredient for Europes transition to a knowledge society. It allows businesses, governments, communities and individuals to take decisions in an informed manner, ensuring competitive advantages, and general welfare. Research will concentrate on three key challenges that need to be addressed for effective data exposure in a usable form at global scale. We will provide representations for stream-like data, and scalable techniques to publish, access and integrate such data sources on the Web. We will establish mechanisms to assess, record, and, where possible, improve the quality of data through repair. To further enhance the usefulness of data - in particular when it comes to the effectiveness of data processing and retrieval - we will define means to capture the context in which data is produced and understood - including space, time and social aspects. Finally, we will develop access control mechanisms - in order to attract exposure of certain types of valuable data sets, it is necessary to take proper account of its owners concerns to maintain control and respect for privacy and provenance, while not hampering non-contentious use. We will test all of the above on a highly scalable data infrastructure, supporting relational, RDF, and stream processing, and on novel data sets exposed through the network, and derive best practices for data owners. By providing these key precursors, complemented by a comprehensive training, dissemination, standardization and networking program, we will enable and promote effective exposure of data at planetary scale.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2009.7.3 | Award Amount: 4.03M | Year: 2010

The fundamental idea of COCKPIT is that Web 2.0 social media constitute the emerging and de facto mass collaboration and cooperation platform between citizens themselves, and between citizens and public administrations. Therefore, Web 2.0 social media will have very soon establish themselves as a very effective means for creating, sharing and tracking knowledge about citizens opinions and wishes on public service delivery. COCKPIT adopts a highly synergetic approach towards the definition of a new governance model for the next-generation public service delivery decision making process by combining the research areas of citizens opinion mining in the context of Web 2.0, Service Science Management and Engineering in the context of the public sector, and deliberative engagement of citizens for forming informed judgements on public services delivery. COCKPIT supports the notion of open Public Administrations with which citizens have higher confidence and trust among each other and with the Public Administration, resulting in better governance, lower disputes on services delivery priority setting, higher degrees of public service adoption, lower public service delivery costs, better service innovation, and citizens loyalty to the public services.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2009.5.2 | Award Amount: 5.00M | Year: 2010

This proposal addresses the development of technologies for patient safety in robotic surgery. We define patient safety metrics for surgical procedures and then develop methods that abide by safety requirements, formulated in terms of our metrics. We aim at demonstrating that a properly controlled robotic surgery carried out in accordance to our safety criteria can improve the level of patient safety currently achievable by traditional surgery. The main innovative aspects of this project are: 1-\tResearch driven by patient-safety requirements 2-\tEmphasis on methodological rigor: development of a methodology founded in evidence-based medicine 3-\tScope: the entire surgical workflow is considered for development and validation. SAFROS focuses on innovative development of methods for the following technologies: \tSoft organ modeling and calibration, considering patient pathologies and anatomical variants \t Simulation planning in deformable environments\tIntra-operative registration and workflow monitoring\t Robot modeling and performance monitoring\tSurgeon training\tOperator interface with integrated stereovision and haptics New methods are integrated and validated on two distinct surgical robots (MIRO and RAMS), with respect to two inherently different contexts (pancreatic and vascular surgery). We quantitatively validate the adherence of our methods to the safety criteria, using surgical phantoms and animals. By comparing across robots and surgical contexts we draw conclusions about the generality of our approach. The SAFROS consortium comprises:\tHospitals with worldwide reputation, which provide medical knowledge and can validate our approach\tEuropes leading research groups in telerobotics and surgical robotics \tInnovative companies, to develop new technologies for surgical simulators\tWorld Health Organization, with global expertise in patient safety surgical safety guidelines\tRenowned educational organizations, to innovate surgeon training


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2007.1.2 | Award Amount: 13.39M | Year: 2008

Computer science is entering a new generation. The emerging generation starts by abstracting from software and sees all resources as services in a service-oriented architecture (SOA). In a world of services, it is the service that counts for a customer and not the software or hardware components which implement the service. Service-oriented architectures are rapidly becoming the dominant computing paradigm. However, current SOA solutions are still restricted in their application context to being in-house solutions of companies. A service Web will have billions of services. While service orientation is widely acknowledged for its potential to revolutionize the world of computing by abstracting from the underlying hardware and software layers, its success depends on resolving a number of fundamental challenges that SOA does not address today.SOA4All will help to realize a world where billions of parties are exposing and consuming services via advanced Web technology.The outcome of the project will be a comprehensive framework and infrastructure that integrates four complimentary and revolutionary technical advances into a coherent and domain independent service delivery platform: Web principles and technology as the underlying infrastructure for the integration of services at a world wide scale. Web 2.0 as a means to structure human-machine cooperation in an efficient and cost-effective manner. Semantic Web technology as a means to abstract from syntax to semantics as required for meaningful service discovery. Context management as a way to process in a machine understandable way user needs that facilitates the customization of existing services for the needs of users.SOA4All is endorsed by the NESSI constituency as an Strategic Project and will contribute significantly to the NESSI Open Framework, which is one of the main challenges of the European Platform on Software and Services.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2015-ETN | Award Amount: 3.86M | Year: 2016

NEUTRINOS and DARK MATTER (DM) are the most abundant and also the most elusive building-blocks of nature because of their tenuous couplings to the ordinary matter we are made of. Each particle has a mirror image with identical mass and opposite charge: its antiparticle. What is the essential nature of particles and antiparticles? This is a most fundamental open question in science. The laws of physics are almost -but not quite- symmetric for particles and antiparticles, and this could explain why the universe is made of matter, i.e. why we are here. Tiny differences detected in visible matter are largely insufficient, while an asymmetric behaviour of neutrinos or of DM may be the seed. In turn, the unnaturally symmetric behaviour of strong interactions points to a new particle, the axion, also a superb DM candidate. For the first time, the connection between these asymmetries in the visible and invisible world will be addressed. Very timely, an ambitious experimental search of asymmetric behaviour has been launched on neutrinos, axions and other DM, and the Higgs, with imminent major breakthroughs. The path to understand the Universe and build the New Standard Model must confront this problem. The mission of Elusives ITN is to form the new generation of researchers to accomplish this task, focusing on phenomenology with the necessary link to experiment. This is the first transnational such program, exploiting the capital investment in new experiments and overcoming the fragmentation of the research effort. ELUSIVES ITN is uniquely placed for it: * World-leadership in all relevant areas; * Multidisciplinarity; * Key theorists and experimentalists; * Outstanding training record; * CERN, Fermilab, SuperKamiokande and ADMX partners; * World leading cutting-edge research-related industry; * Highest professional beneficiary dissemination; * Top-quality expertise from emerging countries; * Optimal gender balance with over 50% female international leaders as coordinators.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-ITN-2008 | Award Amount: 5.18M | Year: 2009

New and recent developments have revolutionized the prostate cancer research and clinical arenas, requiring the next generation scientists to have comprehensive knowledge and expertise in basic, clinical and applied research. PRO-NEST offers young researchers a European integrated, multi-disciplinary training programme to become an independent and all-round scientist and team leader in (prostate) cancer research. This network is driven by recognised and experienced scientists from 17 academic and industrial partners. The joint PRO-NEST research programme focuses on the understanding of the molecular events responsible for the initiation and progression of prostate cancer as well as on the development of novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets, with the ultimate goal to improve the diagnosis, prognosis, treatment and prevention of this major European health problem. The fellows will strongly contribute to this programme by their individual research projects that will be carried out in a high standard and collaborative scientific infrastructure under the supervision of experts in the field. In this way, they will become technical specialists in a dedicated area of cancer research. The scientific and complementary skills of the fellows will be expanded and deepened by secondments and by theoretical and practical network-wide training courses on basic and clinical aspects of prostate cancer, biomarkers, technology, valorisation, scientific writing and presentation, project management, communication skills and job application skills. In an international conference entitled The European prostate cancer research floor on stage organised at the end of PRO-NEST, the fellows are given the opportunity to present themselves to potential coming academic and industrial employers. The expertise, state of the art tools and technological skills provided by each of the partners are competitive at the world scale, and form the comprehensive basis of top-level research and training in PRO-NEST. The available support from professional organizations and the existing collaborations in large research consortia ensures the successful realization of the PRO-NEST goals.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2009.4.3 | Award Amount: 4.43M | Year: 2010

The Web has proved to be an unprecedented success for facilitating the publication, use and exchange of information, at planetary scale, on virtually every topic, and representing an amazing diversity of opinions, viewpoints, mind sets and backgrounds. Its design principles and core technological components have lead to an unprecedented growth and mass collaboration. This trend is also finding increasing adoption in business environments. Nevertheless, the Web is also confronted with fundamental challenges with respect to the purposeful access, processing and management of these sheer amounts of information, whilst remaining true to its principles, and leveraging the diversity inherently unfolding through world wide scale collaboration.\nRENDER will engage with these challenges by developing methods, techniques, software and data sets that will leverage diversity as a crucial source of innovation and creativity, whilst providing enhanced support for feasibly managing data at very large scale, and for designing novel algorithms that reflect diversity in the ways information is selected, ranked, aggregated, presented and used. RENDERs information management solution will scale to very large amounts of data and hundreds of thousands of users, but also to a plurality of points of views and opinions. This will be demonstrated through the usage of realistic data sources with billions of items; through open source extensions to popular communication and collaboration platforms (MediaWiki, WordPress); and through three high-profile case studies.\nRENDER will help to realize a world where information is acquired and shared in a fundamentally different manner than the consensual approach promoted by movements such as Web 2.0, and where communication and collaboration across the borders of social, cultural or professional communities are truly enabled via advanced Web technology, supporting one of the credos of European society: United in diversity.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: NMP-21-2014 | Award Amount: 6.97M | Year: 2015

The project NANO-CATHEDRAL aims at developing, with a nano-metric scale approach, new materials, technologies and procedures for the conservation of deteriorated stones in monumental buildings and cathedrals and high value contemporary architecture, with a particular emphasis on the preservation of the originality and specificity of materials. The objective is providing key tools for restoration and conservation: On representative lithotypes On European representative climatic areas With a time-scale/environmental approach With technology validated in relevant environment (industrial plant and monuments) Exploiting results also on modern stone made buildings A general protocol will be defined for the identification of the petrographic and mineralogical features of the stone materials, the identification of the degradation patterns, the evaluation of the causes and mechanisms of alteration and degradation, including the correlations between the relevant state of decay and the actual microclimatic and air pollution conditions. Moreover, innovative nano-materials will be developed suitable for: Surface consolidation: in this case water-based formulations based on nano-inorganic or nano-hybrid dispersions such as nano-silica, nano-titania, nano-hydroxyapatite, nano-calcite and nano-magnesia as well as their synergic combinations with organic and inorganic compounds will be considered. Surface protection: in this case, innovative composites will be developed consisting of polymers and nano-fillers. The use of hydrophobins, nano-assembled hydrofobic proteins extracted from fungi, and photocatalytic nano-particles (for favoring the decomposition of volatile organic molecules carried by polluted atmosphere and to prevent biofilm growth) will be considered. The project will contribute to the development of transnational cultural tourism and to the development of common European shared values and heritage, thus stimulating a greater sense of European identity.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2009.2.1 | Award Amount: 10.05M | Year: 2011

Current research in embodied cognition builds on the idea that physical interaction with and exploration of the world allows an agent to acquire intrinsically grounded, cognitive representations which are better adapted to guiding behavior than human crafted rules. Exploration and discriminative learning, however, are relatively slow processes. Humans are able to rapidly create new concepts and react to unanticipated situations using their experience. They use generative mechanisms, like imagining and internal simulation, based on prior knowledge to predict the immediate future. Such generative mechanisms increase both the bandwidth and speed of cognitive development, however, current artificial cognitive systems do not yet use generative mechanisms in this way.The Xperience project addresses this problem by structural bootstrapping, an idea taken from language acquisition research: knowledge about grammar allows a child to infer the meaning of an unknown word from its grammatical role together with understood remainder of the sentence. Structural bootstrapping generalizes this idea for general cognitive learning: if you know the structure of a process the role of unknown actions and entities can be inferred from their location and use in the process. This approach will enable rapid generalization and allow agents to communicate effectively.Xperience will implement a complete robot system for automating introspective, predictive, and interactive understanding of actions and dynamic situations based on structural bootstrapping. Xperience will evaluate and benchmark this on state-of-the-art humanoid robots demonstrating rich interactions with humans. By equipping embodied artificial agents with the means to exploit prior experience via generative inner models, XPERIENCE will have a major impact in a wide range of autonomous robotics applications that benefit from efficient learning through exploration, predictive reasoning and external guidance.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SC5-16-2014 | Award Amount: 15.99M | Year: 2015

Terrestrial and marine ecosystems provide essential services to human societies. Anthropogenic pressures, however, cause serious threat to ecosystems, leading to habitat degradation, increased risk of collapse and loss of ecosystem services. Knowledge-based conservation, management and restoration policies are needed to improve ecosystem benefits in face of increasing pressures. ECOPOTENTIAL makes significant progress beyond the state-of-the-art and creates a unified framework for ecosystem studies and management of protected areas (PA). ECOPOTENTIAL focuses on internationally recognized PAs in Europe and beyond in a wide range of biogeographic regions, and it includes UNESCO, Natura2000 and LTER sites and Large Marine Ecosystems. Best use of Earth Observation (EO) and monitoring data is enabled by new EO open-access ecosystem data services (ECOPERNICUS). Modelling approaches including information from EO data are devised, ecosystem services in current and future conditions are assessed and the requirements of future protected areas are defined. Conceptual approaches based on Essential Variables, Macrosystem Ecology and cross-scale interactions allow for a deeper understanding of the Earths Critical Zone. Open and interoperable access to data and knowledge is assured by a GEO Ecosystem Virtual Laboratory Platform, fully integrated in GEOSS. Support to transparent and knowledge-based conservation and management policies, able to include information from EO data, is developed. Knowledge gained in the PAs is upscaled to pan-European conditions and used for planning and management of future PAs. A permanent stakeholder consultancy group (GEO Ecosystem Community of Practice) will be created. Capacity building is pursued at all levels. SMEs are involved to create expertise leading to new job opportunities, ensuring long-term continuation of services. In summary, ECOPOTENTIAL uses the most advanced technologies to improve future ecosystem benefits for humankind.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2007.6.2 | Award Amount: 8.55M | Year: 2008

Based on the overall description of a common European architecture for an inter-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communication system PRE-DRIVE C2X shall develop a detailed system specification and a working as well as functionally verified prototype. It will be robust enough to be used in future field operational trials of cooperative systems. Furthermore PRE-DRIVE C2X shall develop an integrated simulation model for cooperative systems, which, for the first time, enables a holistic approach for estimation of the expected benefits in terms of safety, efficiency and environment. This work shall be topped of by the development of tools and methods necessary for functional verification and testing of cooperative systems in laboratory environment, on test tracks and on real roads in the framework of a field operational test. In the proposed project these shall be applied to the PRE-DRIVE C2X prototype system to verify its proper functioning and to do a limited impact assessment including a friendly user test. Last but not least extensive dissemination activities are planned in order to communicate the benefits of cooperative systems vehicle technology to the public and to address all relevant European stakeholders.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-SME | Phase: SME-1 | Award Amount: 1.50M | Year: 2011

In August 2009 was fully implemented the reform of the Common Market Organization for wine (CR N479/2008, 29-04-2008). It aims at reducing the 24 million hl/year surplus of basic low quality wine, phasing out the 500 million/year spent on wine disposal subsidies and making EU wine more competitive. This reform, together with other market constraints will endanger all EU winegrowing SMEs. To survive, they will have to increase crop value, reduce the production of basic wine and convert part into premium quality. This can be achieved by implementing new and more effective field control methods. PREMIVM proposes a low-cost, handheld device capable of non-invasively estimating ripeness and vigour parameters for grapes and vine plants. All this in the vineyard, by means of the innovative use of chlorophyll fluorescence and reflectance multispectral data correlated by specific mathematical models, with GPS tags for all readings. The device will provide data to precisely control the field, and increase production value up to 25% (expected yearly 5.000-10.000/ha income increase for winegrowing SMEs like PEREZ, QMF and PERACCIO). With a cost of 2500/ unit, consortium manufacture and distribution SMEs PSI and AGRI estimate, through a joint-venture, to reach at least 2% of the market in 5 years. This is equivalent to an expected income of 70 million, with a 30 million profit and a ROI of 0.86. The consortium provides the complementary business capabilities, commercial networks and research expertise to guarantee the technology a quick route to the market. All members are fully committed to ensuring the success of the project, led by the SMEs in testing, validating, using and protecting the results outsourced to the necessary expertise in Chl-F&R, optical instrumentation, botany, IT solutions, communications and prototyping of RTDs BIOENG, KIT and ISBE.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2009.6.2 | Award Amount: 18.24M | Year: 2011

The objective of the DRIVE C2X Integrated Project is to carry out comprehensive assessment of cooperative systems through Field Operational Tests in various places in Europe in order to verify their benefits and to pave the way for market implementation. This general objective is split into four major technical objectives:\nCreate a harmonised Europe-wide testing environment for cooperative systems\nCoordinate the tests carried out in parallel throughout the DRIVE C2X community\nEvaluate cooperative systems\nPromote cooperative driving.\nThe proposal fully responds to EC requirements and the Call 6 contents on Field Operational Tests.\nDuring the past decade, researchers have been working on cooperative systems worldwide in numerous research projects. Tentative results suggest that communication between vehicles and vehicles and infrastructure can substantially improve sustainable transportation. There is today a general understanding of the benefits of cooperative systems in terms of traffic safety and efficiency, but so far these systems have been tried out in small scale experiments only. There is no proof of their benefits yet with many communicating vehicles used in variable conditions on roads.\nThe work proposed builds strongly on previous and on-going work on cooperative systems, which are now considered to be mature enough for large-scale field operational tests. The Europe-wide testing community envisaged for DRIVE C2X comprises of six test sites in Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden, France and Finland. Essential activities in this project are the testing methodology and evaluation of the impact of cooperative driving functions on users, environment and society. In addition to impacts, other important areas of testing are technical functionality and robustness of the systems also in adverse conditions. The user feedback and the results from technical tests enable the creation of realistic business models for the following market introduction.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2008-1.1.1 | Award Amount: 11.53M | Year: 2009

Europe has the largest and most advanced system of synchrotrons and free electron lasers (FELs): 17 operating facilities, several under construction, some 300 beamlines, 25,000-30,000 users per year from many disciplines (materials, chemistry, biology, medicine, physics, technology and others); this is also the worlds largest experimental network. The system is an open resource for all scientists based on merit, without national barriers. The network and its bottom-up approach to transnational access are major factors in the European competitiveness in science and technology. The European Commission had a major role in this accomplishment by providing through different channels resources for joint activities and transnational access. The present proposal is will enhance this role guaranteeing full exploitation of the research infrastructure by European scientists. The specific objectives are: (1) to provide resources for a concrete transnational access independent of the financial situation of the concerned users; (2) to support joint research activities to build new capacities in existing research infrastructures to even better serve the transnational user community and make European synchrotrons and FELs even more competitive with respect to the USA, Japan and others. In addition, (3) networking activities - schools, workshops, documentation, standards and public dissemination - will boost cooperation in the network and its positive effects in Europe and beyond. The requested financial support is much smaller than the overall funding of the network but its impact is major, benefiting some 10,000 scientists in Europe. Transnational access is crucial for researchers from less-favored countries new EU members in particular. The concrete access front-line instruments without emigration and brain drain is a key effect of the open access to the European synchrotrons and FELs. Similarly positive is the impact on junior researchers and women scientists.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: NFRP-02-2014 | Award Amount: 4.57M | Year: 2015

When dealing with emergency, two issues with fully different time requirements and operational objectives, and thus different methods and tools, have to be considered: emergency preparedness and emergency response. This project will address both issues by combining the efforts of organizations active in these two areas to make already identified deterministic reference tools and methods a decisive step toward. In particular capabilities of these methods and tools will be extended to tackle main categories of accident scenarios in main types of operating or foreseen water-cooled NPPs in Europe, including Spent Fuel Pools. A first task will be the identification of these categories of scenario, the proposition of a methodology for their description and the development of a database of scenarios. Building this database will constitute a first important step in the harmonisation goal defended in this project. Promising probabilistic approaches based on Bayesian Belief Networks (BBN) are currently developed to complement operational deterministic methodologies and tools by contributing to diagnosis accidental situations. The development of the methodologies will be pursued in this project with the extension of the existing deterministic ones to European reactors. Both approaches will be assessed against the above mentioned database of scenarios. Finally a comprehensive set of emergency exercises will be developed and proposed to be run by a large set of partners. A first series of exercises will address source term evaluations that will be compared to the reference source terms from the scenarios database. Then a second series of exercises will be proposed on the same scenarios that will be used for the first series but accounting for the main emergency objective : to protect the populations. Progresses made by the methods and tools developed within this project will be notably assessed by comparing the results obtained in these two series of exercises.


PhoxTrot is a large-scale research effort focusing on high-performance, low-energy and cost and small-size optical interconnects across the different hierarchy levels in Data Center and High-Performance Computing Systems: on-board, board-to-board and rack-to-rack. PhoxTrot will tackle optical interconnects in a holistic way, synergizing the different fabrication platforms (CMOS electronics, Si-photonics, polymers, glass, III-Vs, plasmonics) in order to deploy the optimal mix&match technology and tailor this to each interconnect layer. PhoxTrot will follow a layered approach from near-term exploitable to more forward looking but of high expected gain activities. The main objectives of PhoxTrot include the deployment of:\n. generic building block technologies (transmitters, modulators, receivers, switches, optochips, multi- and single-mode optical PCBs, chip- and board-to-board connectors) that can be used for a broad range of applications, extending performance beyond Tb/s and reducing energy by more than 50%.\n. a unified integration/packaging methodology as a cost/energy-reduction factor for board-adaptable 3D SiP transceiver and router optochip fabrication.\n. the whole food-chain of low-cost and low-energy interconnect technologies concluding to 3 fully functional prototype systems: an >1Tb/s throughput optical PCB and >50% reduced energy requirements, a high-end >2Tb/s throughput optical backplane for board-to-board interconnection, and a 1.28Tb/s 16QAM Active Optical Cable that reduces power requirements by >70%.\nTo ensure high commercial impact after the end of PhoxTrot, all activities have been designed around current market roadmaps that will be updated during the course of the project and are led by industrial partners. PhoxTrot brings together the major European industrial and research players in the field. In so doing it will create a highly timely thrust and of unprecedented momentum in optical interconnects in Europe with worldwide impact.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2011.1.1 | Award Amount: 10.50M | Year: 2012

The LEXNET project addresses key factors of human exposure to electromagnetic fields(EMF) induced by wireless telecommunication networks and low exposuretechnologies. The wireless communication systems that are nowadays intensively usedhave induced fears to the general population about possible health impact. To date noadverse health effect has been established but recently the International Agency forResearch on Cancer has classified radio frequency electromagnetic fields as possiblycarcinogenic to humans. Such context may curb the general public from using innovativewireless systems. The goal of the LEXNET project is to investigate technologies andarchitectures to reduce the total human exposure without compromising the usersperceived quality in the frequency bands used for cellular and wireless local areanetworks (700 MHz to 6 GHz). EMF exposure is often assessed with access points anddevices considered separately. The real exposure induced by a network requires assessingthe averaged exposure encountered during human activities (working, travelling, etc.) andmust consider jointly the up- and downlinks of different systems. The project will definea suitable index of exposure (Iexp), which will consider exposure as a composition ofsituations encountered in various scenarios (e.g. percentages at home, travelling, etc).The acceptability of such index will be discussed with stakeholders. To reduce the Iexpof existing and future networks, the LEXNET project will analyse different options (e.g.radio components, interference management, power control, cell discontinuoustransmission, network selection and network nodes reconfiguration). The findings will bedemonstrated through a deployment in a smart city and validation platforms for proof ofconcept. The project will contribute to scientific knowledge and initiate a specificsymposium to discuss with stakeholders such as national authorities in charge of theseaspects (e.g. CEPT, ANFR and OfCom).


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2013.8.2 | Award Amount: 6.69M | Year: 2014

EmployID aims to support and facilitate the learning process of Public Employment Services (PES) practitioners in their professional identity transformation process. To perform successfully in their job they need to acquire a set of new and transversal skills, develop additional competencies, as well as embed a professional culture of continuous improvement. EmployID will offer efficient use of technologies to provide advanced coaching, reflection and networking services. Based on adult learning theories, the project focuses on technology developments that make facilitation services for professional identity transformation cost-effective and sustainable by empowering the individual to engage in peer learning and facilitation. This will include (1) e-coaching tools that make coaching processes more efficient and enables peers to develop coaching skills, (2) reflection tools that integrate into coaching processes and support on-going conversation across contexts, (3) novel networking and facilitation tools that support individuals in becoming effective facilitators for the learning of others, and (4) flexible scorecard visualizations as a form of workplace learning analytics, partially fed by data collected from the user activities and feedback. These new tools will integrate into existing learning and training infrastructures, such as existing LMS. Privacy aspects will be addressed carefully by appropriate technical and organizational means. The EmployID framework will help PES practitioners to become self-directed learners and competent in their job counselling and PES organisations in effectively managing the up-skilling of their staff. A comprehensive and empirically validated indicator framework for PES organizations adaptable to their needs will support the development of a performance improvement culture. Our holistic approach is targeting professional identity transformation on an individual, network and organisational level.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-IRSES | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2013-IRSES | Award Amount: 405.80K | Year: 2013

Semantic data management refers to a range of techniques for the manipulation and usage of data based on its meaning. Semantically enabled linked and open data have been published at an increasing pace in recent years, and this technology has been adopted by major industrial players, including Google, Yahoo, Oracle, Talis and IBM. But to reach their full potential of becoming a transformative technology enabling a data-driven economy, there are important research challenges related to semantic data, particularly regarding maturity, dynamicity and the ability to process efficiently huge amounts of interconnected semantic data. SemData brings together some of the internationally leading research centres in the area of managing semantic data to address these challenges.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: GC.NMP.2013-1 | Award Amount: 9.01M | Year: 2013

MARS-EV aims to overcome the ageing phenomenon in Li-ion cells by focusing on the development of high-energy electrode materials (250 Wh/kg at cell level) via sustainable scaled-up synthesis and safe electrolyte systems with improved cycle life (> 3000 cycles at 100%DOD). Through industrial prototype cell assembly and testing coupled with modelling MARS-EV will improve the understanding of the ageing behaviour at the electrode and system levels. Finally, it will address a full life cycle assessment of the developed technology. MARS-EV proposal has six objectives: (i) synthesis of novel nano-structured, high voltage cathodes (Mn, Co and Ni phosphates and low-cobalt, Li-rich NMC) and high capacity anodes (Silicon alloys and interconversion oxides); (ii) development of green and safe, electrolyte chemistries, including ionic liquids, with high performance even at ambient and sub-ambient temperature, as well as electrolyte additives for safe high voltage cathode operation; (iii) investigation of the peculiar electrolyte properties and their interactions with anode and cathode materials; (iv) understanding the ageing and degradation processes with the support of modelling, in order to improve the electrode and electrolyte properties and, thus, their reciprocal interactions and their effects on battery lifetime; (v) realization of up to B5 format pre-industrial pouch cells with optimized electrode and electrolyte components and eco-designed durable packaging; and (vi) boost EU cell and battery manufacturers via the development of economic viable and technologically feasible advanced materials and processes, realization of high-energy, ageing-resistant, easily recyclable cells. MARS-EV brings together partners with complementary skills and expertise, including industry covering the complete chain from active materials suppliers to cell and battery manufacturers, thus ensuring that developments in MARS-EV will directly improve European battery production capacities.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: SST-2007-1.1-05 | Award Amount: 27.48M | Year: 2008

The project HERCULES-B is the Phase II of the HERCULES programme, conceived in 2002 as a 7-year strategic R&D Plan, to develop the future generation of optimally efficient and clean marine diesel powerplants. The project is the outcome of a joint vision by the two major European engine manufacturer Groups, MAN Diesel and WARTSILA, which together hold 90% of the worlds marine engine market. The research objectives in HERCULES-B focus on the drastic reduction of CO2 emissions from maritime transport, considering the existing and foreseen composition of the world fleet and fuel infrastructure. The principal aim in HERCULES-B is to reduce fuel consumption of marine diesel engines by 10%, to improve efficiency of marine diesel propulsion systems to a level of more than 60%, and thus reduce CO2 emissions substantially. An additional concurrent aim is towards ultra low exhaust emissions (70% Reduction of NOx, 50% Reduction of Particulates) from marine engines by the year 2020. Today diesel propulsion systems power 99% of the world fleet. HERCULES-B targets the development of engines with extreme operational pressure and temperature parameters, considering the thermo-fluid-dynamic and structural design issues, including friction and wear as well as combustion, air charging, electronics and control, so as to achieve the efficiency / CO2 target. To achieve the emissions target, combustion and advanced aftertreatment methods will be concurrently developed. To improve the whole powertrain, the interaction of engine with the ship, as well as the use of combined cycles in overall system optimization, will be considered. The project HERCULES-B structure of work comprises 54 subprojects, grouped into 13 Tasks and 7 Workpackages, spanning the complete spectrum of marine diesel engine technology. The project HERCULES-B has a total budget of 27M, a duration of 40 months and a Consortium with 32 participants.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: NFRP-10-2014 | Award Amount: 3.18M | Year: 2016

The present situation of nuclear energy in Europe asks for a continuing effort in the field of Education and Training aimed to assure a qualified workforce in the next decades. In this scenario, the present proposal is aimed at enhancing and networking the Europe-wide efforts initiated in the past decades by different organisations belonging to academia, research centres and industry to maintain and develop Education and Training in the nuclear fields. This will allow consolidating, developing and better exploiting the achievements already reached in the past and to tackle the present challenges in preparing the European workforce in the nuclear fields. The main objectives of the proposal are: 1. SURVEY AND COORDINATION OF NETWORKING IN E&T AND VET IN THE NUCLEAR AREAS 2. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF COORDINATED E&T AND VET EFFORTS (Master and Summer Courses for continuous professional development) 3. GENERATIONAL TRANSFER OF EXPERTISE (Sustainable production of educational material) 4. CROSS BORDER TRANSFER OF EXPERTISE (Implementation of ECVET based exchanges among industrial bodies) 5. REINFORCING ETI ACTIONS FOR SHARING AND ENHANCING NUCLEAR SAFETY CULTURE COMPETENCE 6. FACILITATING THE NUCLEAR TRANSITION IN FUSION: COORDINATING THE E&T ACTIONS The European Nuclear Education Network (ENEN), as coordinator of the proposed action, together with the other Participants, is committed to pursue the above objectives, being fully coherent with the ones suggested in the call (NFRP10) and proposed by the SET Plan Roadmap for Education and Training for the nuclear sector, tightening at the same time the links among the different nuclear areas and better coordinating their contributions in the E&T fields. Strict links with the SNE-TP; IGD-TP and MELODI platforms and other relevant associations and bodies (EHRO-N, NUGENIA, EUTERP, IAEA, HERCA, etc.) will be implemented to assure coherence of this effort with similar other efforts going on in Europe.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: ISSI-5-2015 | Award Amount: 3.64M | Year: 2016

The RRI-Practice project will bring together a unique group of international experts in RRI to understand the barriers and drivers to the successful implementation of RRI both in European and global contexts; to promote reflection on organisational structures and cultures of research conducting and research funding organisations; and to identify and support best practices to facilitate the uptake of RRI in organisations and research programmes. The project will review RRI related work in 22 research conducting and research funding organisations and will develop RRI Outlooks outlining RRI objectives, targets and indicators for each organisation. It will involve comparative analysis of the five EC keys of RRI locating these within broader, evolving discourses on RRI. Within each identified RRI dimension the project will analyse how the topic has developed in particular social and institutional contexts, how the RRI concept and configuration meshes, overlaps and challenges existing organisational practices and cultures, leading to an analysis of the barriers and drivers associated with operationalising and implementing RRI. 12 national case studies will allow for in depth studies of, and dialogue with, the included organisations, and will form the basis for systematic analysis and comparison of drivers, barriers and best practices on each dimension of RRI. The project design also allows analysis of such drivers, barriers and best practices related to national and organisational characteristics, safeguarding the need to take into account diversity and pluralism in regional RRI programs. These analyses will ultimately end up in recommendations to the EC about effective, efficient and targeted strategies for increasing RRI uptake in different kinds of organisations and national cultures, in Europe and in selected major S&T intensive economies worldwide. The project will also develop user-friendly guidance aimed directly at research and funding organisations themselves.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: FETPROACT-2-2014 | Award Amount: 2.89M | Year: 2015

Contemporary research endeavours aim at equipping artificial systems with human-like cognitive skills, in an attempt to promote their intelligence beyond repetitive task accomplishment. However, despite the crucial role that the sense of time has in human cognition, both in perception and action, the capacity of artificial agents to experience the flow of time remains largely unexplored. The inability of existing systems to perceive time constrains their potential understanding of the inherent temporal characteristics of the dynamic world, which in turn acts as an obstacle to their symbiosis with humans. Time perception is without doubt, not an optional extra, but a necessity for the development of truly autonomous, cognitive machines. TIMESTORM aims at bridging this fundamental gap by shifting the focus of human-machine confluence to the temporal, short- and long-term aspects of symbiotic interaction. The integrative pursuit of research and technological developments in time perception will contribute significantly to ongoing efforts in deciphering the relevant brain circuitry and will also give rise to innovative implementations of artifacts with profoundly enhanced cognitive capacities. Equipping artificial agents with temporal cognition establishes a new framework for the investigation and integration of knowing, doing, and being in artificial systems. The proposed research will study the principles of time processing in the human brain and their replication in-silico, adopting a multidisciplinary research approach that involves developmental studies, brain imaging, computational modelling and embodied experiments. By investigating artificial temporal cognition, TIMESTORM inaugurates a novel research field in cognitive systems with the potential to contribute to the advent of next generation intelligent systems, significantly promoting the seamless integration of artificial agents in human societies.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2007.4.2 | Award Amount: 11.80M | Year: 2008

Europe is in transition to a knowledge economy and effective knowledge management is fundamental to successful economic activity. Still, enterprises find it hard to transform most of their essential tacit (implicit) knowledge into transferable, easily accessible, and actionable knowledge assets.ACTIVE aims to increase the productivity of knowledge workers in a pro-active, contextualised, yet easy and unobtrusive way. The aim is to convert tacit knowledge the hidden intelligence of enterprises into actionable knowledge to support collaboration and automated problem solving. A key aspect will be the support for informal procedural knowledge the informal collaboration and problem-solving tasks that drive much knowledge work in the enterprise.ACTIVE will integrate concepts, methods, and tools from the fields of (i) Social Software and Web 2.0, (ii) Semantic Technologies, (iii) Context Mining and Modelling, and Context Sensitive Task Management, and (iv) Knowledge Process Mining and Modelling and Pro-Active Knowledge Process Support into innovative application systems. The development will be accompanied by an analysis of key economic and organizational factors and incentive mechanisms, and strongly user-centric system development and evaluation.The key result of ACTIVE will be a breakthrough which empowers enterprises to make knowledge technology effective for a larger share of their essential knowledge, in particular both tacit knowledge and knowledge not held in formal enterprise repositories.ACTIVE will generate sustainable impact by deploying the tools and applications in three industry sectors: consulting, telecommunication and engineering. The added value of ACTIVE technology will be evaluated in economic, organizational, and user studies, and conclude with rigorous field tests. A major focus of ACTIVE will be uptake by industry beyond the immediate consortium.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2008-1.1.1 | Award Amount: 6.49M | Year: 2009

The fundamental objective of the project is the further integration of existing European research facilities to a grid of reaction chambers in a continuation of the EUROCHAMP project. These facilities were created to study the impact of atmospheric processes e.g. on regional photochemistry, global change, as well as cultural heritage and human health effects under as realistic conditions as possible. Although initial advances in the application of large chambers occurred in the United States and Japan, Europe now leads the world in the use of large, highly instrumented chambers for atmospheric model development and evaluation. Smaller chambers that were designed for specific purposes and are operated by experts in their fields excellently supplement the larger chambers. The integration of all these environmental chamber facilities within the framework of the EUROCHAMP-2 project promotes the retention of Europes international position of excellence in this area and is unique in its kind worldwide. The mobilisation of a large number of stakeholders dealing with environmental chamber techniques provides an infrastructure to the research community at an European level that offers maximum support for a broad community of researchers from different disciplines. The EUROCHAMP-2 project will foster the structuring effect of atmospheric chemistry activities performed in European environmental chambers within EUROCHAMP, since it offers the full availability of corresponding facilities for the whole European scientific community. With respect to the project objectives mentioned above, three network activities, two joint research activities and a transnational access activity are formulated and cross-linked in the EUROCHAMP-2 project.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CPCSA | Phase: INFRA-2008-1.2.2 | Award Amount: 4.71M | Year: 2009

The goal of the SEALS project is to provide an independent and extensible infrastructure that allows the remote evaluation of semantic technologies and, therefore, the objective comparison of the different existing semantic technologies. This will allow researchers and users to effectively compare the available technologies, helping them to select appropriate technologies and advancing the state of the art through continuous evaluation.\n\nThe SEALS Platform will provide an integrated set of semantic technology evaluation services and test suites. They will be used in two public and world-wide evaluation campaigns. The results of these evaluation campaigns will be used to create semantic technology roadmaps identifying sets of efficient and compatible tools for developing large-scale semantic applications.\n\nThe semantic technology evaluation services will initially be available for five different types of technologies (ontology engineering tools, storage and reasoning systems, matching tools, semantic search tools, and semantic web service tools) and for different evaluation criteria (interoperability, scalability, etc.). The platform will provide easy and free access to the evaluation services and to the results of the evaluations performed.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: SGA-RIA | Phase: FETFLAGSHIP | Award Amount: 89.00M | Year: 2016

Understanding the human brain is one of the greatest scientific challenges of our time. Such an understanding can provide profound insights into our humanity, leading to fundamentally new computing technologies, and transforming the diagnosis and treatment of brain disorders. Modern ICT brings this prospect within reach. The HBP Flagship Initiative (HBP) thus proposes a unique strategy that uses ICT to integrate neuroscience data from around the world, to develop a unified multi-level understanding of the brain and diseases, and ultimately to emulate its computational capabilities. The goal is to catalyze a global collaborative effort. During the HBPs first Specific Grant Agreement (SGA1), the HBP Core Project will outline the basis for building and operating a tightly integrated Research Infrastructure, providing HBP researchers and the scientific Community with unique resources and capabilities. Partnering Projects will enable independent research groups to expand the capabilities of the HBP Platforms, in order to use them to address otherwise intractable problems in neuroscience, computing and medicine in the future. In addition, collaborations with other national, European and international initiatives will create synergies, maximizing returns on research investment. SGA1 covers the detailed steps that will be taken to move the HBP closer to achieving its ambitious Flagship Objectives.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SiS-2010-1.1.1.2 | Award Amount: 1.48M | Year: 2010

EPOCH aims both to broaden and deepen knowledge of the role of ethics in the governance of science and technology, focusing on ethical aspects of new and emerging bio-, neuro- and nanotechnologies and specifically related to the topic of human enhancement (i.e. any modification of the human body aimed at improving performance and realized by scientific-technological means). On the basis of comparative analyses of current governance and normative frameworks at European and national level (including non-EU countries), a comprehensive approach to the governance of contentious developments in science, technology and society will be outlined. It will include guidance and strategic options for governance activities in Europe, but also specific proposals regarding public policies on selected enhancement technologies, focusing on physical enhancement in sport. The research will cover (i) academic, policy and public discourses; (ii) the institutional landscape of ethical policy advice; (iii) the multi-disciplinary expertise involved in it; (iv) procedures and mechanisms for a participatory, socially inclusive, and reflexive governance of science and technology; and (v) specific ethical and governance challenges raised by the use of new technologies for human enhancement. EPOCH aims to generate new insights into the role of ethical expertise in European policy making on science and technology, coherent with national and other European projects. The comprehensive governance approach adopted will facilitate the integration of emerging technologies in an open, effective and democratic knowledge-based society. It will have a strong and critical participatory element, embedded in a broader multidisciplinary and reflexive governance framework. It will also include suggestions on how to foster, in the European Union and beyond, cross-national reflection and well-informed discussions on ethically contentious scientific and technological developments.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2016 | Award Amount: 3.94M | Year: 2016

Additive Manufacturing (AM) is a fastgrowing sector with the ability to evoke a revolution in manufacturing due to its almost unlimited design freedom and its capability to produce personalised parts locally and with efficient material use. AM companies however still face technological challenges such as limited precision due to shrinkage and buildin stresses and limited process stability and robustness. Moreover often postprocessing is needed due to the high roughness and remaining porosity. In addition qualified, trained personnel is hard to find. This ITN project will address both the technological and people challenges. To quality assure the parts produced, PAM will, through a close collaboration between industry and academia, address each of the various process stages of AM with a view to implementing good precision engineering practice. To ensure the availability of trained personnel, ESRs will, next to their individual research and complementary skills training, be immersed in the whole AM production chain through handson workshops where they will design, model, fabricate, measure and assess a specific product. The expected impact of PAM thus is: 1. The availability of intersectoral and interdisciplinary trained professionals in an industrial field thats very important for the future of Europe, both enhancing the ESR future career perspectives and advancing European industry. 2. The availability of high precision AM processes through improved layout rules with better use of AM possibilities, better modelling tools for firsttime right processing, possibility for insitu quality control ensuring process stability and, if still needed, optimised postprocessing routes 3. As a result of 1: an increased market acceptance and penetration of AM. 4. Through the early involvement of European industry: a growing importance of the European industrial players in this fastgrowing field. This will help Europe reach its target of 20% manufacturing share of GDP.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2016 | Award Amount: 3.93M | Year: 2017

We propose a European Training Network that will provide a total of 540 ESR-months of training in Monte Carlo event generator physics and techniques, and related applications in experimental particle physics. Monte Carlo event generators are central to high energy particle physics. They are used by almost all experimental collaborations to plan their experiments and analyze their data, and by theorists to simulate the complex final states of the fundamental interactions that may signal new physics. We will build on the success of our current MCnetITN, by creating a European Training Network incorporating all the authors of current general purpose event generators, with the main purposes of: (a) training a large section of our user base, using annual schools on the physics and techniques of event generators and short-term studentships of Early Stage Researchers as a conduit for transfer of knowledge to the wider community; (b) training the next generation of event generator authors through dedicated PhD studentships; (c) providing broader training in transferable skills through our research, through dedicated training in entrepreneurship and employability and through secondments to non-academic partners. We will achieve these training objectives both through dedicated activities and through our research activities: (d) developing the next generation of higher precision event generators and supporting them for use throughout the LHC era and beyond; (e) playing a central role in the analysis of LHC data and the discovery of new physics there; and (f) extracting the maximum potential from existing data to constrain the modeling of the higher-energy data from the LHC and future experiments.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2008-1.1.1 | Award Amount: 32.30M | Year: 2009

Particle physics stands at the threshold of a new era of discovery and insight. Results from the much awaited LHC are expected to shed light on the origin of mass, supersymmetry, new space dimensions and forces. In July 2006 the European Strategy Group for Particle Physics defined accelerator priorities for the next 15 years in order to consolidate the potential for discovery and conduct the required precision physics. These include an LHC upgrade, R&D on TeV linear colliders and studies on neutrino facilities. These ambitious goals require the mobilisation of all European resources to face scientific and technological challenges well beyond the current state-of-the-art and the capabilities of any single laboratory or country. EuCARD will contribute to the formation of a European Research Area in accelerator science, effectively creating a distributed accelerator laboratory across Europe. It will address the new priorities by upgrading European accelerator infrastructures while continuing to strengthen the collaboration between its participants and developing synergies with industrial partners. R&D will be conducted on high field superconducting magnets, superconducting RF cavities which are particularly relevant for FLASH, XFEL and SC proton linacs, two-beam acceleration, high efficiency collimation and new accelerator concepts. EuCARD will include networks to monitor the performance and risks of innovative solutions and to disseminate results. Trans-national access will be granted to users of beams and advanced test facilities. Strong joint research activities will support priority R&D themes. As an essential complement to national and CERN programmes, the EuCARD proposal will strengthen the European Research Area by ensuring that European accelerator infrastructures further improve their performance and remain at the forefront of global research, serving a community of well over 10,000 physicists from all over the world.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2007.1.2 | Award Amount: 15.13M | Year: 2008

The ongoing transformation of a product-oriented economy towards a service-oriented economy has come to a critical point. IT-supported service provisioning is of major relevance in all industries and domains. However, the nature of these setups is typically quite static because it requires significant effort to create service offers, to negotiate provisioning details with customers and to manage and control provided services.\n\nThe research project SLA@SOI will provide a major milestone for the further evolution towards a service-oriented economy, where IT-based services can be flexibly traded as economic good, i.e. under well defined and dependable conditions and with clearly associated costs. Eventually, this will allow for dynamic value networks that can be flexibly instantiated thus driving innovation and competitiveness\n\nThe technical approach of SLA@SOI is to define a holistic view for the management of service level agreements (SLAs) and to implement an SLA management framework that can be easily integrated into a service-oriented infrastructure (SOI). The main innovative features of the project are (1) an automated e-contracting framework, (2) systematic grounding of SLAs from the business level down to the infrastructure, (3) exploitation of virtualization technologies at infrastructure level for SLA enforcement, and (4) advanced engineering methodologies for creation of predictable and manageable services.\n\nSLA@SOI will provide its results in 2 complementing ways. First, an open source based SLA management framework will allow for realizing the benefits of predictability, transparency and automation in an arbitrary service-oriented infrastructure. Second, in-depth guidance for industrial stakeholders will be given explaining the best practise on how to transform their service business into an SLA-driven one.\n\nSLA@SOI comprises representative world-class players in academia and industry required for materializing the vision of this ambitious project.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: NMP-2007-3.5-2 | Award Amount: 8.47M | Year: 2008

The objective of the project COTECH is to investigate new approaches of -manufacturing based on advanced technology convergence processes and to propose hybrid solutions for high added value cost effective -manufacturing emerging applications. The main goals of COTECH are to develop: (1) -replication technologies underpinned by emerging tool-making technologies for processing multi-material components and creating: a) 3D -components using high throughput multi-material -injection moulding with sub-m resolution; b) 2D -components using direct multi-material hot or UV embossing with a sub-200nm resolution. (2) Radically new replication convergent technologies combining the capabilities of -injection or embossing to a complementary activation step to create intelligent devices in a single process step: a) Hybrid processes based on -injection moulding using modules of e.g coating and compression injection moulding, to provide functionality to -devices, such as active coatings and combination of micro and nano features in a single step; b) Ultimately the hybrid processes based on -injection with embossing will be validated. This will offer a very high throughput multimaterial -injection that will enable the fabrication of 3D high aspect ratio -parts, complemented by an embossing step to allow ultra precise 2D features. (3) Global process chains with increased MTBF (50%) and fabrication of high quality products. This requires innovative non-destructive inspection solutions and simulation models. (4) High added value -devices with advanced functionalities. COTECH proposes to validate industrially the new technology convergence processes with 8 demonstrators representing the most emergent industrial sectors (transport, biomedical, energy). The expected market for the industry exceeds 1 Billion . COTECH will also address the problem of knowledge fragmentation by activating a polymer -manufacturing sub-platform as support to MINAM.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: MG-3.6a-2015 | Award Amount: 6.23M | Year: 2016

Road accidents continue to be a major public safety concern. Human error is the main cause of accidents. Intelligent driver systems that can monitor the drivers state and behaviour show promise for our collective safety. VI-DAS will progress the design of next-gen 720 connected ADAS (scene analysis, driver status). Advances in sensors, data fusion, machine learning and user feedback provide the capability to better understand driver, vehicle and scene context, facilitating a significant step along the road towards truly semi-autonomous vehicles. On this path there is a need to design vehicle automation that can gracefully hand-over and back to the driver. VI-DAS advances in computer vision and machine learning will introduce non-invasive, vision-based sensing capabilities to vehicles and enable contextual driver behaviour modelling. The technologies will be based on inexpensive and ubiquitous sensors, primarily cameras. Predictions on outcomes in a scene will be created to determine the best reaction to feed to a personalised HMI component that proposes optimal behaviour for safety, efficiency and comfort. VI-DAS will employ a cloud platform to improve ADAS sensor and algorithm design and to store and analyse data at a large scale, thus enabling the exploitation of vehicle connectivity and cooperative systems. VI-DAS will address human error analysis by the study of real accidents in order to understand patterns and consequences as an input to the technologies. VI-DAS will also address legal, liability and emerging ethical aspects because with such technology comes new risks, and justifiable public concern. The insurance industry will be key in the adoption of next generation ADAS and Autonomous Vehicles and a stakeholder in reaching L3. VI-DAS is positioned ideally at the point in the automotive value chain where Europe is both dominant and in which value can be added. The project will contribute to reducing accidents, economic growth and continued innovation.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: NMP-2008-1.2-1 | Award Amount: 11.36M | Year: 2009

Biotechnologically derived substances for large scale feed, food and pharma applications represent one of the most important sources of new products due to their precisely controlled structural and functional properties, potential for economic and responsible production and overall broad benefits to society through biocompatibility and sustainability. The costs of producing biomaterials are in many cases dominated by separation processes, which can constitute 80% of the total cost of production. Using smart magnetic adsorbent particles to selectively separate the target product out of a complex product mixture like the fermentation broth or bio-feed stock can drastically reduce costs. By using magnetic separation and extraction technologies to separate the magnetic carrier particles, novel processing ways emerge. The main objective of the MagProLife project is to scale-up innovative nanotechnology based processes defined in the previous NanoBioMag Project, funded by the EU under the FP6 programme (NMP3-CT-2005-013469), to pilot-line-scale and demonstrate those for bio, food and pharma applications. Link to market needs is represented by a preliminary product selection of natural soy based nutraceuticals or pharmaceuticals like Bowman-Birk Inhibitor (BBI), a proteases inhibitor for MS-treatment, and Lunasin which is in discussion to have anti-carcinogenic properties as well as recombinant proteins and nucleic acids (Fragment-Antibody-Binding and Phytase). The Consortium is driven by the potential the magnetic separation technology has for improving the value-chain in industrial production for emerging biotech, food and pharma markets.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2012-1.1.23. | Award Amount: 8.59M | Year: 2012

CALIPSO coordinates the European synchrotrons and FELs, including the three ESFRI roadmap projects European XFEL, EuroFEL and the ESRF Upgrade Programme, towards a fully integrated network. The consortium is characterised by common objectives, harmonised decisions, transnational open access based on excellence and joint development of new instruments. Innovative networking initiatives address user friendliness and a strengthened industrial interaction. CALIPSO proposes a single entry point (www.wayforlight.eu) to simplify access modalities, to coach potential users to find the best beamline for their experiment and to favour interactivity; in addition, targeted education actions will widen and strengthen the community. Transnational Access potentially benefits a community of 10,000 European users represented by the recently formed European Synchrotron User Organisation (www.ESUO.org). The pivotal EC funding in CALIPSO supports scientists to perform their research at the best facilities, thus promoting equal opportunities for all European researchers. This is particularly important for colleagues from less-favoured countries, early stage and female researchers. The European light sources represent a largely underexploited pool for European industry. To enhance light sourceindustry interactions, CALIPSO proposes a networking activity including specific events to involve industries both as users and instrumentation suppliers, a pan-European Industrial Advisory Board to orient these actions, in preparation for Horizon 2020, and a dedicated task to exploit the innovation potential of the Joint Research Activity. The CALIPSO joint research activity will focus on detectors development, one of the most significant joint challenges for present and future light sources. For Europe to succeed and remain a leader in detectors development, a coordinated action is necessary rather than individual efforts. A close collaboration of the CALIPSO JRA and the industrially-driven action will be setup with the recently signed Detector Consortium initiative, lending an important added dimension with pan-European impact.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: ICT-07-2014 | Award Amount: 4.46M | Year: 2015

The vision of PaaSword is to maximize and fortify the trust of individual, professional and corporate customers to Cloud -enabled services and applications, to safeguard both corporate and personal sensitive data stored on Cloud infrastructures and Cloud-based storage services, and to accelerate the adoption of Cloud computing technologies and paradigm shift from the European industry. Thus, PaaSword will introduce a holistic data privacy and security by design framework enhanced by sophisticated context-aware policy access models and robust policy access, decision, enforcement and governance mechanisms, which will enable the implementation of secure and transparent Cloud-based applications and services that will maintain a fully distributed and totally encrypted data persistence layer, and, thus, will foster customers data protection, integrity and confidentiality, even in the case wherein there is no control over the underlying third-party Cloud resources utilized. In particular, PaaSword intends not only to adopt the CSA Cloud security principles, but also to extend them by capitalizing on recent innovations on (a) distributed encryption and virtual database middleware technologies that introduce a scalable secure Cloud database abstraction layer combined with sophisticated distribution and encryption methods into the processing and querying of data stored in the Cloud; (b) context-aware access control that incorporate the dynamically changing contextual information into novel group policies implementing configurable context-based access control policies and context-dependent access rights to the stored data at various different levels; and (c) policy governance, modelling and annotation techniques that allows application developers to specify an appropriate level of protection for the applications data, while the evaluation of whether an incoming request should be granted access to the target data takes dynamically place during application runtime.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: SST.2008.2.7.4. | Award Amount: 4.34M | Year: 2009

ETISplus sets out to build upon the strengths of the ETIS project (2005) and to address the lessons learnt. In principle, the Commissions objectives have not changed, but greater emphasis is required upon the frameworks. In ETISplus several innovations and extensions are proposed: the use of intelligent transport systems to provide data feeds the development of a business model, by which the system can be self-supporting the widening of the geographical scope the institutional organisation of data collecting will be assessed and based on a benchmark improvements will be proposed and tested. the inclusion of more data on logistics, variables that influence transport and on data on effects (consequences) of transport the existing and new data will be laid down in a data framework information architecture model: the base year of the present ETIS database is 2000; it is proposed to add 2005 and 2008 as new reference years the data on transport are not restricted to interregional transport. ETISplus will also address data on intraregional transport ETISplus will further revive the idea of a server based system the introduction of a specific data validation procedure a strong focus on stakeholders participation and commitment By proposing the innovations and extensions as mentioned above the proposal gives a balance between at the one hand building on existing results through updating and at the other hand innovation using new technologies for data collection, new efficient cost-effective methods in cases where the quality is still behind standards, a new retrieval tool, extending both geographically and by adding new variables and developing a business model for the future. TRANSTOOLS is the key application that the project ETISplus must support. The presence of TRANSTOOLS also simplifies the role of this task, by allowing it to focus more on the data, and less upon the need to calculate indicators, a major task within the original ETIS project.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2010-1.1.27 | Award Amount: 12.01M | Year: 2010

The overall aim of NERA is to achieve a measurable improvement and a long-term impact in the assessment and reduction of the vulnerability of constructions and citizens to earthquakes. NERA will integrate the key research infrastructures in Europe to monitor earthquakes and assess their hazard and risk, and will combine expertise in observational and strong-motion seismology, modeling, geotechnical and earthquake engineering to develop activities to improve the use of infrastructures and facilitate the access to data. NERA will ensure the provision of high-quality services, including access to earthquake data and parameters and to hazard and risk products and tools. NERA will coordinate with other EC projects (SHARE, SYNER-G) a comprehensive dissemination effort. NERA will contribute to the OECD GEM program and to the EPOS ESFRI infrastructure.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2010-1.1.17 | Award Amount: 9.41M | Year: 2010

EXPEER will bring together, major observational, experimental, analytical and modelling facilities in ecosystem science in Europe. By uniting these highly instrumented ecosystem research facilities under the same umbrella and with a common vision, EXPEER will form a key contribution to structuring and improving the European Research Area (ERA) within terrestrial ecosystem research. EXPEER builds on an ambitious plant for networking research groups and facilities. The joint research activities will provide a common framework and roadmap for improving the quality, interaction and individual as well as joint performance of these infrastructures in a durable and sustainable manner. EXPEER will provide a framework for increased use and exploitation of the unique facilities through a strong and coordinated programme for Transnational Access to the infrastructures. Extensive outreach and collaboration with related networks, infrastructures as well as potential funding bodies will ensure that EXPEER will contribute with its key experiences to the shaping and designing of future research networks and infrastructures, and that it has full support from all stakeholders in reaching its long-term objectives. The establishment of the EXPEER Integrated Infrastructure will enable integrated studies of the impacts of climate change, land use change and loss of biodiversity in terrestrial ecosystems through two major steps: 1. Bringing together the EXPEER Infrastructures to enable collaboration and integration of observational, experimental and modelling approaches in ecosystem research (in line with the concept developed in ANAEE); 2. Structuring existing network of ecosystem observational, monitoring and experimental sites across Europe (LTER-Europe). Through its integrated partnership, uniting both the experimental, observational, analytical and modelling research communities, EXPEER has the multidisciplinary expertise and critical mass to integrate and structure the European long-term ecosystem research facilities providing improved services and benefits to the whole research community as well as the society in general.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: Fission-2008-1.2.1 | Award Amount: 4.03M | Year: 2009

Besides the European Global Energy Policy, the European Council adopted an action plan that covers nuclear technologies and supports research in order to further improve nuclear safety and the management of radioactive waste. To obtain a more efficient and sustainable management of radioactive waste and hence reduce the burden on geological storage, one can apply partitioning and transmutation independently of future commitment or not to nuclear energy. Within European Union many R&D organisations and industries are conducting since a decade strong R&D in the Partitioning &Transmutation (P&T) field with substantial support from the European Commission. Fostering the European efforts towards a major facility realisation would be very beneficial. This will speed up the development and put Europe at lead in this field. The design of a fast spectrum transmutation experimental facility (FASTEF), able to demonstrate efficient transmutation and associated technology through a system working in subcritical mode (ADS) and/or critical mode, is thus the next step after FP6 IP-EUROTRANS. In the vision report of the Sustainable Nuclear Energy Technological Platform, the need was clearly expressed for a fast-spectrum experimental system to support the development and demonstration of an alternative technology to sodium. Therefore, FASTEF is proposed to be designed to an advanced level for decision to embark for its construction at the horizon of 2012 with the following objectives: to demonstrate the ADS technology and the efficient transmutation of high level waste; to operate as a flexible irradiation facility; to contribute to the demonstration of the Lead Fast Reactor technology without jeopardising the above objectives. The work programme is subdivided in 5 WPs: WP0: Management of the Project WP1: Definition of specifications and detailed work programme of FASTEF WP2: Design of the FASTEF in sub-critical & critical mode WP3: Plant Requirements WP4: Key issues towards realisation


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: NMP.2012.1.3-1 | Award Amount: 12.95M | Year: 2013

The NanoMILE project is conceived and led by an international elite of scientists from the EU and US with the aim to establish a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of nanomaterial interactions with living systems and the environment, and uniquely to do so across the entire life cycle of nanomaterials and in a wide range of target species. Identification of critical properties (physico-chemical descriptors) that confer the ability to induce harm in biological systems is key to allowing these features to be avoided in nanomaterial production (safety by design). Major shortfalls in the risk analysis process for nanomaterials are the fundamental lack of data on exposure levels and the environmental fate and transformation of nanomaterials, key issues that this proposal will address, including through the development of novel modelling approaches. A major deliverable of the project will be a framework for classification of nanomaterials according to their impacts, whether biological or environmental, by linking nanomaterial-biomolecule interactions across scales (sub-cellular to ecosystem) and establishing the specific biochemical mechanisms of interference (toxicity pathway).


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: PHC-03-2015 | Award Amount: 6.19M | Year: 2016

Understanding mechanisms underlying comorbid disorders poses a challenge for developing precision medicine tools. Psychiatric disorders are highly comorbid, and are among the last areas of medicine, where classification is driven by phenomenology rather than pathophysiology. We will study comorbidity between the most frequent psychiatric conditions, ADHD, mood/anxiety, and substance use disorders, and a highly prevalent somatic disease, obesity. ADHD, a childhood-onset disorder, forms the entry into a lifelong negative trajectory characterized by these comorbidities. Common mechanisms underlying this course are unknown, despite their relevance for early detection, prevention, and treatment. Our interdisciplinary team of experts will integrate epidemiologic/genetic approaches with experimental designs to address those issues. We will determine disease burden of comorbidity, calculate its socioeconomic impact, and reveal risk factors. We will study biological pathways of comorbidity and derive biomarkers, prioritizing two candidate mechanisms (circadian rhythm and dopaminergic neurotransmission), but also leveraging large existing data sets to identify new ones. A pilot clinical trial to study non-pharmacologic, dopamine-based and chronobiological treatments will be performed, employing innovative mHealth to monitor and support patients daily life. Integration of findings will lead to prediction algorithms enhancing early diagnosis and prevention of comorbidity. Finally, we will screen to repurpose existing pharmacological compounds. Integrating complementary approaches based on large-scale, existing data and innovative data collection, we maximize value for money in this project, leading to insight into the mechanisms underlying this comorbidity triad with its huge burden for healthcare, economy, and society. This will facilitate early detection and non-invasive, scalable, and low-cost treatment, creating opportunities for substantial and immediate societal impact.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: ICT-04-2015 | Award Amount: 3.89M | Year: 2016

Increasing performance and reducing costs, while maintaining safety levels and programmability are the key de-mands for embedded and cyber-physical systems in European domains, e.g. aerospace, automation, and automotive. For many applications, the necessary performance with low energy consumption can only be provided by customized computing platforms based on heterogeneous many-core architectures. However, their parallel programming with time-critical embedded applications suffers from a complex toolchain and programming process. ARGO (WCET-Aware PaRallelization of Model-Based Applications for HeteroGeneOus Parallel Systems) will ad-dress this challenge with a holistic approach for programming heterogeneous multi- and many-core architectures using automatic parallelization of model-based real-time applications. ARGO will enhance WCET-aware automatic parallelization by a cross-layer programming approach combining automatic tool-based and user-guided parallelization to reduce the need for expertise in programming parallel heterogeneous architectures. The ARGO approach will be assessed and demonstrated by prototyping comprehensive time-critical applications from both aerospace and industrial automation domains on customized heterogeneous many-core platforms. The challenging research and innovation action will be achieved by the unique ARGO consortium that brings together industry, leading research institutes and universities. High class SMEs such as Recore Systems, Scilab Enterprises and AbsInt will contribute their diverse know-how in heterogeneous many-core technologies, model-based design environments and WCET calculation. The academic partners will contribute their outstanding expertise in code transformations, automatic parallelization and system-level WCET analysis.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2011-ITN | Award Amount: 4.58M | Year: 2011

The advancement of science and engineering in the past decades is inherently linked to the development of lasers. Ever higher laser beam powers, brightness and shorter pulse lengths have helped establish them as an invaluable tool for both a wide range of industry and medical applications, such as for example material treatment, precision measurements, laser cutting, display technologies, and laser surgery, and for fundamental research, where many of the most advanced experiments in astrophysics, atomic, molecular and optical physics, as well as in plasma research would be impossible without the latest laser technology. Moreover, lasers have become increasingly important for the successful operation and continuous optimization of particle accelerators: Laser-based particle sources are well suited for delivering the highest quality ion and electron beams, laser acceleration has demonstrated unprecedented accelerating gradients and might be an alternative for conventional particle accelerators in the future, and without laser-based beam diagnostics it would not be possible to unravel the characteristics of many complex particle beams. The LA3-NET consortium proposes to develop laser applications for particle accelerators within an initial training network. The network brings together research centers, universities, and industry partners to jointly train the next generation of researchers. The partners aim at developing long term collaboration and links between the involved teams across sectors and disciplinary boundaries and to thus help defining improved research and training standards in this multi-faceted field


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INFRAIA-01-2016-2017 | Award Amount: 9.29M | Year: 2016

Atmospheric simulation chambers are the most advanced tools for elucidating processes that occur in the atmosphere. They lay the foundations for air quality and climate models and also aid interpretation of field measurements. EUROCHAMP-2020 will further integrate the most advanced European atmospheric simulation chambers into a world-class infrastructure for research and innovation. A co-ordinated set of networking activities will deliver improved chamber operability across the infrastructure, as well as standard protocols for data generation and analysis. Outreach and training activities will foster a strong culture of cooperation with all stakeholders and users. Collaborative links will be established with other environmental research infrastructures to promote integration and sustainability within the European Research Area. Cooperation with private sector companies will be actively promoted to exploit the innovation potential of the infrastructure by supporting development of scientific instruments, sensor technologies and de-polluting materials. Trans-national access will be extended to sixteen different chambers and four calibration centres. A new, upgraded data centre will provide virtual access to a huge database of experimental chamber data and advanced analytical resources. Joint research activities will enhance the capability of the infrastructure to provide improved services for users. Measurement techniques and experimental protocols will be further developed to facilitate new investigations on climate change drivers, impacts of air quality on health and cultural heritage, while also stimulating trans-disciplinary research. Advanced process models will be developed for interpretation of chamber experiments and wider use in atmospheric modelling. Overall, EUROCHAMP-2020 will significantly enhance the capacity for exploring atmospheric processes and ensure that Europe retains its place as the world-leader in atmospheric simulation chamber research.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: ERA-NET-Cofund | Phase: NMP-14-2015 | Award Amount: 49.69M | Year: 2016

M-ERA.NET 2 aims at coordinating the research efforts of the participating EU Member States, Associated States and Regions as well as of selected global partners in materials research and innovation, including materials for low carbon energy technologies and related production technologies. A large network of 43 national and regional funding organisations from 23 EU Members States and Associated States and 5 countries outside Europe will implement joint calls to fund excellent innovative transnational RTD cooperation, including one call for proposals with EU co-funding and additional non-cofunded calls. Continuing the activities started under the predecessor project M-ERA.NET (2/2012-1/2016), the M-ERA.NET 2 consortium will support relevant thematic areas, such as -for example- surfaces, coatings, composites, additive manufacturing or computational materials engineering. Research on materials enabling low carbon energy technologies will be particularly highlighted as a main target of the cofunded call (Call 2016) with a view to implementing relevant parts of the Materials Roadmap Enabling Low Carbon Energy Technologies (SEC(2011)1609), and relevant objectives of the SET-Plan (COM (2009)519). The appropriate scope of the cofunded call and the additional joint calls will be defined in cooperation with relevant stakeholders including national and regional RTD communities, the EC and the EMIRI (Energy Materials Industrial Research Initiative) as well as an external Strategic Experts Group. M-ERA.NET 2 will support the whole innovation chain, clarifying for each topic the appropriate Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) to be addressed through the transnational RTD projects. The consortium will be aware of the TRLs which are covered by the EC through Horizon 2020 topics as well as by other schemes. Gaps will be identified and M-ERA.NET 2 will aim at offering a complementary support scheme.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: ERA-NET-Cofund | Phase: NMBP-21-2016 | Award Amount: 27.34M | Year: 2016

Europe is facing major economic challenges that require an ambitious economic policy for the 21st century. The EU has set out its vision for Europes social market economy in the Europe 2020 strategy, which aims at confronting our structural weaknesses through progress in three mutually reinforcing priorities: smart growth, based on knowledge and innovation, sustainable growth, promoting a more resource efficient, greener and competitive economy, inclusive growth, fostering a high employment economy delivering economic, social and territorial cohesion. MANUNET III, as a continuation of MANUNET II, is aligned with the European priorities and pretends to create a smart sustainable growth in the European manufacturing sector by coordinating the research and innovation efforts in the field of advanced manufacturing with a special focus in the key areas of new production processes, adaptive manufacturing systems and technologies for the factory of the future. The project will also reinforce the territorial cohesion through an extended collaboration network. The consortium pretends to respond to the actual economic crisis by promoting the transnational research, innovation and entrepreneurship in the industrial sector, especially in the SMEs, which are the backbone of Europes economy. Through this strategic and integrated approach to innovation in advanced manufacturing, MANUNET III pretends to maximise European, national and regional research and innovation potential.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: BG-01-2016 | Award Amount: 10.65M | Year: 2016

SABANA aims at developing a large-scale integrated microalgae-based biorefinery for the production of biostimulants, biopesticides and feed additives, in addition to biofertilizers and aquafeed, using only marine water and nutrients from wastewaters (sewage, centrate and pig manure). The objective is to achieve a zero-waste process at a demonstration scales up to 5 ha sustainable both environmentally and economically. A Demonstration Centre of this biorefinery will be operated to demonstrate the technology, assess the operating characteristics of the system, evaluate environment impacts and collaborate with potential customers for use. The key advantages of SABANA project are: the sustainability of the process, using marine water and recovering nutrients from wastewaters while minimizing the energy consumption, and the socioeconomic benefits, due to the relevance of the target bioproducts for two major pillars in food production as agriculture and aquaculture. Bioproducts capable of increasing the yield of crops and fish production are highly demanded, whereas recovery of nutrients is a priority issue in the EU. Instead of considering wastewater as an inevitably useless and problematic residue of our society, SABANA acknowledges its potential as an opportunity for economically relevant sectors. SABANA project includes (i) the utilization of microalgae-bacteria consortia and in co-culture with other algae to control grazing species, (ii) the implementation of efficient thin-layer cascade and raceway, (iii) the scale-up of reactors to ensure stable operation, (iv) to use marine water to increase the sustainability of the process; (v) to recover nutrients from wastewaters, (vi) to develop harvesting processes taking into account the remaining water, (vii) to establish processes for mild/energy efficient extraction of bioproducts, (viii) to process residual biomass to produce biofertilizers and aquafeed in zero-waste schemes, (ix) using robust and sustainable technology


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: ISIB-06-2015 | Award Amount: 6.21M | Year: 2016

CELBICON aims at the development, from TRL3 to TRL5, of new CO2-to-chemicals technologies, conjugating at once small-scale for an effective decentralized market penetration, high efficiency/yield, low cost, robustness, moderate operating temperatures and low maintenance costs. In line with the reference Topic text, these technologies will bridge cost-effective CO2 capture and purification from the atmosphere through sorbents (with efficient heat integration of the CO2 desorption step with the subsequent process stages), with electrochemical conversion of CO2 (via PEM electrolysis concepts, promoting CO2 reduction at their cathode in combination with a fruitful oxidation carried out simultaneously at the anode), followed by bioreactors carrying out the fermentation of the CO2-reduction intermediates (syngas, C1 water-soluble molecules) to form valuable products (bioplastics like Poly-Hydroxy-Alkanoates - PHA -, isoprene, lactic acid, methane, etc.) as well as effective routes for their recovery from the process outlet streams. A distinctive feature of the CELBICON approach is the innovative interplay and advances of key technologies brought in by partners (high-tech SMEs & companies, research centres) to achieve unprecedented yield and efficiency results along the following two processing lines: i) High pressure process line tailored to the production of a PHA bioplastic and pressurized methane via intermediate electrochemical generation of pressurized syngas followed by specific fermentation steps; ii) Low pressure processing line focused on the production of value-added chemicals by fermentation of CO2-reduction water-soluble C1 intermediates. Over a 42 months project duration, the two process lines described will undergo a thorough component development R&D programme so as to be able to assemble three optimised TRL5 integrated test-rigs (one per TP) to prove the achievement of all the quantified techno-economical targets.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: FETOPEN-01-2016-2017 | Award Amount: 3.14M | Year: 2017

We propose the development of a groundbreaking technology platform that, for the first time, integrates nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics and micro-imaging with microfluidic perfusion tissue slice culture. This will revolutionise life science research with unprecedented local insight into life processes in intact tissues under highly controlled conditions. We focus on liver tissue slice culture, with the immediate target of elucidating the mechanism of liver damage by drug-induced cholestasis. In the long term, the new technology will find wide application in other tissues, including intestinal, pancreatic, and brain slices. It will form the foundation of a new approach in the life sciences, allowing the detailed metabolic study of tissues at the system level. Liver disease is a significant and growing public health problem: 29 million people currently suffer from a serious liver condition in the EU. While the causes for some liver conditions are known, the mechanism of liver damage is generally poorly understood, largely due to the difficulty of studying live liver tissue at the systemic level. The proposed comprehensive research programme leads to a new technological platform for microfluidic tissue slice culture with direct observation of tissue metabolism and transport processes through nuclear magnetic resonance. It joins the expertise and creativity of four leading academic groups and one SME representing the disciplines of micro-engineering, physical chemistry, magnetic resonance, biochemistry, toxicology, and clinical hepatology across three institutions from three EU countries. Due to its high level of interdisciplinary integration, TISuMR is uniquely able to provide emerging researchers with a career springboard. TISuMR will have a profound impact on wider society by providing alternatives to animal testing, by increasing the efficiency and specificity of drug safety testing, and by enabling new treatments in the management of liver disease.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: Fission-2010-3.3.1 | Award Amount: 2.72M | Year: 2011

This project aims on the one hand to keep the momentum gained through the European Project EURANOS in establishing a platform where the operational and research community can meet and discuss with all the relevant stakeholders the topics related to emergency response and recovery preparedness and on the other hand to tackle urgent research topics in the area of nuclear emergency response and recovery preparedness. It addresses the call Fission-2010-3.3.1: European platform on emergency and post-accident preparedness and management. Through a collaboration of industry, research and governmental organisations in Europe, methodological aspects and computational models will be developed to be consistent with recent recommendations from international bodies such as the ICRP (International Commission of Radiation Protection) and improve Europes response by coupling the decision support systems with an early notification system such as ECURIE. Within this project, a platform will be established that will be a unique place for combined meeting of the research and the operational community.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-IRSES | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2013-IRSES | Award Amount: 114.00K | Year: 2013

Recent progress in electronics has largely been associated with controlled fabrication of low-dimensional nanostructures, so there is much interest in the transport, materials, photonic and plasmonic properties of small electronic nanodevices. Further technological breakthrough is expected by implementing novel materials such as magnetic semiconductors, carbon-based nanostructures and materials with strong spin-orbit coupling. Among a number of potential candidates for basic elements of future nanotechnology, graphene and topological insulators occupy a worthy place. Several established researchers with complementary experience unite in the project to tackle the key challenges in understanding intriguing interaction phenomena in new materials. Within this project we focus on transport and magnetortansport properties of graphene, graphene plasma-wave THz electronics, and interaction- and disorder-induced effects in topological insulators. We will uncover new physics originating in the inter-band transitions in these materials and demonstrate how to take advantage of new physical phenomena in making electronic and optical devices.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: NMP.2012.1.4-2 | Award Amount: 4.86M | Year: 2013

The Self-Assembled Virus-like Vectors for Stem Cell Phenotyping (SAVVY) project relies on hierarchical, multi-scale assembly of intrinsically dissimilar nanoparticles to develop novel types of multifunctional Raman probes for analysis and phenotyping of heterogeneous stem cell populations. Our project will address a large unmet need, as stem cells have great potential for a broad range of therapeutic and biotechnological applications. Characterization and sorting of heterogeneous stem cell populations has been intrinsically hampered by (1) lack of specific antibodies, (2) need for fluorescence markers, (3) low concentration of stem cells, (4) low efficiencies/high costs. Our technology will use a fundamentally different approach that (1) does not require antibodies, aptamers, or biomarkers, (2) is fluorescence-label free, and (3) is scalable at acceptable cost. The approach uses intrinsic differences in the composition of membranes of cells to distinguish cell populations. These differences will be detect by SERS and analysed through multicomponent analysis. We have combined the necessary expertise to tackle this challenge: Stellacci has developed rippled nanoparticles that specifically interact with and adhere to cell membranes (analogues to cell penetrating peptides). Lahann has developed bicompartmental Janus polymer particles that have already been surface-modified with rippled particles and integrate specifically in the cell membrane (analogues to viruses). Liz-Marzan has developed highly Raman-active nanoparticles and has demonstrated their selectivity and specificity in SERS experiments. These Raman probes will be loaded into the synthetic viruses to enable membrane fingerprinting. Stevens has developed a Bioinformatics platform for fingerprinting of stem cell populations using cluster analysis algorithms. The effort will be joined by two SMEs, ChipShop and OMT, that will be able to develop the necessary microfluidic and Raman detection hardware.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CPCSA | Phase: ICT-2013.9.9 | Award Amount: 72.73M | Year: 2013

Understanding the human brain is one of the greatest challenges facing 21st century science. If we can rise to the challenge, we can gain profound insights into what makes us human, develop new treatments for brain diseases and build revolutionary new computing technologies. Today, for the first time, modern ICT has brought these goals within sight. The goal of the Human Brain Project, part of the FET Flagship Programme, is to translate this vision into reality, using ICT as a catalyst for a global collaborative effort to understand the human brain and its diseases and ultimately to emulate its computational capabilities. The Human Brain Project will last ten years and will consist of a ramp-up phase (from month 1 to month 36) and subsequent operational phases.\nThis Grant Agreement covers the ramp-up phase. During this phase the strategic goals of the project will be to design, develop and deploy the first versions of six ICT platforms dedicated to Neuroinformatics, Brain Simulation, High Performance Computing, Medical Informatics, Neuromorphic Computing and Neurorobotics, and create a user community of research groups from within and outside the HBP, set up a European Institute for Theoretical Neuroscience, complete a set of pilot projects providing a first demonstration of the scientific value of the platforms and the Institute, develop the scientific and technological capabilities required by future versions of the platforms, implement a policy of Responsible Innovation, and a programme of transdisciplinary education, and develop a framework for collaboration that links the partners under strong scientific leadership and professional project management, providing a coherent European approach and ensuring effective alignment of regional, national and European research and programmes. The project work plan is organized in the form of thirteen subprojects, each dedicated to a specific area of activity.\nA significant part of the budget will be used for competitive calls to complement the collective skills of the Consortium with additional expertise.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH-2007-2.1.2-5 | Award Amount: 4.00M | Year: 2008

Neural stem cells (NSCs) have emerged as a major topic in neurobiology. The persistence of multipotent cells in the adult mammalian brain offers a realistic chance for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. It is thus crucial to understand NSCs from as many as possible angles (e. g. cellular and molecular biology), in order to better isolate and successfully manipulate them. CISSTEM presents a post-genomic systems biology approach, taking advantage of new computational and experimental tools to address the specification and maintenance of NSCs at the transcriptional/epigenetic level. CISSTEM is designed to unravel the basic principles of gene regulation in NSC, with a focus on cis-regulatory modules (CRMs). To do so we follow a multidisciplinary approach tightly interconnecting computational prediction and experimental validation in vitro and in vivo using different vertebrate models systems. Major intermediate objectives of this project are the prediction of relevant elements and the identification of the temporal, spatial and quantitative activities of predicted conserved regulatory motifs associated with NSC expressed genes. To achieve this goal, CISSTEM will i) Develop computational tools and resources for the in silico identification of CRMs and transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) ii) Identify genomic regions functionally active in the NSC through direct mapping of DNase I hypersensitivity sites. Putative functional annotation to these sites will be implemented and conduct direct CRM prediction of the identified regions iii) Identify motifs/signatures over-represented in distal elements found around NSC expressed genes iv) Identify the elements acting as transcriptional enhancers and define their pattern of activities in different neural cell lines and in vertebrate animal model systems v) Disseminate the results of the project to the research community, biotech/pharmaceutical companies and the general public


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2013.3.2 | Award Amount: 10.08M | Year: 2013

ACTPHAST is a unique one-stop-shop European access centre for photonics innovation solutions and technology support (Access CenTre for PHotonics innovAtion Solutions and Technology support). ACTPHAST will support and accelerate the innovation capacity of European SMEs by providing them with direct access to the expertise and state-of-the-art facilities of Europes leading photonics research centres, enabling companies to exploit the tremendous commercial potential of applied photonics. Technologies available within the consortium range from fibre optics and micro optics, to highly integrated photonic platforms, with capabilities extending from design through to full system prototyping. ACTPHAST has been geographically configured to ensure all of Europes SMEs can avail of timely, cost-effective, and investment-free photonics innovation support, and that the extensive range of capabilities within the consortium will impact across a wide range of industrial sectors, from communications to consumer-related products, biotechnology to medical devices. The access of predominantly SMEs to top-level experts and leading photonics technology platforms provided by the ACTPHAST consortium will be realised through focused innovation projects executed in relatively short timeframes with a critical mass of suitably qualified companies with high potential product concepts. As a result of these projects, the programme is expected to deliver a substantial increase in the revenues and employment numbers of the supported companies by supporting the development of new product opportunities and addressing emerging markets. Furthermore, through its extensive outreach activities, the programme will ensure there is an increased level of awareness and understanding across European industries of the technological and commercial potential of photonics.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: HEALTH.2012.2.1.1-1-B | Award Amount: 15.82M | Year: 2012

EURenOmics will integrate several established consortia devoted to rare kidney diseases with eminent need and potential for diagnostic and therapeutic progress (i.e. steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome, membranous nephropathy, tubulopathies, complement disorders such a haemolytic uraemic syndrome, and congenital kidney malformations). The Consortium has access to the largest clinical cohorts assembled to date (collectively >10,000 patients) with detailed phenotypic information and comprehensive biorepositories containing DNA, blood, urine, amniotic fluid and kidney tissue. The project aims to (1) identify the genetic and epigenetic causes and modifiers of disease and their molecular pathways; (2) define a novel mechanistic disease ontology beyond phenotypical or morphological description; (3) develop innovative technologies allowing rapid diagnostic testing; (4) discover and validate biomarkers of disease activity, prognosis and treatment responses; and (5) develop in vitro and in vivo disease models and apply high-throughput compound library screening. For these purposes we will integrate comprehensive data sets from next generation exome and whole-genome sequencing, ChiP-sequencing, tissue transcriptome and antigen/epitope profiling, and miRNome, proteome/peptidome, and metabolome screening in different body fluids within and across conventional diagnostic categories. These data will be combined in a systems biology approach with high-resolution clinical phenotyping and findings obtained with a large array of established and novel in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo disease models (functiomics) to identify disease-associated genetic variants involved in monogenic or complex genetic transmission, disease-defining molecular signatures, and potential targets for therapeutic intervention. These efforts will converge in the development of innovative diagnostic tools and biomarkers and efficient screening strategies for novel therapeutic agents.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INFRAIA-1-2014-2015 | Award Amount: 11.76M | Year: 2015

NFFA-EUROPE will implement the first open-access research infrastructure as a platform supporting comprehensive projects for multidisciplinary research at the nanoscale extending form synthesis to nanocharacterization to theory and numerical simulation. The integration and the extension of scope of existing specialized infrastructures within an excellence network of knowledge and know-how will enable a large number of researchers from diverse disciplines to carry out advanced proposals impacting science and innovation. The full suite of key infrastructures for nanoscience will become, through the NFFA-EUROPE project, accessible to a broader community extended to research actors operating at different levels of the value chain, including SMEs and applied research, that are currently missing the benefits of these enabling technologies. NFFA-EUROPE sets out to offer an integrated, distributed infrastructure to perform comprehensive nanoscience and nanotechnology projects from synthesis and nanolithography (with nanofoundry installations) to advanced characterization and theoretical modellization/numerical simulation (with experimental installations including analytical large scale facilities and a distributed theoretical installation including high-performance computing). Coordinated access will be given to complementary facilities co-located in nine well distributed main sites in Europe, ensuring the optimal match between user proposal and technical offer. The research activity of the Consortium will realize innovative solutions on key bottlenecks of nanoscience research, therefore upgrading the facility quality and uniqueness.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2007.3.1 | Award Amount: 2.65M | Year: 2008

Wafer handling in semiconductor manufacturing introduces microcracks at the wafer edge. During thermal processing, some of these grow into slip bands; on rapid thermal processing some of these grow into cracks, shattering the wafer and disrupting manufacture. Dense slip bands also lead to yield loss by locally increasing diffusion rates. Breakage losses alone were of the order of 2.5M p.a. for a single fab line at the 90 nm node. Microcracks and slip bands are visible through X-ray Diffraction Imaging (XRDI); but it is unknown which of the many defects imaged are those that will result in yield loss and breakage. We aim to discover how to derive quantitative, predictive information from XRDI, enabling a breakthrough metrology of wafer inspection. The project will comprise quantification of the XRDI images, modelling of the stresses introduced by the controlled defects, modelling the influence of thermal gradients in RTA upon the defects, and experimental confirmation of the conclusions. The outcome of this research will offer a competitive advantage at several levels to those members of the European Semiconductor Industry who agree to join the Industrial Advisory Board. European wafer manufacturers will have early access to a technique that reveals the nature of the defects in the wafers and their relevance to semiconductor device fabrication. This could provide Europe with a competitive advantage in the development of both 450mm and thin silicon wafers. European wafer and equipment manufacturers will have early access to a unique and specifically developed body of open knowledge to aid them in the evaluation of risk of breakage during their processes. They will have a choice of access to off-line characterization of defects by XRDI at ANKA or an in-line wafer inspection tool commercialized by Bede plc. The knowledge and tools developed will contribute to maintaining Europes leading position in semiconductor x-ray metrology.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA | Phase: ICT-2011.9.1 | Award Amount: 486.75K | Year: 2012

We seek to bring together all major European and Israeli research centres in Optimal Control of Quantum Information Processing. This project will coordinate ongoing research activities, best practice dissemination, personnel training and public engagement as well as interaction with public stakeholders and policymakers for 17 established research groups from 15 universities in 6 countries a total of about 60 scientists and 30 PhD students, spanning a variety of nationalities, races, cultures, social backgrounds, genders and career stages.The proposed Consortium will join the forces of multiple EU and Israeli research groups to explore a radical alternative to the currently established information processing technologies quantum information processing, where bits are carried by atoms or elementary particles and dramatic acceleration is believed to be possible for several types of computational tasks. Our specific research area within Quantum Information Processing is optimal control of quantum bits a set of technologies that enable extremely accurate manipulation of quantum bits with minimal expenditure of energy.Within this Coordination Action, we aim to create a vibrant, productive and efficient European research community, to deliver value to the society and to grow a new generation of young European physicists.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: GC.NMP.2012-1 | Award Amount: 3.74M | Year: 2012

This project is aimed to the identification and development of nanostructured electrode and electrolyte materials to promote the practical implementation of the very high energy lithium-sulfur battery. In particular, the project will be directed to the definition and test of a new, lithium metal-free battery configuration based on the use of lithiated silicon as the anode and a nanostructured sulfur-carbon composite as the cathode. It is expected that this battery will offer an energy density at least three times higher than that available from the present lithium battery technology, a comparatively long cycle life, a much lower cost (replacement of cobalt-based with a sulfur-based cathode) and a high safety degree (no use of lithium metal). All the necessary steps for reaching this goal are considered, starting from material synthesis and characterization, exploiting nanotechnology for improving rate capability and fast charging, the fabrication and test of large scale prototypes and to the completion of the cycle by setting the conditions for the recycling process. A team of experts have been selected as partners of the project, including a number of academic laboratories, all with worldwide recognized experience in the lithium battery field, whose task will be that of defining the most appropriate electrode and electrolyte nanostructures. The project will benefit by the support of a laboratory expert in battery modeling to provide the theoretical guidelines for materials optimization. Large research laboratories, having advanced and modern battery producing machineries will be involved in the preparation and test of middle size battery prototypes. Finally, chemical and battery manufacturing industries will assure the necessary materials scaling-up and the fabrication and test of large batteries and particular attention will be devoted to the control of the safety and to definition and practical demonstration of its most appropriate recycling process.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-IRSES | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2011-IRSES | Award Amount: 924.00K | Year: 2012

The proposed project aims at establishing a long-lasting collaboration and creates a network of European and Chinese research centres of excellence in the area of air quality and climate change studies. This aim will be achieved by undertaking joint research activities via collaboration facilitated by individual mobility of researchers between Europe and China. Accordingly, this network will contribute to strengthening and stimulating collaborative research between the partners, enhancing multidisciplinarity in the field of atmospheric chemistry by integrating experimental, theoretical and modelling and promoting mutual awareness for the environmental issues addressed by our scientific community. The network is also aimed at filling gaps in our knowledge in different areas which will increase our ability to further understand the atmospheric chemical processes impacting air quality and climate change. The proposal involves 14 partners from Europe and China (France:3, Germany:4, Spain:1, Denmark:1, China: 5). The research groups of this consortium bring together a fully complementary blend of field monitoring, laboratory measurement and modelling activities, which are not available in any single institution throughout the world. Hence, the training opportunities offered by the network, the built-in programmes, dedicated workshops, schools and exposure to internationally recognised research leaders will provide the early stage researches with significant career advantages. All groups are actively involved in a number of national, European or international projects. The proposed project responds to the key priorities for strengthening EU-China collaboration as identified in the S&T Agreement between the two parties.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: NMP-2007-4.0-6 | Award Amount: 4.23M | Year: 2008

Sandwich panels are modern lightweight building components used to cover walls and roofs of buildings and to isolate spaces inside buildings. They are typically made of two thin metal sheets with an insulating core between the faces. The use of sandwich panels is continuously increasing and new application areas are opened in industrial, residential and office buildings. The European Standard for sandwich panels EN 14509 has a lack of rules or requirements for many important areas like fastening of the panels, openings in panels, axially loaded panels and panels stabilizing frame structures. Despite there is a lot of knowledge in different countries on these subjects, no common rules have been developed, thus putting a hinder to the standardisation and leading to barriers for some of these applications.The aim of this project is to overcome these problems and develop solutions and technical guidelines ready for implementation for the revision of the standard EN 14509 which is expected to be finished in 2010. The second goal of the project is to implement the new information in the use in practice, which will be carried out through seminars and practical guidelines as well as e-learning modules. The subjects are of high industrial and user interest. The project introduces guidelines for topics not included in the present version of the standard but will on the base of this research be implemented in a later revision of the standard. The subjects are very important in practice. Practical guidelines and seminars will help and broaden the correct and safe use of sandwich panels in Europe and ICPC. The innovative parts of the project are new applications like the in-plane shear and axial resistance and new fastening systems, which open and broaden the market of sandwich panels.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: ENV.2012.6.1-5 | Award Amount: 1.36M | Year: 2012

Growing concern over the difficulty of efforts to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions has recently led to an intense discussion of Climate Engineering (CE) - techniques for global-scale intervention to offset global warming. These have great potentials, but also entail serious risks and uncertainties. CE is rapidly gaining scientific, political, commercial, and public attention, and the first national and international assessments of CE schemes have already been published. However, a distinct European perspective, particularly with regard to the EU and how CE relates to its ambitious climate targets, is still missing. The project European Trans-disciplinary Assessment of Climate Engineering (EuTRACE) has been formed to fill this gap. It will (1) pool top independent experts engaged in CE and general climate research across Europe to develop a next-generation assessment of the potentials, uncertainties, risks, implications, and the criteria to assess whether or not to implement various CE options; (2) actively engage in dialogue with the public and policy makers and other civil society stakeholders to disseminate information about CE and to adequately address concerns and perspectives across Europe and globally and incorporate them in the assessment; (3) outline policy options and pathways for the EU and its partners in Europe and abroad to address the challenges CE poses; and (4) identify the most important gaps in current understanding of climate engineering. 14 partner organizations from five countries ranging from the natural sciences & engineering, social sciences and the humanities have joined forces to address these questions. The assessment approach of EuTRACE is supported by European-level policy makers, and the consortium has already established partnerships with a large international network of top researchers from Europe, North America and Asia.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INFRAIA-1-2014-2015 | Award Amount: 13.00M | Year: 2015

Particle physics is at the forefront of the ERA, attracting a global community of more than 10,000 scientists. With the upgrade of the LHC and the preparation of new experiments, the community will have to overcome unprecedented challenges in order to answer fundamental questions concerning the Higgs boson, neutrinos, and physics beyond the Standard Model. Major developments in detector technology are required to ensure the success of these endeavours. The AIDA-2020 project brings together the leading European infrastructures in detector development and a number of academic institutes, thus assembling the necessary expertise for the ambitious programme of work. In total, 19 countries and CERN are involved in this programme, which follows closely the priorities of the European Strategy for Particle Physics. AIDA-2020 aims to advance detector technologies beyond current limits by offering well-equipped test beam and irradiation facilities for testing detector systems under its Transnational Access programme. Common software tools, micro-electronics and data acquisition systems are also provided. This shared high-quality infrastructure will ensure optimal use and coherent development, thus increasing knowledge exchange between European groups and maximising scientific progress. The project also exploits the innovation potential of detector research by engaging with European industry for large-scale production of detector systems and by developing applications outside of particle physics, e.g. for medical imaging. AIDA-2020 will lead to enhanced coordination within the European detector community, leveraging EU and national resources. The project will explore novel detector technologies and will provide the ERA with world-class infrastructure for detector development, benefiting thousands of researchers participating in future particle physics projects, and contributing to maintaining Europes leadership of the field.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: SiS-2008-2.1.1.1 | Award Amount: 415.27K | Year: 2009

DIVERSITY is a 36 months CSA (Supporting) project involving 14 partners from 11 European countries (Germany, Austria, Belgium, France, Spain, Italy, Sweden, Slovenia, UK, Slovakia, Greece). It represents a pilot initiative of networking policy makers, human resources experts, women scientists networks, and scientists to support the institutional culture change for a greater inclusiveness of women scientists in materials research organisations. The project objective is to identify policies and implementation activities to improve gender diversity management in materials research organisations by: a) strengthening the role of women in scientific decision making, b) supporting the materials research institutions to create their individual profile on the basis of principles of the European Charter for Researchers and the Code of Conduct for their Recruitment, c) enhancing the solidarity and involvement of men decision makers in promoting gender equality in scientific decision making , d) raising awareness within the scientific community, in the general public and among policy makers about gender and research. The activities planned are logically organised in 6 work packages, which can be grouped into three stages: In the first stage, the focus will be on benchmarking and monitoring the gender equality & diversity measures in participating research institutions in order to identify the best practice examples as well as the reasons behind low participation of women in decision making process. The second stage aims to support the materials research institutions to create their individual profile on the basis of the principles of the Charter and Code and to provide guidelines and recommendations for improving the transparency in recruitment, promotion and nomination in order to increase the proportion of women at the highest levels of research. The third stage is dedicated to awareness raising and dissemination activities.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: Fission-2008-2.1.2 | Award Amount: 10.31M | Year: 2009

The target of the proposed NURISP Collaborative Project is to make new and significant steps towards a European Reference Simulation Platform for applications relevant to present PWR and BWR and to future reactors. The roadmap of this Simulation Platform will be proposed to be part of the future Strategic Research Agenda of the Sustainable Nuclear Energy Technology Platform (SNE-TP). The first step towards this ambitious target has been made during the FP6 NURESIM Integrated Project. The NURISP project will start from this basis and develop further the already common and well-proven NURESIM informatics platform. It will also strengthen and enlarge the united team of top level international experts already federated during the NURESIM project and it will transform it into a European pole of excellence in reactor safety computation. The platform will provide a more accurate representation of the physical phenomena by developing and incorporating into best estimate codes the latest advances in core physics, two-phase thermal-hydraulics and fuel modelling. The project will also develop significant capacities for multiscale and multiphysics calculations, and for deterministic and statistical sensitivity and uncertainty analysis, facilitating their use in a generic environment. The individual models, solvers and codes integrated into the platform will be verified, validated and demonstrated through benchmarks (some of them using NEA or IAEA databanks) corresponding to present and future PWR, VVER and BWR challenging applications. Through the Users Group, European Nuclear Utilities, Vendors, Technical Safety Organisations, Regulators, Universities and Research Labs will be able to share this reference tool, contribute to its qualification, and develop its potential; thus enabling an effective European Research Area to take a worldwide leading position in the numerical simulation of nuclear reactors.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2007-2.2-01 | Award Amount: 8.77M | Year: 2007

The SPIRAL 2 Preparatory Phase project aims to achieve the development and signing of the consortium agreement allowing for the construction of the facility. The SPIRAL 2 project located at the GANIL facility (Caen, France) will deliver energetic rare (radioactive) isotope beams with intensities not yet available with presently running machines. The studies of the properties of nuclei forming these beams or their interaction with stable nuclei is a rapidly developing field of contemporary nuclear physics, astrophysics and interdisciplinary research. Although the Region Basse-Normandie and the French funding agencies (CNRS and CEA) are financing the investment to the extend of 80% of the cost of baseline project, SPIRAL 2 seeks new partners in order to balance the construction budget both of the baseline project and of the new instrumentation necessary for experiments. The Preparatory Phase will deal with the critical financial, legal and organisational issues related to the international character of the SPIRAL 2 facility during its construction and operation phases. Searching for new funding partners will be achieved by direct contacts and negotiations between international partners, their funding agencies and the European Commission as established through the official visits, meetings and workshops. Several critical technical issues have still to be addressed in order to construct the SPIRAL2 facility and associated instrumentation. The corresponding tasks were chosen in order solve remaining technical challenges as well as to attract efficiently European partners. In particular, the accent was put on the new instrumentation for SPIRAL 2. This topic, being the most attractive for scientists, is an excellent tool to convince the funding agencies of international partners to commit for the construction phase. The attractiveness of SPIRAL 2 for outside users will be improved by the construction of new infrastructures.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: Fission-2007-1.2-01 | Award Amount: 23.78M | Year: 2008

Actinide recycling by separation and transmutation is considered worldwide and particularly in several European countries as one of the most promising strategies to reduce the inventory of radioactive waste, thus contributing to make nuclear energy sustainable. Consistently with potentially viable recycling strategies, the Collaborative Project ACSEPT will provide a structured R&D framework to develop chemical separation processes compatible with fuel fabrication techniques, with a view to their future demonstration at the pilot level. Considering technically mature aqueous separation processes, ACSEPT will optimise and select the most promising ones dedicated to actinide partitioning and those featuring a group separation. These developments will be appropriately balanced with an exploratory research focused on the design of new molecules. In parallel, promising group actinide separation pyro-processes will be developed beyond the current state-of-the-art, as an alternative option, for a longer term. ACSEPT will also pave the way towards more integration between Partitioning and Transmutation by carrying dissolution as well as actinide conversion studies. All experimental results will be integrated by carrying out engineering and systems studies on aqueous and dry (pyro) processes to prepare for future demonstration at a pilot level. A training and education programme will also be implemented to share the knowledge among partitioning community and present and future generations of researchers. The challenging objectives of ACSEPT will be addressed by a multi-disciplinary consortium composed of European universities, nuclear research bodies and major industrial players. This consortium will generate fundamental improvements for a future design of an Advanced Processing Pilot Unit. ACSEPT will thus be an essential contribution to the demonstration, in the long term, of the potential benefits of actinide recycling to minimise the burden on the geological repositories.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: NFRP-01-2014 | Award Amount: 6.64M | Year: 2015

The thermal-hydraulics Simulations and Experiments for the Safety Assessment of Metal cooled reactor (SESAME) project supports the development of European liquid metal cooled reactors (ASTRID, ALFRED, MYRRHA, SEALER). The project focusses on pre-normative, fundamental, safety-related, challenges for these reactors with the following objectives: Development and validation of advanced numerical approaches for the design and safety evaluation of advanced reactors; Achievement of a new or extended validation base by creation of new reference data; Establishment of best practice guidelines, Verification & Validation methodologies, and uncertainty quantification methods for liquid metal fast reactor thermal hydraulics. The SESAME project will improve the safety of liquid metal fast reactors by making available new safety related experimental results and improved numerical approaches. These will allow system designers to improve the safety relevant equipment leading to enhanced safety standards and culture. Due to the fundamental and generic nature of SESAME, developments will be of relevance also for the safety assessment of contemporary light water reactors. By extending the knowledge basis, SESAME will allow the EU member states to develop robust safety policies. At the same time, SESAME will maintain and further develop the European experimental facilities and numerical tools. The consortium of 25 partners provides American-European-wide scientific and technological excellence in liquid metal thermal hydraulics, as well as full alignment with ESNII and with NUGENIA where of interest. A close interaction with the European liquid metal cooled reactor design teams is foreseen involving them in the Senior Advisory Committee. They will actively advise on the content of the project and will be the prime end-users, ensuring their innovative reactor designs will reach highest safety standards using frontier scientific developments.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: EE-19-2014 | Award Amount: 2.00M | Year: 2015

The current level of energy efficiency investments in the rental housing sector is in danger of missing EU policy targets. RentalCal aims to develop models and tools for assessing the commercial viability of energy efficiency retrofitting in the rental housing stock. This will reduce split incentive barriers, price in green added value and show a clear road map towards a sustainable housing stock. In particular, RentalCal seeks to make the following key contributions: 1. Develop the first commercial viability assessment framework for energy efficiency refurbishments specifically for rental housing Although rental housing represents the majority of Europes multifamily housing stock, current viability calculation methods for energy efficiency retrofits are geared towards owner occupiers and ignore some inherent characteristics of the specific national rental market such as split incentives, rental regulations, tax regimes etc. RentalCal will develop an innovative standardised methodology for assessing retrofits in the private rental housing sector. 2. Increase the transparency of investment conditions in the EU housing industry RentalCal will provide transparent information on the viability of energy efficiency investments based on legal, technical and financial conditions in eight participating member states. The standardised framework will allow for a transparent comparison of investment conditions in the EU, help to remove investment barriers in national housing markets and stimulate cross-border investment activity. 3. Disseminate key insights into the Green Value proposition to specific target groups RentalCal will provide rental property investors with target group specific information regarding the viability of a proposed retrofit investment. This includes the valuation benefits of energy-efficient buildings as well as other indirect financial benefits. All information will be available on RentalCals web based calculation and information platform.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: ENERGY-2007-1.2-04 | Award Amount: 3.40M | Year: 2008

In order to meet the international goals for hydrogen storage materials, the work in NANOHy aims at combining the latest developments in the metal hydride field with novel concepts for tailoring materials properties. Leading expertise in the field of complex hydride synthesis, synthesis and functionalization of nanostructured carbon, nanoparticle coating, structural characterization, and computational methods will be joined to achieve a fundamental understanding combined with considerable practical progress in the development of novel nanostructured materials for hydrogen storage. The target materials are nanocomposites consisting of hydride particle sizes in the lower nanometer range which are protected by a nanocarbon template or by self-assembled polymer layers in order to prevent agglomeration. Thus, there is potential to lower working temperature and pressure, to enhance the reversibility, and to control the interaction between the hydride and the environment, leading to improved safety properties. Materials of this kind can mitigate or solve principal and practical problems which have been identified recently in other projects. The composites will be synthesized out of novel complex hydrides with very high hydrogen content and nanocarbon templates. Alternatively, hydride colloids will be coated in a Layer-by-Layer self-assembling process of dedicated polymers. Computational methods will be used to model the systems and predict optimal materials/size combinations for improved working parameters of the systems. Sophisticated instrumental analysis methods will be applied to elucidate the structure and the properties of the nano-confined hydrides. An upscale of the target nanocomposite will be made in the final stage and 0.5-1 kg of the material will be integrated and tested in a specially designed laboratory tank. Techno-economical evaluation will be performed and potential spin-off applications will be explored by an industry partner in NANOHy.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: EINFRA-1-2014 | Award Amount: 19.05M | Year: 2015

EUDAT2020 brings together a unique consortium of e-infrastructure providers, research infrastructure operators, and researchers from a wide range of scientific disciplines under several of the ESFRI themes, working together to address the new data challenge. In most research communities, there is a growing awareness that the rising tide of data will require new approaches to data management and that data preservation, access and sharing should be supported in a much better way. Data, and a fortiori Big Data, is a cross-cutting issue touching all research infrastructures. EUDAT2020s vision is to enable European researchers and practitioners from any research discipline to preserve, find, access, and process data in a trusted environment, as part of a Collaborative Data Infrastructure (CDI) conceived as a network of collaborating, cooperating centres, combining the richness of numerous community-specific data repositories with the permanence and persistence of some of Europes largest scientific data centres. EUDAT2020 builds on the foundations laid by the first EUDAT project, strengthening the links between the CDI and expanding its functionalities and remit. Covering both access and deposit, from informal data sharing to long-term archiving, and addressing identification, discoverability and computability of both long-tail and big data, EUDAT2020s services will address the full lifecycle of research data. One of the main ambitions of EUDAT2020 is to bridge the gap between research infrastructures and e-Infrastructures through an active engagement strategy, using the communities that are in the consortium as EUDAT beacons and integrating others through innovative partnerships. During its three-year funded life, EUDAT2020 will evolve the CDI into a healthy and vibrant data-infrastructure for Europe, and position EUDAT as a sustainable infrastructure within which the future, changing requirements of a wide range of research communities are addressed.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: MG-4.1-2014 | Award Amount: 25.11M | Year: 2015

The project HERCULES-2 is targeting at a fuel-flexible large marine engine, optimally adaptive to its operating environment. The objectives of the HERCULES-2 project are associated to 4 areas of engine integrated R&D: Improving fuel flexibility for seamless switching between different fuel types, including non-conventional fuels. Formulating new materials to support high temperature component applications. Developing adaptive control methodologies to retain performance over the powerplant lifetime. Achieving near-zero emissions, via combined integrated aftertreatment of exhaust gases. The HERCULES-2 is the next phase of the R&D programme HERCULES on large engine technologies, which was initiated in 2004 as a joint vision by the two major European engine manufacturer groups MAN and WARTSILA. Three consecutive projects namely HERCULES - A, -B, -C spanned the years 2004-2014. These three projects produced exceptional results and received worldwide acclaim. The targets of HERCULES-2 build upon and surpass the targets of the previous HERCULES projects, going beyond the limits set by the regulatory authorities. By combining cutting-edge technologies, the Project overall aims at significant fuel consumption and emission reduction targets using integrated solutions, which can quickly mature into commercially available products. Focusing on the applications, the project includes several full-scale prototypes and shipboard demonstrators. The project HERCULES-2 comprises 4 R&D Work Package Groups (WPG): - WPG I: Fuel flexible engine - WPG II: New Materials (Applications in engines) - WPG III: Adaptive Powerplant for Lifetime Performance - WPG IV: Near-Zero Emissions Engine The consortium comprises 32 partners of which 30% are Industrial and 70% are Universities / Research Institutes. The Budget share is 63% Industry and 37% Universities. The HERCULES-2 proposal covers with authority and in full the Work Programme scope B1 of MG.4.1-2014.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: EINFRA-7-2014 | Award Amount: 2.95M | Year: 2015

The goal of AARC is to address technical and functional gaps that prevent the interoperability of existing R&E AAIs. AARC objectives are: 1. Deliver the design of an integrated cross-discipline AAI framework, built on federated access production services (eduGAIN) 2. Increase the uptake of federated access within different research communities 3. Pilot critical components of the proposed integrated AAI where existing production services do not address user needs 4. Validate the results of both the JRA and SA by engaging with the research communities AARC goals will be achieved by: Researching main technical (attribute providers, guest IdPs, support for non-web SSO) and policy aspects (level of assurance, security incidents, etc) Supporting (commercial) services relevant to the R&E community Delivering training to targeted user communities (e.g. libraries, biomedical, arts and humanities) on both technical and legal aspects Relevance to the work programme: 1. Facilitate the deployment and promotion of a pan-European identity federation Met by: Designing an AAI framework that builds on federated access and on the evolution of eduGAINs interfederation approach Extensive dissemination of AARC results 2. Lower barriers to entry for organisations Met by: Delivering tools to enable federated access for institutions, services and guest users (also meets obj. Allow for public access at large) Delivering technical training tailored to institutions and services following the train-the-trainer model (also meets obj. Offer training and outreach for data professionals) 3. Overcome technical, organisational and legal obstacles Met by: Policies and best practices for operational and security aspects for the integrated AAI Training on legal aspects, built on experience with eduGAIN 4. Enable the interoperability of different AAIs Met by: Models to offer collective services and to aggregate their accounting information Pilots on security token


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2012-ITN | Award Amount: 2.88M | Year: 2013

ECHONET is an Initial Training Network (ITN) comprising 8 full network participants from 6 countries, spanning 6 academic institutions and two private sector organisations, the latter representing SME and Global fine chemicals companies. The network is also supported by 2 associated partners from the private sector. Taken together, the consortium will offer research training and generic skills development by embarking on state-of-the-art chemical synthesis problems and by employing new approaches in catalysis, computational chemistry, bioactive molecule design and high throughput synthesis. As a whole, ECHONET offers tremendous opportunities for research training in an international interdisciplinary environment. It is anticipated that this network will make a significant contribution to the expertise already present in Europe, and will continue to play an important role in the progress of European fine chemical industries and related fields. ECHONET will be supported by 11 early stage researchers and 2 experienced researchers and their research training will be supplemented by formal courses and industrial experience, therefore offering valuable exposure to commercial environments.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: EINFRA-22-2016 | Award Amount: 3.00M | Year: 2017

The goal of AARC2 is to design an AAI framework to develop interoperable AAI, to enable researchers to access the whole research and infrastructure service portfolio with one login. AARC2s objectives are: 1. enable federated access in research communities participating in AARC2 2. assist research communities to map their requirements to concrete service offerings 3. support research (e-)infrastructures to implement the integrated architecture and policies frameworks developed by AARC project 4. offer different trainings to adopt AARC/AARC2 results 5. enhance the integrated architecture AARC2 objectives will be achieved by: - Piloting selected research community use-cases (SA1) - Showcasing ready-to-use AAI solutions and pilot results to infrastructures (SA1-NA2) - Developing a virtual Competence Centre where infrastructure representatives and AARC2 team discuss AARC2 results deployment and approaches to use-cases (all WPs) - Promoting federated access and adoption of AARC2 results via training and outreach (NA2) - Expand support for new technologies and policies (JRA1 and NA3). - Follow a user-driven approach: development driven by use-cases and continuous community feedback on AARC2 work. Relevance to the work programme: - AARC2 will work with existing e-infrastructures and ESFRI projects to deploy and enhance (JRA1) the integrated AAI (built on eduIGAIN and federated access) delivered by AARC (obj1Development of a pan-European identity federation) - Use-cases that meet integration (accessing services offered by multiple e-infrastructures) and data-rich aspects included in AARC2 (SA1). AARC2 will work to enable federated access and to map the use-cases to existing AAI services and policy frameworks (obj2Stimulate AAI services supporting communities in the data-rich era) - AARC2 will liaise with security groups, NRENs and infrastructures to address best practices in cybersecurity and assurance (see NA3). (obj3Deliver an integrated infrastructure)


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: ICT-26-2016 | Award Amount: 3.80M | Year: 2017

Todays robots are good at executing programmed motions, but they do not understand their actions in the sense that they could automatically generalize them to novel situations or recover from failures. IMAGINE seeks to enable robots to understand the structure of their environment and how it is affected by its actions. Understanding here means the ability of the robot (a) to determine the applicability of an action along with parameters to achieve the desired effect, and (b) to discern to what extent an action succeeded, and to infer possible causes of failure and generate recovery actions. The core functional element is a generative model based on an association engine and a physics simulator. Understanding is given by the robots ability to predict the effects of its actions, before and during their execution. This allows the robot to choose actions and parameters based on their simulated performance, and to monitor their progress by comparing observed to simulated behavior. This scientific objective is pursued in the context of recycling of electromechanical appliances. Current recycling practices do not automate disassembly, which exposes humans to hazardous materials, encourages illegal disposal, and creates significant threats to environment and health, often in third countries. IMAGINE will develop a TRL-5 prototype that can autonomously disassemble prototypical classes of devices, generate and execute disassembly actions for unseen instances of similar devices, and recover from certain failures. For robotic disassembly, IMAGINE will develop a multi-functional gripper capable of multiple types of manipulation without tool changes. IMAGINE raises the ability level of robotic systems in core areas of the work programme, including adaptability, manipulation, perception, decisional autonomy, and cognitive ability. Since only one-third of EU e-waste is currently recovered, IMAGINE addresses an area of high economical and ecological impact.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: LCE-17-2015 | Award Amount: 9.63M | Year: 2016

The share of renewable energy is growing rapidly driven by the objective to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The amount of electric power which can be supplied to the grid depends on the time of the day and weather conditions. A conventional fleet of thermal power plants is required to compensate for these fluctuations before large scale energy storage technologies will be mature and economically viable. All power market projections expect this to be the case for the next 50 years at least. For a strong expansion of renewables, this fleet has to operate flexibly at competitive cost. Current power plants cannot fill this role immediately without impeding their efficiency and engine lifetime through increased wear and damage induced by the higher number of (shorter) operating/loading cycles. New technologies need to be introduced to balance demand peaks with renewable output fluctuations at minimal fuel consumption and emissions without negative effects on cycling operation. The FLEXTURBINE partners have developed a medium to long term technology roadmap addressing future and existing power plants. The FLEXTURBINE project presented hereafter is the first step in such technology roadmap and consists of: (1) new solutions for extended operating ranges to predict and control flutter, (2) improved sealing and bearing designs to increase turbine lifetime and efficiency by reducing degradation/damages, and (3) an improved lifecycle management through better control and prediction of critical parts to improve competitive costs by more flexible service intervals and planned downtime, and by reducing unplanned outages. In all areas, individual technologies will be developed from TRL 3 to TRL 4-6. FLEXTURBINE brings together the main European turbine manufacturers, renowned research institutes and universities. It involves plant and transmission system operators to include user feedback and to prepare the take-up of the FLEXTURBINE technologies in power plants world-wide.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: Fission-2012-2.1.2 | Award Amount: 6.27M | Year: 2013

The Fukushima accidents highlighted that both the in-depth understanding of such sequences and the development or improvement of adequate severe accident management measures is essential in order to further increase the safety of the nuclear power plants operated in Europe. CESAM (Code for European Severe Accident Management) is a R&D project that aims in particular at the improvement of the European reference code ASTEC towards a usage in severe accident management analysis for nuclear power plants (NPP). The models of ASTEC that are available for the relevant phenomena during severe accidents in the reactor core as well as in the spent fuel ponds are assessed and recommendations for improvement are developed. The lessons learned from the severe accident in Fukushima will be especially considered. Based on these recommendations ASTEC models will be improved and validated by the partners. In addition, ASTEC will be coupled to environmental consequences tools and a methodology will be investigated that evaluates the probability of different possible accident scenarios based on available on-side data during an accident in a nuclear power plant. This way, ASTEC will be extended to become a tool used for decision-making in emergency cases. ASTEC reference datasets for the main generic types of NPPs in Europe (PWR, BWR, CANDU) will jointly be prepared to give users appropriate guidance how to apply ASTEC for real plant analyses used e.g. for accident management. Plant analyses and possible improvements of SAM measures based on various plant scenarios and accounting for the lessons drawn from the Fukushima accidents, will be performed. A workshop will be organized to elaborate on ASTEC capabilities for calculations of the Fukushima accidents, both in the reactor core and the spent fuel ponds.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: ICT-29-2016 | Award Amount: 15.57M | Year: 2017

PIXAPP will establish the worlds first open access Photonic Integrated Circuit (PIC) assembly & packaging Pilot Line. It combines a highly-interdisciplinary team of Europes leading industrial & research organisations. PIXAPP provides Europes SMEs with a unique one-stop-shop, enabling them to exploit the breakthrough advantages of PIC technologies. PIXAPP bridges the valley of death, providing SMEs with an easy access route to take R&D results from lab to market, giving them a competitive advantage over global competition. Target markets include communications, healthcare & security, which are of great socio-economic importance to Europe. PIXAPPs manufacturing capabilities can support over 120 users per year, across all stages of manufacturing, from prototyping to medium scale manufacture. PIXAPP bridges missing gaps in the value chain, from assembly & packaging, through to equipment optimisation, test and application demonstration. To achieve these ambitious objectives, PIXAPP will; 1) Combine a group of Europes leading industrial & research organisations in an advanced PIC assembly & packaging Pilot Line facility.2) Develop an innovative Pilot Line operational model that coordinates activities between consortium partners & supports easy user access through a single entry point. 3) Establish packaging standards that provide cost-efficient assembly & packaging solutions, enabling transfer to full-scale industrial manufacture. 4) Create the highly-skilled workforce required to manage & operate these industrial manufacturing facilities.5) Develop a business plan to ensure Pilot Line sustainability & a route to industrial manufacturing. PIXAPP will deliver significant impacts to a wide stakeholder group, highlighting how industrial & research sectors can collaborate to address emerging socio-economic challenges.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-SME | Phase: SME-2013-1 | Award Amount: 2.13M | Year: 2013

The SMEs behind SMOKESENSE intend to introduce a radical change in the fire detection technology currently in use today, through the development of a novel fire-detection system involving the development of miniaturised smart fire-detection sensors, and associated sensor systems. Currently available technologies have several limitations such as 1) extensive maintenance requirements; 2) limited scope of measurements and amount of gasses 3) complex data analysis requirements and on top of these, 4) they are not capable to perform early detection, as usually the sensor is far from the source of fire. This last restriction results in extensive economic, and ultimately even personal, losses either due to late extinction responses or false alarms. The new detector will be marketed in two different variants, a dish shaped unit to be installed in ceilings and a mini-sensor to be embedded in electrical appliances, hence broadening the potential applications of the new technologies developed and returning a high profitability business case for all the involved SMEs. In order to achieve the project objectives, the SMEs that integrate the consortium will collaborate with renown RTD performers to overcome scientific and technical barriers related to 1) developing the best combination of gas sensing technologies to arrive at a detailed and elaborated classification of smoke types; and 2) to optimizing miniaturization of electronic circuits and data processing/ communications. Besides improving the competitiveness of the participating SMEs, the project will significantly contribute to broader goals in terms of safety and regulations for fire fighting.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA | Phase: Fission-2013-2.1.1 | Award Amount: 10.28M | Year: 2013

Preparing NUGENIA for HORIZON 2020 The objective of the NUGENIA\ project is to support the NUGENIA Association in its role to coordinate and integrate European research on safety of the Gen II and III nuclear installations in order to better ensure their safe long term operation, integrating private and public efforts, and initiating international collaboration that will create added value in its activity fields. The project consists of two parts, the first part being a Coordination and Support Action and the second part a Collaborative Project. The aim of the first part, the Coordination and Support Action, is to establish an efficient, transparent and high quality management structure to carry out the planning and management of R&D including project calls, proposal evaluation, project follow-up dissemination and valorisation of R&D results in the area of safety of existing Gen II and future Gen III nuclear installations. The preparatory work will encompass governance, organizational, legal and financial work, as well as the establishment of annual work plans, with the aim to structure public-public and/or private-public joint programming enabling NUGENIA to develop into the integrator of the research in the respective field in Europe. The management structure will build on the existing organisation of the NUGENIA Association, currently grouping over 70 nuclear organisations from research and industry (utilities, vendors and small and medium enterprises) active in R&D. In the second part, the Collaborative project, one thematic call for research proposals will be organized among the technical areas of plant safety and risk assessment, severe accident prevention and management, core and reactor performance, integrity assessment of systems, structures and components, innovative Generation III design and harmonisation of procedures and methods. The call will take place one year after the start of the project. The call will implement the priorities recognised in the NUGENIA Roadmap, in line with the Sustainable Nuclear Energy Technology Platform (SNETP) and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) strategies. The research call which is going to be organised within the project is open to all eligible organisations. The NUGENIA\ project will benefit from the experience of the NUGENIA Association member organisations on managing national research programmes and from the track record of the NUGENIA project portfolio.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2013.5.3 | Award Amount: 12.71M | Year: 2014

Over 2 billion people worldwide have different types, degrees, or combinations of disability, literacy, digital literacy or aging related barriers that impede or prevent use of ICT. Not long ago you could live without access to ICT quite well. However today access to ICT is required for most education, employment, and commerce, and is increasingly required for travel, health, safety, daily living and participation in most of our society. Yet we currently only reach 3 to 15% of these - in developed countries. We cannot socially, economically or politically afford to have this cumulatively large percentage of our society offline going forward. Yet there is no way to reach them with our current model.\n\nProposed is phase II of an effort to create a paradigm shift in eInclusion. Part I was the FP7 project Cloud4all for creating instant, ubiquitous auto-personalization of interfaces and materials based on user needs and preferences. Part II, Prosperity4all, focuses on developing the infrastructure to allow a new ecosystem to grow; one that is based on self-rewarding collaboration, that can reduce redundant development, lower costs, increase market reach and penetration internationally, and create the robust cross-platform spectrum of mainstream and assistive technology based access solutions required. This will be done through a process based on true value propositions for all stakeholders and resulting in a system that can profitably serve markets as small as one, at a personally and societally affordable cost. This infrastructure will use cloud, crowd, game and smart technologies, to bring new players with both low and high technical skills into the development and delivery ecosystem, introduce accessibility as a ubiquitous service, and combine auto-configured access features built into mainstream products with assistive technologies and services to create the rich milieu of options needed to bring this diverse population of populations into our digital future.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: NOE | Phase: ICT-2007.3.5 | Award Amount: 5.06M | Year: 2008

EURO-FOS aims at creating a powerful pan-European network on photonic subsystems by clustering top European systems groups with proven track record in the design, development and evaluation of photonic subsystems. EURO-FOS aims at bridging the gap between research on device-level physics and new architectures from the network-level. The first objective of the project is the integration of researchers through exchange and mobility, allowing for innovation and reinforcing common research thrusts. The second objective is the access to expensive infrastructure creating economies of scale in the development and testing of photonic subsystems. The third objective is the strengthening of European research by creating a mechanism for partners to access devices developed in complementary European projects on photonic components. Functional integration of devices will create new ideas through the design and development of new subsystems within the project. EURO-FOS fourth objective is to complement European Commission efforts for combating Europes difficulty to turn scientific know-how developed in universities into exploitable technology. This will be achieved through the creation of an academic pan-European laboratory with strong industrial links. The creation of this lab can bridge the gap created by the shutdown or downsizing of major R&D industrial labs and help innovative SMEs that find it increasingly difficult to allocate R&D expenditure for basic research and expensive testing facilities. EURO-FOS is expected to have a high impact on Europes research through integration of people and clustering of research groups under the guidance of European industry. The creation of a unified and coherent European network of researchers with excellence in this field will ensure that Europe excels in this crucial part of the photonic systems development chain that links device-level physics and network architectures. Moreover, the creation of the pan-European research lab with diverse R&D capabilities, highly-skilled scientific personnel and state-of-the-art testing facilities, will critically assist Europes industry to perform innovative research and evaluate their developed technology in a system environment with advanced equipment and using accurate methods defined by EURO-FOS researchers.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: FoF.NMP.2013-11 | Award Amount: 5.41M | Year: 2013

Volume production at industrial scale of miniaturised multi-material 3D (polymer-polymer, metal-polymer, metal-metal, polymer-ceramics,...) still face important challenges to be affordable by SMEs. Challenges not only in terms of precision manufacturing (precision engineering <0.01%) but also in the adequate interaction between the different constituent materials. Besides multi-material micro-system manufacturing processes still show to be time and cost consuming mainly from assembling activities and back en processes (35-60% of the total manufacturing costs come only from the assembling), so further research efforts in alternative and more integrated manufacturing concepts(over-moulding of micro-components and in-mould assembly technology would avoid the assembly step) are needed. To answer those problems the development of high-throughput and cost-efficient process chains based on micro injection should consider the following aspects: Improved volume production, not only from the standpoint of the necessary accuracy and performance of the process, but also regarding the interaction/bonding of the different materials which make up the produced parts and the possibility of selective functionality of their surfaces. The integration of the different processes including the feeding and handling systems for automatic operation in order to eliminate human intervention and manufacturing costs. Analyse the most suitable process control, online verification and back-end processes taking into account the features of the multi-material replicated parts represented by five demonstrators. The aim is to reduce manufacturing costs up to 40%. Thus, the HINMICO project final outcome will enable to produce high quality multi-material micro-components through more integrated, efficient and cheaper process chains.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: LCE-07-2016-2017 | Award Amount: 5.00M | Year: 2016

Within the project a new highly efficient biomass CHP technology consisting of a fuel-flexible fixed-bed updraft gasifier, a novel compact gas cleaning system and a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) shall be developed for a capacity range of 1to 10 MW (total energy output). The technology shall distinguish itself by a wide fuel spectrum applicable (wood pellets, wood chips, SRC, selected agricultural fuels like agro-pellets, fruit stones/shells), high gross electric (40%) and overall (90%) efficiencies as well as equal-zero gaseous and PM emissions. The system shall consist of a fuel-flexible updraft gasification technology with ultra-low particulate matter and alkali metal concentrations in the product gas (which reduces the efforts for gas cleaning), an integrated high temperature gas cleaning approach for dust, HCl and S removal and tar cracking within one process step as well as a SOFC system which tolerates certain amounts of tars as fuel. It is expected to achieve at the end of the project a TRL of 5 and a MRL of at least 5. To fulfill these goals a methodology shall be applied which is divided into a technology development part (process simulations, computer aided design of the single units and the overall system, test plant construction, performance and evaluation of test runs, risk and safety analysis) as well as a technology assessment part covering techno-economic, environmental and overall impact assessments and market studies regarding the potentials for application. Moreover, a clear dissemination, exploitation and communication plan is available. The novel technology shall define a new milestone in terms of CHP efficiency and equal-zero emission technology in the medium-scale capacity range and shall contribute to a stronger and future-oriented EU energy supply based on renewables. Its fuel flexibility shall ensure high attractiveness and market application potential and thus strengthen the industrial base in the EU as well as the technological leadership.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: AAT.2008.1.1.3.;AAT.2008.4.2.3. | Award Amount: 6.68M | Year: 2009

In aeronautics, gas turbine engines are equipped with lubrication systems whose function is to cool and lubricate the highly loaded rolling bearings and gearboxes. Current lubrication systems are based on architectures and technologies that have not much evolved for the last 30 years and that, despite advances made on components, have reached their technological limit. Future aero-engine requirements cannot be met neither by state-of-the-art lubrication systems nor by incremental improvement. ELUBSYS will design, develop and validate innovative technologies and architectures for aero-engine lubrication systems targeting increased efficiency and reduced cost, mass and engine Specific Fuel Consumption (SFC). The primary focus is around new brush seal technologies that offer the potential to improve engine propulsive efficiency by reducing bleed air losses whilst withstanding the aero-engines harsh environment. ELUBSYS will investigate the performance and endurance of brush seals; assess their impact on the thermal efficiency of lubrication systems and their external components and on oil quality. A secondary focus is the wider lubrication system including vent, scavenge, bearing chamber modelling and oil behaviour. Main objectives of the project are to: - Reduce engine SFC and related CO2 emissions by reducing by 60% the requirement for bleed air from the engine to seal the bearing chambers and by improving the thermal management of bearing chamber housings and ports - Reduce engine oil consumption by 60% - Optimise the architecture and performance of lubrication systems and thereby reduce their complexity and mass - Develop solutions to improve monitoring of engine oil quality and prevent coking in the lubrication system These goals will be achieved by a European consortium of Industry, Research centres, Academia and SMEs who will develop and validate these new lubrication technologies using modeling approaches and existing state-of-the-art test facilities.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SEC-2011.3.4-2 | Award Amount: 4.58M | Year: 2012

While the dog will remain a central part of the detection process at border crossing and airports, sensor technology and low power embedded system computing are improving to the extent that the time is right to develop substantially improved mobile detection devices that can complement the role played by dogs. Moreover, these detection devices can be networked together to provide enhanced detection facilities and also to facilitate easier management and field deployment of the platforms themselves. The HANDHOLD consortium consists of nine partners who bring complementary expertise in all the fields needed to develop a mobile network of low power CBRNE sensor system. The consortium includes the Irish Customs Authority and the consortium has an attached user group of representatives from law enforcement fromaoround Europe. The consortium plans a 42 month project which will deliver a working prototype system in two phases, the initial version being completed 24 months into the project lifetime.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: Fission-2012-3.3.1 | Award Amount: 6.50M | Year: 2013

This proposal aims to close gaps that have been identified in nuclear and radiological preparedness following the first evaluation of the Fukushima disaster. It addresses the call Fission-2010-3.3.1: Update of emergency management and rehabilitation strategies and expertise in Europe. The consortium intends to review existing operational procedures in dealing with long lasting releases, address the cross border problematic in monitoring and safety of goods and will further develop still missing functionalities in decision support system ranging from improved source term estimation and dispersion modelling to the inclusion of hydrological pathways for European water bodies. As the management of the Fukushima event in Europe was far from being optimal, we propose to develop means on a scientific and operational basis to improve information collection, information exchange and the evaluation for such types of accidents. This will be achieved through a collaboration of industry, research and governmental organisations in Europe taking into account the networking activities carried out under the NERIS-TP project. Furthermore, the NERIS Platform member organisations (so far 43 partners) will be actively involved in the development.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: Fission-2009-2.3.1 | Award Amount: 10.59M | Year: 2010

For the long-term development of nuclear power, innovative nuclear systems such as Gen-IV reactors and transmutation systems need to be developed for meeting future energy challenges. Thermal-hydraulics is recognized as a key scientific subject in the development of innovative reactor systems. This project is devoted to important crosscutting thermal-hydraulic issues encountered in various innovative nuclear systems, such as advanced reactor core thermal-hydraulics, single phase mixed convection and turbulence, specific multiphase flow, and code coupling and qualification. The main objectives of the project are: Generation of a data base for the development and validation of new models and codes describing the selected crosscutting thermal-hydraulic phenomena. This data base contains both experimental data and data from direct numerical simulations (DNS). Development of new physical models and modeling approaches for more accurate description of the crosscutting thermal-hydraulic phenomena such as heat transfer and flow mixing, turbulent flow modeling for a wide range of Prandtl numbers, and modeling of flows under strong influence of buoyancy. Improvement of the numerical engineering tools and establishment of a numerical platform for the design analysis of the innovative nuclear systems. This platform contains numerical codes of various classes of spatial scales, i.e. system analysis, sub-channel analysis and CFD codes, their coupling and the guidelines for their applications. The project will achieve optimum usage of available European resources in experimental facilities, numerical tools and expertise. It will establish a new common platform of research results and research infrastructure. The main outcomes of the project will be a synergized infrastructure for thermal-hydraulic research of innovative nuclear systems in Europe.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: Fission-2012-2.1.1 | Award Amount: 9.33M | Year: 2013

After the 2011 disaster that occurred in Japan, improvement of nuclear safety appears more clearly as a paramount condition for further development of nuclear industry. The NURESAFE project addresses engineering aspects of nuclear safety, especially those relative to design basis accidents (DBA). Although the Japanese event was a severe accident, in a process of defense-in-depth, prevention and control of DBA is obviously one of the priorities in the process of safety improvement. In this respect, the best simulation software are needed to justify the design of reactor protection systems and measures taken to prevent and control accidents. The NURESAFE project addresses safety of light water reactors which will represent the major part of fleets in the world along the whole 21st century. The first objective of NURESAFE is to deliver to European stakeholders a reliable software capacity usable for safety analysis needs and to develop a high level of expertise in the proper use of the most recent simulation tools. Nuclear reactor simulation tools are of course already widely used for this purpose but more accurate and predictive software including uncertainty assessment must allow to quantify the margins toward feared phenomena occurring during an accident and they must be able to model innovative and more complex design features. This software capacity will be based on the NURESIM simulation platform created during FP6 NURESIM project and developed during FP7 NURISP project which achieved its goal by making available an integrated set of software at the state of the art. The objectives under the work-program are to develop practical applications usable for safety analysis or operation and design and to expand the use of the NURESIM platform. Therefore, the NURESAFE project concentrates its activities on some safety relevant situation targets. The main outcome of NURESAFE will be the delivery of multiphysics and fully integrated applications.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2011-1.1.10.;INFRA-2011-1.1.11. | Award Amount: 10.44M | Year: 2011

InGOS will support and integrate the observing capacity of Europe for non-CO2 greenhouse gases (NCGHG: CH4, N2O, SF6, H2 and halocarbons). The emissions of these gases are very uncertain and it is unknown how future climate change will feedback into the land use coupled emissions of CH4 and N2O. The NCGHG atmospheric abundances will increase further in the future and the emissions of these gases are an attractive target for climate change mitigation policies. InGOS aims to improve the existing European observation system so that this will provide us insight into the concentration levels and European and extra-European emissions of the NCGHGs. The data from the network will enable to better constrain the emissions of NCGHGs within the EU and show whether emission reduction policies are effective. The data from the network is designed to allow to detect the spatial and temporal distribution (hotspots) of the sources and to detect changes in emissions due to mitigation and feedbacks with climate change. To strengthen the European observation system, the project has several objectives: Harmonize and standardize the measurements. Provide capacity building in new member states and countries with inadequate existing infrastructure. Support existing observation sites and transfer of selected sites into supersites. Integrate and further integrate marine observations of the NCGHGs with land-based observations Improve measurement methods by testing new innovative techniques and strategies. Test advanced isotope techniques for application in the network to enable attribution of the atmospheric fractions to source categories Integrate data for network evaluation by using inverse modeling and data-assimilation methods and developments in bottom up inventories Link the network to remote sensing data of column abundances from in-situ and satellite observations Prepare for the integration of the NCGHG network with the Integrated Carbon Observation System


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: ERC-SG | Phase: ERC-SG-PE10 | Award Amount: 1.50M | Year: 2011

MUSICA aims to understand the atmospheric water cycle and its interplay with climate change applying unique long-term high quality and global remote sensing observations of tropospheric stable water vapour isotopologues. It is well established that water in its various forms plays a dominant role in nearly all aspects of the Earth s climate system. Understanding the full cycle of evaporation, cloud formation, and precipitation is of highest scientific priority for predicting climate change. The ratio of the isotopologues (e.g. HD16O/H216O) is affected by evaporation, condensation, and cloud processes, and offers a unique opportunity for investigating how water moves through the troposphere. Incorporating isotopologues in atmospheric general circulation models (AGCM) and comparing the isotopologue simulations to observations has the potential to test the models ability of reproducing the global atmospheric water cycle and its interplay with climate change. So far this research field has not been explored due to the lack of consistent, long-term, high-quality, and area-wide observational data. MUSICA will for the first time combine long-term ground- and space-based remote sensing measurements in a consistent manner, and will generate novel tropospheric HD16O/H216O data, taking benefit from both the high and well documented quality of the ground-based observations and the wide geographical coverage of the space-based observations. This unique observational data set will allow a new dimension of water cycle research. MUSICA will collaborate with the Stable Water Isotope Intercomparison Group (SWING) in order to improve current state-of-the-art water isotope AGCMs. MUSICA will investigate and improve the understanding of tropospheric water vapour sources and transport pathways, and empirically assess how well climate feedbacks are captured by current climate models and thereby it will constrain a major uncertainty of climate projections.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: GC.SST.2011.7-7.;GC.NMP.2011-1 | Award Amount: 8.54M | Year: 2011

GREENLION is a Large Scale Collaborative Project with the FP7 (topic GC.NMP.2011-1) leading to the manufacturing of greener and cheaper Li-Ion batteries for electric vehicle applications via the use of water soluble, fluorine-free, high thermally stable binders, which would eliminate the use of VOCs and reduce the cell assembly cost. GREENLION has 6 key objectives: (i) development of new active and inactive battery materials viable for water processes (green chemistry); (ii) development of innovative processes (coating from aqueous slurries) capable of reducing electrode production cost and avoid environmental pollution; (iii) development of new assembly procedures (including laser cutting and high temperature pre-treatment) capable of substantially reduce the time and the cost of cell fabrication; (iv) lighter battery modules with air cooling and easier disassembly through eco-designed bonding techniques (v) waste reduction, which, by making use of the water solubility of the binder, allows the extensive recovery of the active and inactive battery materials; and (vi) construction of fully integrated battery module for electric vehicle applications with optimized cells, modules, and other ancillaries. Accordingly, GREENLION aims to overcome the limitations of present Li-ion manufacturing technology for electric vehicle batteries with the goal to: 1- perform breakthrough work to position Europe as a leader in the manufacturing of high energy and environmentally benign batteries; 2- develop highly effective eco-designed processes; 3- develop automotive battery module systems with: A) specific energy higher than 100 Wh/kg and specific power higher than 500 W/kg with respect to the overall weight of the system; B) coulombic efficiency on average higher than 99.95% during cycling; C) cycle life of 1,000 cycles with 20% maximum loss of capacity upon cycling between 100% and 0% SOC; and D) evaluate their integration in electric cars and renewable energy systems.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: COFUND-EJP | Phase: EURATOM | Award Amount: 856.96M | Year: 2014

A Roadmap to the realization of fusion energy was adopted by the EFDA system at the end of 2012. The roadmap aims at achieving all the necessary know-how to start the construction of a demonstration power plant (DEMO) by 2030, in order to reach the goal of fusion electricity in the grid by 2050. The roadmap has been articulated in eight different Missions. The present proposal has the goal of implementing the activities described in the Roadmap during Horizon 2020 through a joint programme of the members of the EUROfusion Consortium. ITER is the key facility in the roadmap. Thus, ITER success remains the most important overarching objective of the programme and, in the present proposal the vast majority of resources in Horizon 2020 are devoted to ensure that ITER is built within scope, time and budget; its operation is properly prepared; and a new generation of scientists and engineers is properly educated (at undergraduate and PhD level) and trained (at postdoctoral level) for its exploitation. DEMO is the only step between ITER and a commercial fusion power plant. To achieve the goal of fusion electricity demonstration by 2050, DEMO construction has to begin in the early 2030s at the latest, to allow the start of operation in the early 2040s. DEMO cannot be defined and designed by research laboratories alone, but requires the full involvement of industry in all technological and systems aspects of the design. Specific provisions for the involvement of industry in the Consortium activities are envisaged.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENV.2013.6.1-2 | Award Amount: 11.46M | Year: 2013

Clouds are a very important, yet not well understood feedback factor in climate change and they contribute to the effective radiative forcing (ERF) from aerosol-cloud interactions (ACI). The uncertainty in ERFaci is larger than for any other forcing agent. Also, feedbacks between the terrestrial and marine biosphere and the atmosphere involving ACI are thought to play an important role in regulating climate change but their relevance remains poorly quantified. BACCHUS proposes to quantify key processes and feedbacks controlling ACI, by combining advanced measurements of cloud and aerosol properties with state-of-the-art numerical modelling. The analysis of contrasting environments will be the guiding strategy for BACCHUS. We will investigate the importance of biogenic versus anthropogenic emissions for ACI in regions that are key regulators of Earths climate (Amazonian rain forest) or are regarded as tipping elements in the climate system (Arctic). BACCHUS will generate a unique database linking long-term observations and field campaign data of aerosol, cloud condensation and ice nuclei and cloud microphysical properties; this will enable a better quantification of the natural aerosol concentrations and the anthropogenic aerosol effect. BACCHUS will advance the understanding of biosphere aerosol-cloud-climate feedbacks that occur via emission and transformation of biogenic volatile organic compounds, primary biological aerosols, secondary organic aerosols and dust. Integration of new fundamental understanding gained in BACCHUS in Earth Systems Models allows to reduce the uncertainty in future climate projections. This will have a direct impact on decision-making addressing climate change adaptation and mitigation. BACCHUS brings together a critical mass of experimentalists and modellers with the required scientific expertise to address these complex topics and a high commitment to communicate their findings in many ways in order to ensure a high-impact project.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: NoE | Phase: Fission-2008-2.1.1 | Award Amount: 39.59M | Year: 2009

Most of the actors involved in severe accident research in Europe, plus Canada, Korea and the United States (41 partners), will network in SARNET2 (Severe Accident Research NETwork of Excellence - Phase 2) their capacities of research in order to resolve important pending issues on postulated severe accidents of existing and future Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). The project has been defined in order to optimise the use of the available means and to constitute a sustainable consortium in which common research programmes and a common computer tool to predict NPP behaviour during a postulated severe accident (ASTEC integral code) are developed. With this aim, the SARNET2 partners contribute to a Joint Programme of Activities, which consists of: - Maintaining and improving an advanced communication tool (developed during SARNET Phase 1) for accessing all project information, fostering exchange of information, and managing documents; - Harmonizing and re-orienting the research programmes, and defining new ones; - Performing experimental programmes on high priority issues, defined during SARNET Phase 1; - Analyzing experimental results in order to elaborate a common understanding of relevant phenomena; - Developing the ASTEC code (including its applicability to all types of European NPPs), which capitalizes in terms of physical models the knowledge produced within SARNET2; - Developing Scientific Databases, in which all the results of research programmes are stored in a common format (DATANET); - Developing education courses on severe accidents for students and researchers, and training courses for specialists; - Promoting personnel mobility amongst various European organizations; - Organizing yearly a large international conference on Severe Accident research (ERMSAR). After the first phase (2004-2008), and the four-year proposed second phase, co-funded by the EC, the network will evolve toward self-sustainability: a legal entity will be created.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: EeB.NMP.2013-5 | Award Amount: 11.03M | Year: 2013

STREAMER is an industry-driven collaborative research project on Energy-efficient Buildings (EeB) with cases of mixed-use healthcare districts. Such districts are the best real examples of neighbourhood with integrated energy system consisting of mixed building types (i.e. hospitals and clinics; offices and retails; laboratories and educational buildings; temporary care homes, rehabilitation and sport facilities). The energy use of 1 healthcare district could exceed that of 20,000 dwellings. In almost every European city there is at least one healthcare district making a huge impact on the whole citys energy performance. STREAMER aims at 50% reduction of the energy use and carbon emission of new and retrofitted buildings in healthcare districts. Healthcare-related buildings are among the top EU priorities since they play a key role for a sustainable community, but their energy use and carbon emission are among the highest of all building types. Take for instance a typical hospital building that is part of the healthcare district. It uses 2.5 times more energy than an office. In the EU, there are some 15,000 hospitals producing 250 million tonnes of carbon per annum. The EeB design complexity is extremely high; and therefore, both holistic and systemic approaches are crucial. STREAMER will resolve this by optimising Semantics-driven Design methodologies with interoperable tools for Geo and Building Information Modelling (Semantic BIM and GIS) to validate the energy performance during the design stage. STREAMER will enable designers, contractors, clients and end-users to integrate EeB innovations for: 1) building envelope and space layout; 2) medical, MEP and HVAC systems; and 3) building and neighbourhood energy grids. STREAMER results will be validated in the 4 real projects involving the Implementers Communities. The outcome will be used to extend the standardisation in EeB design and operation, open BIMGIS (IFCCityGML), and Integrated Project Delivery (IPD).


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SiS.2013.1.1.1-6 | Award Amount: 1.22M | Year: 2013

The Engage2020 project will make an overview of potential praxis in Horizon2020 for societal engagement in research and innovation and related activities, with the aim of increasing the use of such praxis. The overview will cover praxis of existing policies and structures, of methods, approaches, tools and instruments, of promising new or adapted policies/methods, and of praxis which specifically is suited for engaging society in R&I activities related to the six Grand Challenges. Engage2020 will set up a frame, which can embrace all potential approaches to engagement by treating all four levels of complexity in research and innovation activities a) research policy formation, b) programme development, c) research project definition, and d) engagement in the concrete research or innovation activity. For each of these complexity levels praxis will be structured according to which types of participants the specific praxis can include (CSOs, citizens, affected, consumers, employees, users, others). Because of the time frame for Horizon2020 the project is constructed to be able to commence work in autumn 2013 and deliver main results already in autumn 2014, so that the results are ready for inclusion in the 2015 calls of Horizon2020. After autumn 2014 the results will be specified/adapted for use on specific Grand Challenges and dissemination towards large user groups will begin, so that proposers to the 2014 calls may be able to use the outcomes directly in their proposals. The project includes a very strong dissemination and communication strategy in order to ensure proper uptake of the results by the broad range of users group. The Engage2020 consortium consists of experts and practitioners on participation in STI related issues at all levels of engagement, and includes expertise on the MASIS reports.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: ENERGY.2013.9.2.1 | Award Amount: 2.22M | Year: 2014

As todays energy policy decisions are not only very complex, but also fundamentally political decisions, the necessity to build them on sound, unbiased and up-to-date information/knowledge makes energy policy analysis and advice from a broad array of non-commercial actors key to effective policy formulation. Taking this into account, it is the aim of this project to establish a multidisciplinary and independent energy think tank consisting of experts from the energy sector, top researchers, engineers, leading trade, economic, environmental, and legal experts who are experienced in delivering high quality policy advice and impact assessments. The think tank will provide policy makers at the European level with objective and unbiased policy advice as well as insights on policy options, including an assessment of their potential impact. Moreover, the think tank will bring to the attention of political decision-makers new trends in technology as well as the objectives and activities of important stakeholders that shape energy policy-making in Europe. In order to assess policy options concerning the four dimensions of sustainability (environmental, economic, social, institutional), the project will use an integrated assessment framework, backed by high-quality data resources available to the project consortium. To complement this, the project will establish innovative methods of stakeholder engagement and trend identification through the establishment of an Energy Observatory. Moreover, with transparency being of significant value, INSIGHT_E will make its models, assumptions, and scenarios available through a Scenario Information System. Implementing a flexible and at the same time profound information tool will bring about significant improvements to the policy making process and hence secure a climate-friendly energy policy.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: SiS-2010-1.0.1 | Award Amount: 5.14M | Year: 2011

The PACITA Mobilisation and Mutual Learning Action Plan will distribute capacity and enhance the institutional foundation for knowledge-based policy-making on issues involving science, technology and innovation, mainly based upon the practices in Parliamentary Technology Assessment (PTA). PTA supports the processes of democratic policy-making on issues involving science, technology and innovation, by providing comprehensive insight into knowledge on opportunities and consequences, by facilitating democratic processes of debate and clarification, and by formulating policy options. PACITA will a) document these practices, b) describe schemes for using them nationally and at European level, c) establish a set of training schemes for users and practitioners, d) establish a Web Portal to European TA expertise e) create a debate on such practices in countries, which do not have them formally established, f) involve experts, societal actors and politicians in European debates on these practices, g) provide three large example-projects on expert-based praxis, stakeholder involvement and citizen consultation, h) support this with a strong dissemination strategy towards the policy-makers, the scientific community, media and countries, which can favor from the mobilization and mutual learning created by the Action Plan, and i) have an independent evaluator monitor the progress and results. The consortium has 15 partners from: National/regional parliamentary offices for science and technology; Science academies; Research institutions; Universities; Civil Society Organisations. The Coordinator is a PTA institution, highly experienced in project managing, which has taken part in more than 10 EU projects including an ERA-Net, and has coordinated two FP projects and a global citizen consultation project involving 55 partners in 38 countries.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: TPT.2012.2-2. | Award Amount: 2.35M | Year: 2012

The MOWE-IT project shall assess factors that prerequisite cross-modal transferability between the air and surface-based European transport systems in order to protect the passengers, shippers, European institutions and citizens against travel delays, cancellations and/or stoppages in freight transfer caused by extreme weather and/or other natural disasters. The on-going WEATHER and EWENT- projects have established how the different extreme weather events harm the safety and security of passengers and drivers, reduce the inter-urban and regional accessibility, disrupt logistics chains, delay cargo delivery, inflate supply costs for operators and consignees, and immobilise public infrastructure. However, there is still a need to find out how the air and surface transport systems may improve operational resilience by substituting each others services when suffering from traffic curtailment, infrastructure shutdowns, and/or capacity shortages caused by emergencies. Therefore, the MOWE-IT project shall assess how the companies in passenger and freight transport comply with the European users rights protection legislation shielding theses parties against travel delays, cancellations and/or disruptions, and in case of gaps in conformity, propose new guidelines for cross-modal alignment of decision-making, capacity planning and reserve-building models at transport service and infrastructure providers in addition to incentive structures and policy instruments for more effective legislation enforcement. Such an assessment will also draw from the possibilities to use weather and other information technologies to aide the transport system and operators. The project will have 9 work packages, which focus on management and dissemination, transport-mode specific issues and cross-modal considerations and finally to short-term and long-term solutions and policy options for reducing the negative impacts of extreme weather and natural disasters.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2010-ITN | Award Amount: 3.90M | Year: 2011

The network of PURESAFE Preventing hUman intervention for incrREased SAfety in inFrastructures Emitting ionizing radiation, aims at enhancing career development and training of 15 Early-Stage Researchers in the field of systems engineering. The program trains young researchers from multidisciplinary fields, such as mechanical engineering, software engineering and robotics for the purpose of cost-efficient life-cycle management of facilities generating ionizing radiation. The network is lead by Tampere University of Technology, world-leading training organisation in the engineering of complex systems and remote handling of scientific infrastructures. The program follows the priorities defined in the European Strategy Forum for Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) report where GSI/FAIR is listed of great scientific importance, and the European Strategy for Particle Physics of the CERN Council, where the upgrade of Large Hadron Collider (sLHC) have been defined as a priority to keep the existing high energy physics facilities and expertise at the world-class level for decades to come. The participants of the PURESAFE consortium are universities, international research organisations and industrial partners. Together they provide a stimulating environment for a broad high-quality education for young scientists. In addition to the training objectives, the project will enhance the interaction between European stakeholders to significantly increase the RTD efficiency of public and private organizations in the life-cycle management and safe operation of the infrastructures. The network answers to the increasing need of skilled and well trained researchers possessing a holistic system understanding of scientific and energy generation facilities. The trained researchers receive excellent career prospects on demanding RTD of scientific facilities, knowledge intensive products and services including RTD and decommissioning of nuclear power plants in growing markets.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: ENV.2011.4.1.3-1 | Award Amount: 9.16M | Year: 2011

GEOWOW (GEOSS Interoperability for Weather, Ocean and Water) is the responds to call ENV.2011.4.1.3-1 Inter-operable integration of shared Earth Observations in the Global Context. The objectives of GEOWOW are to: Propose and validate a distributed architectural model federating Earth observation and other Earth Science data holdings, including specific communities infrastructures, and put this model forward as the European contribution to the GEOSS Common Infrastructure (GCI) and its evolution toward a wider GEOSS architecture; Develop innovative methods for harmonized access and use of heterogeneous data, services, and models to foster the sharing of knowledge among multiple disciplines, and the more integrated assessment and understanding necessary to advance global sustainability research; Contribute to the GCI interoperability, standardisation and operability via developments and evolution; Develop and support services for data dissemination, access, use (and processing) for the selected SBAs, contributing to the development of assessment tools and monitoring methods for sustainable development; Establish, harmonise and promote data sharing and usage procedures consistent with the GEOSS Data Sharing Implementation Guidelines, and contribute to the development of the GEOSS Data CORE. Provide harmonized and fast data access for meteorological hazards/extreme events, e.g., floods, including pre-processing services aimed at making the data of immediate use; Deploy an e-infrastructure giving access to in-situ and satellite data as needed by hydrological application and Run-off process; Support and enhance the access to in-situ and satellite ocean observations, to information on threats to ocean ecosystems, and to key ocean forecasts and projections - for research and assessment. A particular focus will be on supporting inter-disciplinary interoperability and on the use of semantics for enhanced discovery of data in the selected SBAs domains.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2013-ITN | Award Amount: 3.65M | Year: 2013

Global population stands at 7 billion and is predicted to reach 9 billion by 2050. It is anticipated that food production will need to increase by at least 50% to meet the demand arising from this increase in population. This will require a sustained improvement in crop yield. The nature of this challenge is exacerbated by the likely impact of climate change. These factors combine to make Food Security one the key challenges for the 21st century. To deliver improvement and sustainability in crop production it will be necessary to harness a broad spectrum approaches. Crop improvement will be crucial and a major part in the delivery of this will be based on classical breeding. This harnesses the genetic variation that is generated by homologous recombination during meiosis. Meiotic recombination creates new combinations of alleles that confer new phenotypes that can be tested for enhanced performance. It is also crucial in mapping genetic traits and in the introgression of new traits from sources such as wild-crop varieties. Despite the central role played by meiosis in crop production we are remarkably ignorant as to how the process is controlled in these species. For example, it is not known why recombination in cereals and forage grasses is skewed towards the ends of the chromosomes such that an estimated 30-50% of genes rarely, if ever, recombine thereby limiting the genetic variation that is available to plant breeders. Moreover, as many crop species are polyploid a further level of complexity is added to the meiotic process. Over the past 15 years studies in Arabidopsis, many conducted in the laboratories in the COMREC consortium, have provided both insights into the control of meiosis in plants and generated the tools to analyze this process in crop species. It is now timely, to translate this knowledge, training a new generation of young scientists who will gain the expertise to understand and develop strategies to modify recombination in crops.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: GC-SST.2010.7-9.;GC.NMP.2010-1 | Award Amount: 5.43M | Year: 2011

Supercapacitors are essential in electric vehicles for supplying power during acceleration and recovering braking energy. High power and sufficient energy density (per kilo) are required for both an effective power system but also to reduce weight. There are several issues to achieve a high performance/low weight power system that need to be addressed by various groups of scientists and engineers in an integrated framework. In this proposal, we have assembled a multidisciplinary Consortium of leading researchers, organisations, highly experienced industrialists, and highly active SMEs to tackle the problems. As a result, we are aiming at developing supercapacitors of both high power and high energy density at affordable levels by the automotive industry, and of higher sustainability than many current electrochemical storage devices. These targets will be achieved by integrating several novel stages: (a) computer simulations to optimise the power system and the design of the supercapacitor bank for different supercapacitor models, representing the different supercapacitor cells to be developed and tested in this project; (b) we shall use carbon-based electrodes to reduce the amount of rare and expensive metals; (c) we shall use electrolytes of high operating voltage to increase both power and energy density, although the problem is that they have large ions that reduce the effective surface area of porous electrodes due to low diffusivity; (d) in this case, innovative electrode structures will be developed based on combinations of high surface area/large pore activated carbon electrodes and low resistance carbon fibrous materials or carbon nanotubes; graphene will also be investigated.(e) novel methodologies will be developed to integrate the innovative electrode materials in the fabrication process for manufacturing large supercapacitors. These will be tested both at small-scale, and in realistic electric car test rig tests, and be cost and life-cycle-assessed.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: NMP-2007-1.1-1 | Award Amount: 2.86M | Year: 2008

The demand for a next-generation of technologies for DNA sequencing that will provide fast and affordable DNA decoding is pressing. Present bio-chemical schemes are time consuming and expensive, thus cheap and fast alternatives for DNA reading are of great need. This is now internationally recognized. For example, the US NIH recently awarded 40M$ in grants overpiloting projects to spur development of these innovative technologies. The goal of this project is to investigate a novel single-molecule DNA se-quencing nanotechnology protocol (gene sequencer) that has potential to sequence a molecule of genomic dimensions in hours without expensive and fault sensitive DNA copying steps and chemical reactions. The gene sequencer is based on the electrical characterization of individual nucleo-bases, while DNA passes through a nanopore with integrated nanotube side-electrodes. The research proposed here will provide a unique combina-tion of state of the art capabilities for cutting and usage of single wall carbon nanotubes as electrodes forming a lithographically fabricated nanogap with single-nanometer precision. In addition, the synergy of consortium resources for electrical characterization and leading theoretical skills for nanotransport will provide new solutions and information for an answer on the proof-of-principle question: is it possible to detect different types of DNA bases by their electrical properties? The overall objective of our collaborative research is to develop cheap and high-speed DNA sequencing technology. This will be achieved trough the following steps: 1. Fabrication of single wall carbon nanotube junction-gate for molecular recognition; 2. Exploring the interaction and conduction mechanisms between DNA and nanotube-electrode and DNA-nanopore; 3. Electrical characterization of the DNA nucleobases; 4. Development of model nano-electronic device for single-base DNA electrical characterization and decoding.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: SST.2011.1.1-3. | Award Amount: 17.02M | Year: 2012

HERCULES was conceived in 2002 as a long-term R&D Programme, to develop new technologies for marine engines. It is the outcome of a joint vision by the two major European engine manufacturer Groups MAN & WARTSILA, which together hold 90% of the worlds marine engine market. The present proposed HERCULES-C project is the Phase III of the HERCULES Programme. In order to take marine engine technology a step further towards improved sustainability in energy production and total energy economy, an extensive integration of the multitude of the new technologies developed in Phases I and II is required. HERCULES-C addresses this challenge by adopting a combinatory approach for engine thermal processes optimization, system integration, as well as engine reliability and lifetime. The first Objective of HERCULES-C is to achieve further substantial reductions in fuel consumption, while optimizing power production and usage. This will be achieved through advanced engine developments in combustion and fuel injection, as well as through the optimization of ship energy management and engine technologies supporting transport mission management. The second Objective of HERCULES-C is to achieve near-zero emissions by integrating the various technologies developed in the previous research Projects, in Phases I and II. The third Objective is to maintain the technical performance of engines throughout their operational lifetime. This requires advanced materials and tribology developments to improve efficiency and reliability, as well as sensors, monitoring and measurement technologies to improve the controllability and availability of marine power plants. The project HERCULES-C structure of RTD work comprises 47 Subprojects, grouped into 10 Work Packages and 5 Work Package Groups, spanning the complete spectrum of marine diesel engine technology. The HERCULES-C Project has duration of 36 months, a Consortium with 22 participants. and a total budget of EUR 17 million.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: MG-9.3-2014 | Award Amount: 1.67M | Year: 2014

BENEFIT takes an innovative approach by analysing funding schemes within an inter-related system. Funding schemes are successful (or not) depending on the Business Model that generates them. The performance of the Business Model is affected by the implementation context and the transport mode. It is matched successfully (or not) by a financing scheme. Relations between actors are described by a governance model (contracting arrangements). These are key elements in Transport Infrastructure Provision, Operation and Maintenance. Success is a measure of the appropriate matching of elements. Within BENEFIT funding and financing schemes are analysed in this respect. Describing these key elements through their characteristics and attributes and clustering each of them is the basis of, first, developing a generic framework. This allows for the transferability of findings with respect to lessons learned, limitations and the impact of the financial and economic crisis. Identifying best matches in their inter-relations and where to intervene, leads to move from a generic framework to a powerful decision policy tool, which can assess funding schemes for investments in modern infrastructure with smart pricing and funding in view of 2050 challenges and needs. The BENEFIT partnership takes stock of over twenty years of EC funded, national and international research. It receives direct input (evidence study cases) from the OMEGA Centre and COST Action TU1001. It is set-up to share and exchange knowledge and debate. Its high level international advisory group and its consultation group demonstrate its ability to reach out to all stakeholders to share its innovative approach. Namely: 1)Transport infrastructure business models and their project rating by which further value propositions may be included to lead to funding schemes with enhanced creditworthiness enabling viable financing 2)Transferability 3)Open-access case study database serving both practitioners and researchers


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: FoF.NMP.2012-5 | Award Amount: 3.63M | Year: 2012

Todays fabrication methods for micro devices can require expensive tooling and long turnaround times, making empirical, performance-based modifications to the design expensive and time consuming. These methods also are limited in their flexibility, so that complex devices, that incorporate on-board valves, separation media, membranes, and recirculating pumps, cannot be developed and adapted without considerable expense in molds and assembly fixtures. This creates a barrier to the development of medium to large series of complex and higher functionality devices, where the cost-benefit ratio of incorporating functionality is too risky for the typical laboratory, diagnostic or medical device developer. To bridge the gap between a high volume production with specialized equipment and a - until today - not efficient production of medium series, SMEs need to find other, more flexible and scalable approaches to produce microsystems in high volumes. The solution proposed by SMARTLAM builds on a modular, flexible, scalable 3D-Integration scenario (3D-I), where novel polymer film materials will be combined with state of the art, scalable 3D printing, structuring and welding technologies. These technologies will be integrated in one production cell allowing for the production of complete 3D Microsystems. A 3D-Integration modeling environment will be set up to support users of the SMARTLAM environment by the design of 3D-I hardware compatible microsystems. Besides the technological challenges SMARTLAM will demonstrate a complete business case. A SME company acting as OEM service provider will be responsible for the real world benchmarking and testing of the SMARTLAM production platform concept. To assess and demonstrate the potential of SMARTLAM, two SME demonstrator partners will take over the role of potential customers, both providing input as well as assessing the 3-DI approach regarding costs, technological capabilities and adaptiveness.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: NMP-FP7-2010-4-0-8 | Award Amount: 1.76M | Year: 2011

The aim of MANUNET II is to cooperate among regions and countries around Europe with fruitful calls in the field of Manufacturing, to ensure that MANUNET II suits perfectly in ERA and, finally, to propose a sustainable cooperation structure for a very long term frame. In order to enhance this impact, the extension that will cover MANUNET II is going to be longer than MANUNET CA, having included more countries. The specific objectives of MANUNET II are: To constitute a Consortium with a longer extension around Europe. To improve cooperation and coordination among MANUNET II and national and regional programmes. To improve cooperation and coordination among MANUNET II and the other initiatives at European level, such as the NMP calls, The Factory of the Future and the other manufacturing related ERA-NETs (MATERA, MNT-ERA.Net II), in this last case opening the path for manufacturing activities integration. To propose effective solutions for an integrated and sustainable European manufacturing programme based on national and regional funds and able to effectively complement the other continental RTD support tools. To carry out 6 new calls for proposals with a high cooperation among regions/countries, more funding by countries/regions, higher R&D investment mobilized, appropriate dates and effective dissemination.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: Fission-2012-2.3.1 | Award Amount: 10.09M | Year: 2012

The Strategic Research Agenda of the EU Sustainable Nuclear Energy Technical platform requires new large infrastructures for its successful deployment. MYRRHA has been identified as a long term supporting research facility for all ESNII systems and as such put in the high-priority list of ESFRI. The goal of MAXSIMA is to contribute to the safety in MYRRHA assessment. MAXSIMA has five technical work-packages. The first contains safety analyses to support licensing of MYRRHA. Design-based, design extended and severe accident events will be studied with a focus on transients potentially leading to fuel pin failures. Fuel assembly blockage and control system failure are the least unlikely events leading to core damage. For code validation a thermal-hydraulic study of different blockage scenarios of the fuel bundle and tests of the hydrodynamic behaviour of a new buoyancy driven control/safety system are planned. Both are supported by numerical simulations. Safety of the Steam Generator is treated by looking at consequences and damage propagation of a SG Tube Rupture event (SGTR) and by characterising leak rates and bubble sizes from typical cracks in a SGTR. Additionally a leak detection system and the drag on bubbles travelling through liquid LBE are studied. MOX fuel segment qualification with transient irradiations is a big step in licensing. MAXIMA include validation experiments for safety computer codes involving core damage scenarios with high temperature MOX-LBE interactions. Fuel-coolant-clad chemistry is studied up to 1700C and a core melt experiment in a reactor is prepared to assess the interaction of LBE with molten fuel. Following the Fukushima accident, effort is put on development of enhanced passive safety systems for decay heat removal and on confinement analyses for HLM systems. A separate work package is dedicated to education and training. Beside workshops, lecture series and training sessions, virtual-safety simulator software will be developed.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA | Phase: Fission-2013-2.3.1 | Award Amount: 8.65M | Year: 2013

The European Energy Research Alliance, set-up under the European Strategic Energy Technology Plan, has launched an initiative for a Joint Programme on Nuclear Materials (JPNM). The JPNM aims at establishing key priorities in the area of advanced nuclear materials, identifying funding opportunities and harmonizing this scientific & technical domain at the European level by maximizing complementarities and synergies with the major actors of the field. The JPNM partners propose, through MatISSE, a combination of Collaborative Projects and Coordination and Support Actions to face the challenge of implementing a pan-European integrated research programme with common research activities establishing, at the same time, appropriate strategy and governance structure. Focusing on cross-cutting activities related to materials used in fuel and structural elements of safe and sustainable advanced nuclear systems, the project aims at covering the key priorities identified in the JPNM: pre-normative research in support of ESNII systems, Oxide Dispersed Strengthened steels, refractory composites for the high temperature applications, development of predictive capacities. MatISSE will foster the link between the respective national research programmes through networking and integrating activities on material innovations for advanced nuclear systems, sharing partners best practices and setting-up efficient communication tools. It is expected that, through MatISSE, a real boost toward Joint Programming among the Member States, the European Commission and the main European research actors, will be achieved.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA | Phase: Fission-2013-2.2.1 | Award Amount: 10.36M | Year: 2013

Preparing ESNII for HORIZON 2020 The aim of this cross-cutting project is to develop a broad strategic approach to advanced fission systems in Europe in support of the European Sustainable Industrial Initiative (ESNII) within the SET-Plan. The project aims to prepare ESNII structuration and deployment strategy, to ensure efficient European coordinated research on Reactor Safety for the next generation of nuclear installations, linked with SNETP SRA priorities. The ESNII\ project aims to define strategic orientations for the Horizon 2020 period, with a vision to 2050. To achieve the objectives of ESNII, the project will coordinate and support the preparatory phase of legal, administrative, financial and governance structuration, and ensure the review of the different advanced reactor solutions. The project will involve private and public stakeholders, including industry, research and academic communities, with opened door to international collaboration, involving TSO.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENERGY.2013.7.3.3 | Award Amount: 4.42M | Year: 2013

SIRBATT (Stable Interfaces for Rechargeable Batteries) is a multisite collaborative project consisting of 12 full partners from the European Area (6 Universities, 1 Research Institute and 5 industrial partners). Collaboration with leading battery research groups in the USA and Japan is also considered. The diversity of the research organisations in the partnership has been chosen to provide a wide range of complementary expertise in areas relating to the study of battery electrode interfaces, covering both experimental and theoretical aspects of this important contemporary area. SIRBATT will develop microsensors to monitor internal temperature and pressure of lithium cells in order to maintain optimum operating conditions to allow long-life times that can be scaled for use in grid scale batteries. The cells will comprise of candidate electrode materials in which the complex interfacial region and surface layers have been well characterised and understood via utilisation of a suit of advanced in situ measurement techniques complemented by application of transformative modelling methods. The knowledge from these studies will be used to develop candidate electrode materials with an optimised cycle life and stability, for example by the use of novel stable lithium salts and the inclusion of stable film forming additives into the electrolyte. The scientific aim of SIRBATT is the radical improvement in the fundamental understanding of the structure and reactions occurring at lithium battery electrode/electrolyte interfaces which it will seek to achieve through an innovative programme of collaborative research and development.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: Fission-2013-1.1.2 | Award Amount: 14.73M | Year: 2013

The CAST project (CArbon-14 Source Term) aims to develop understanding of the generation and release of 14C from radioactive waste materials under conditions relevant to waste packaging and disposal to underground geological disposal facilities. The project will focus on releases from irradiated metals (steels, Zircaloys) and from ion-exchange materials as dissolved and gaseous species. A study to consider the current state of the art knowledge with regards to 14C release from irradiated graphite will also be undertaken, to further our knowledge from existing projects in this area i.e. CARBOWASTE. The scientific understanding obtained from these studies will then be considered in terms of national disposal programmes and impact on safety assessments. The knowledge gained from the whole of CAST will be disseminated within the project partners and to wider stakeholders and organisation, with a specific objective on education and training.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: Fusion-2007-7.1 | Award Amount: 2.48M | Year: 2008

This aim of the FUSENET project is the establishment of a European Fusion Education Network (FUSENET) for education in fusion science and technology, as part of a comprehensive package of coordination actions, in order to increase, enhance, and broaden fusion training and education activities in Europe. The project consists of eleven focused work packages, with a total proposed budget of 2,000,000 . The project brings together a broad representation of the European fusion community with 36 participants from 18 countries, of which 22 Universities and 14 Euratom Associations. The project consists of four groups of coordination actions: the establishment and running of the FUSENET network; development of individual learning opportunities and common educational goals; development of educational materials and hands-on experiments; and funding of joint educational activities. The FUSENET project will cover all education levels, from secondary school through Bachelor and Master level, to PhD. The actions of FUSENET build upon the already strongly coordinated European Fusion Research programme, coor-dinated under the European Fusion Development Agreement EFDA. The network will be given a permanent identity by the establishment of the FUSENET Association, which will provide a platform for the coordination of existing actions, the initiation, development and implementation of new EU-wide actions, and for the exchange and dissemination of fusion education information. The envisioned concrete end result of the FUSENET project is an integrated fusion education system in Europe, with strong links between fusion institutes and higher education institutes. Through a central website, the pro-gramme will offer a transparent structure of coherent educational actions, accessible and inviting, in which stu-dents and teachers can easily find their way to a variety of attractive ways to participate in the fusion research programme.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: SiS.2012.1.2-1 | Award Amount: 4.59M | Year: 2013

Synthetic biology (SynBio) offers huge potential for applications in energy, health and the environment. It also brings with it various challenges such as regulatory issues of biosafety, biosecurity and intellectual property rights, as well as potential environmental and socio-economic risks in developing countries. As yet, however, there is scant public knowledge about the technology. It is thus essential to establish an open dialogue between stakeholders concerning SynBios potential benefits and risks and to explore possibilities for its collaborative shaping on the basis of public participation. SYN-ENERGY will organise a wide range of mobilisation and mutual learning processes relating to these challenges. Besides a number of well-established European and international networks, the consortium encompasses and can mobilise a wide variety of stakeholders from science, industry, civil society, policy, education, art and other areas. Learning processes will contribute to a better understanding of SynBio research and innovation and to enhanced public engagement, while at the same time stimulating reflection on novel approaches to an inclusive governance framework that is capable of fostering responsible research and innovation. The processes will involve citizens and specific publics through well-established and innovative means of engagement, and will support the convergence of stakeholders and perspectives. Activities will be structured by four platforms, highlighting SynBios future, public, cultural and research & innovation perspectives. The iterative mutual learning process within SYN-ENERGY will be open to change in order to accommodate the dynamics of an emergent field. By dint of its approach, design and consortium, SYN-ENERGY will be a Science in Society activity with significant impact, raising public awareness of SynBio and yielding benefits for involved stakeholders, public discourse and European policy making in an international context.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENV.2013.6.1-2 | Award Amount: 11.32M | Year: 2013

StratoClim will produce more reliable projections of climate change and stratospheric ozone by a better understanding and improved representation of key processes in the Upper Troposphere and Stratosphere (UTS). This will be achieved by an integrated approach bridging observations from dedicated field activities, process modelling on all scales, and global modelling with a suite of chemistry climate models (CCMs) and Earth system models (ESMs). At present, complex interactions and feedbacks are inadequately represented in global models with respect to natural and anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, aerosol precursors and other important trace gases, the atmospheric dynamics affecting transport into and through the UTS, and chemical and microphysical processes governing the chemistry and the radiative properties of the UTS. StratoClim will (a) improve the understanding of the microphysical, chemical and dynamical processes that determine the composition of the UTS, such as the formation, loss and redistribution of aerosol, ozone and water vapour, and how these processes will be affected by climate change; (b) implement these processes and fully include the interactive feedback from UTS ozone and aerosol on surface climate in CCMs and ESMs. Through StratoClim new measurements will be obtained in key regions: (1) in a tropical campaign with a high altitude research aircraft carrying an innovative and comprehensive payload, (2) by a new tropical station for unprecedented ground and sonde measurements, and (3) through newly developed satellite data products. The improved climate models will be used to make more robust and accurate predictions of surface climate and stratospheric ozone, both with a view to the protection of life on Earth. Socioeconomic implications will be assessed and policy relevant information will be communicated to policy makers and the public through a dedicated office for communication, stakeholder contact and international co-operation.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2010-1.1.31 | Award Amount: 8.95M | Year: 2011

Nanoscale objects interact with living organisms in a fundamentally new manner, ensuring that a fruitful marriage of nanotechnology and biology will long outlast short term imperatives. Therefore, investment in an infrastructure to drive scientific knowledge of the highest quality will have both immediate benefits of supporting the safety assessment of legacy nanomaterials, as well as pointing towards future (safe) applications with the lasting benefits to society. There are immediate priorities, for few doubt that serious damage to confidence in nanotechnology, unless averted, could result in missed opportunities to benefit society for a generation, or more. QNano will materially affect the outcome, at this pivotal moment of nanotechnology implementation. The overall vision of QNano is the creation of a neutral scientific & technical space in which all stakeholder groups can engage, develop, and share scientific best practice in the field. Initially it will harness resources from across Europe and develop efficient, transparent and effective processes. Thereby it will enable provision of services to its Users, and the broader community, all in the context of a best-practice ethos. This will encourage evidence-based dialogue to prosper between all stakeholders. However, QNano will also pro-actively seek to drive, develop and promote the highest quality research and practices via its JRA, NA and TA functions, with a global perspective and mode of implementation. QNano will also look to the future, beyond the current issues, and promote the growth and development of the science of nanoscale interactions with living organisms. By working with new and emerging scientific research communities from medicine, biology, energy, materials and others, it will seek to forge new directions leading to new (safe, responsible, economically viable) technologies for the benefit of European society.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: EeB-04-2014 | Award Amount: 499.12K | Year: 2015

Energy consumption over the whole Building Life Cycle (BLC) is difficult to monitor and predict due to the complexity of the processes involved. Building Information Modelling (BIM) is a concept which has arisen to address the management and interoperability of the data exchanged between different computer aided tools employed at different stages the BLC, including design, construction, commissioning, operation, refurbishment and demolition. BIM therefore plays a key role in all aspects of energy management across the BLC. The W3C Data Activity makes use of Linked Data, which is a structured form of data storage, distributed across the web, and which is supported by tools to easily query that data. By integrating BIM into the wider web of data, building information can be queried alongside all other Linked Open Data (LOD) sources, which include data on materials and systems (e.g. sensor and state of building devices data) which make up the building, profiles of occupants, and information about weather patterns and regional and global energy prices. Together this information can make for more meaningful analysis of energy consumption and its relation to the localised costs of materials, systems and personnel in existing and future buildings. Therefore, by using BIM and LOD technologies EeB projects will be better able to exploit their results beyond their own particular stage in the BLC and as a result benefit from greater overall impact. The SWIMing project will bring together existing EeB projects under clusters categorised by which stages of the BLC the project is applied and energy savings are achieved and the particular domains within those stages to facilitate knowledge sharing and increase the impact of project results. It will support making the project processes and the data produced by these processes publishable as linked data on the web and through this structured format (BIM-LOD), make data more accessible and less fragmented across the BLC.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: ENV.2011.1.1.2-1 | Award Amount: 10.93M | Year: 2011

CLAIRE investigates the ways in which climate change alters the threat of air pollution on European land ecosystems including soils. Based on field observations, experimental data and models, it establishes new flux, concentration and dose-response relationships, as a basis to inform future European policies. Starting with biosphere-atmosphere exchange measurements, CLAIRE quantifies how global warming and altered precipitation will affect emissions of key European primary pollutants (NOx, NH3, VOCs), including interactions with increasing aerosol and hemispheric O3 background concentrations, modifying atmospheric transport and deposition. An ensemble of chemistry transport models will be applied to assess uncertainty in response to harmonized scenarios for climate, emissions and land-use, while high resolution studies will investigate how climate change alters local patterns of pollutant exposure and threshold exceedance. A network of European experiments for contrasting ecosystems and climates, combined with meta-analysis of unpublished datasets, will quantify how climate change alters ecosystem vulnerability to tropospheric O3 and N deposition, including interaction with increased CO2. Combined with special topics on interactions with N form (wet/dry, NHx/NOy), aerosol-exacerbated drought stress and BVOC self-protection of O3 effects, novel threshold and dose-response approaches will be developed. These will be combined with regional atmospheric and biogeochemical models to estimate interactions and feedbacks on plant/soil carbon stocks, greenhouse gas balance and plant species change. The new risk assessment chain to be developed will be applied at the European scale, quantifying how projected climate change will alter damage estimates. Combined with economic valuation of ecosystem services, improved integrated assessment modelling will allow a cost-benefit analysis to inform future mitigation and adaptation strategies on air pollution and climate change.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: Fission-2009-7.0.4 | Award Amount: 1.86M | Year: 2010

An innovative molten salt reactor concept, the MSFR (Molten Salt Fast Reactor) is developed by CNRS (France) since 2004. Based on the particularity of using a liquid fuel, this concept is derived from the American molten salt reactors (included the demonstrator MSRE) developed in the 1960s. The major drawbacks of these designs were (1) a short lifetime of the graphite blocks, (2) a reactor fuelled with 233U, not a natural fissile isotope, (3) a salt constituted of a high chemical toxic element: BeF2, and (4) a fuel reprocessing flux of 4000 liters per day required reaching a high breeding gain. However, this concept is retained by the Generation IV initiative, taking advantages of using a liquid fuel which allows more manageable on-line core control and reprocessing, fuel cycle flexibility (U or Th) and minimization of radiotoxic nuclear wastes. In MSFR, MSR concept has been revisited by removing graphite and BeF2. The neutron spectrum is fast and the reprocessing rate strongly reduced down to 40 liters per day to get a positive breeding gain. The reactor is started with 233U or with a Pu and minor actinides (MA) mixture from PWR spent fuel. The MA consumption with burn-up demonstrates the burner capability of MSFR. The objective of this project is to propose a design of MSFR in 2012 given the best system configuration issued from physical, chemical and material studies, for the reactor core, the reprocessing unit and the wastes conditioning. By this way, demonstration that MSFR can satisfy the goals of Gen IV, in terms of sustainability (Th breeder), non proliferation (integrated fuel cycle, multi-recycling of actinides), resources (close U/Th fuel cycle, no uranium enrichment), safety (no reactivity reserve, strongly negative feedback coefficient) and waste management (actinide burner) will be done


The xDELIA project is designed to investigate a number of contexts where technology enhanced learning is expected to improve the quality of financial decision making. \nxDelia pursues two major and closely linked objectives. The first is to provide a number of discrete learning interventions, which can be delivered either through a web-based trading platform or in a day-trading facility, to enhance the quality of financial decision-making by private investors trading on their own account. Within that overall objective, the principal goal is to address issues of emotional regulation in financial decision making. \nIn common with many other areas where technology has been used to assist learning, financial training has largely focused on imparting propositional knowledge and increasing peoples intellectual understanding. However, our work to date has shown that despite investors having considerable appropriate knowledge, their actions can still be ruled by their attitudes, habits, or emotional states. Emotions not only mediate rapid expert situation recognition and the application of expert intuition, but they also give rise to important persistent biases in decision-making through framing effects and the disposition effect in particular. \nGame based technologies are becoming proven as a method of learning, particularly as they can place people in virtual situations. In the context of financial decision making, xDelia will use serious games to analyse and train behavioural patterns and to support the non-formal and informal learning process. The project will produce learning interventions which employ physiological sensors alongside serious games. Wearable sensor equipment will help build a picture of a persons emotional state. Data collected via sensors in both game play and during actual trading will be analysed alongside real time event logging, diaries and past trading data. \nThe validity and effectiveness of the interventions will be tested and further developed through a series of trials, including live testing with private investors. Because of the problems of transfer of skills learned into actual practice and the need to support the development of expertise over extended periods, learning interventions developed by the project cannot rely solely on learning games. We have therefore developed an approach combining games, sensor feedback, and didactic materials with a structured, diary based approach to reflection on practice in order to support transfer of learning into the real-world practice setting.\nBy investigating this phenomenon and tackling directly the challenges faced by investors, the project will demonstrate the potential to achieve improvements in emotion regulation processes through innovative, technologically supported approaches using a combination of physiological sensors, emotion regulation training , and serious games in a real-world setting.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENV.2013.6.1-4 | Award Amount: 8.01M | Year: 2013

LUC4C will advance our fundamental knowledge of the climate change - land use change interactions, and develop a framework for the synthesis of complex earth system science into guidelines that are of practical use for policy and societal stakeholders. Policies in support of climate change mitigation through land management, and the societal demand for other services from terrestrial ecosystems are currently rather disconnected, in spite of the large potential for co-benefits, but also the need for trade-offs. To identify the beneficial and detrimental aspects of alternative land use options, we will improve and evaluate a suite of modelling approaches at different levels of integration and complexity in order to (i) discern key elements of land-use that have the largest effect on climate, including dependencies across time and space, (ii) develop innovative methods to better quantify the dynamic interactions between land use and the climate system at different time and space scales, and (iii) deliver a portfolio of best practice guidelines for the identification of trade-offs, benefits or adverse effects of land-based mitigation policy options across different scenarios. In particular, LUC4C aims to: 1. enhance our ability to understand the societal and environmental drivers of land use and land cover change (LULCC) relevant to climate change; 2. assess regional and global effects of different mitigation policies and adaptation measures within alternative socio-economic contexts; 3. quantify how the LULCC-climate change interplay affects regional vs. global, and biophysical vs. biogeochemical ecosystem-atmosphere exchange, and how the relative magnitude of these interactions varies through time; 4. advance our ability to represent LULCC in climate models; 5. assess LULCC-climate effects on multiple land ecosystem services and analyse these in relation to other societal needs that provide either a synergy or trade-off to climate mitigation and adaptation.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: NMP.2011.2.3-2 | Award Amount: 3.49M | Year: 2012

M-ERA.NET will be a real tool for developing a strong European RTD community on materials science and engineering and for supporting the European economy with respect to the challenges of the 21st century. M-ERA.NET will be a highly ambitious network involving a majority of European key players in national funding of materials science and engineering. M-ERA.NET will replace a number of smaller previous ERA-NETs and cover the materials domain with an innovative and flexible umbrella concept for one single ERA-NET contract. M-ERA.NET will set up a multi-annual policy for joint programming targeted at the whole innovation cycle. Cooperation at an international level will enable the European RTD community to access world leading knowledge. It is our mission to - strengthen the status of the European RTD community and economy in materials sciences and engineering; - mobilise critical mass of national and regional funding for transnational RTD cooperation in materials science and engineering, thereby achieving a very large leverage effect of the requested FP7 funding; - set up a novel umberlla concept for cooperation to react to emerging needs and to allow coverage of future topics in related thematic areas; - establish strategic programming of joint activities, addressing societal and technological challenges in an interdisciplinary approach; - support the exploitation of created knowledge along the whole innovation chain; - enable enlarged research cooperation within the EU member states and associated states; - establish international cooperation with partners outside Europe; - exploit the novel developments in a durable, long term cooperation between funding organisations.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: TPT.2012.2-1. | Award Amount: 3.29M | Year: 2013

The HIGH-TOOL project aims at developing a free and open high-level strategic transport model to assess economic, social and environmental impacts of transport policy. The HIGH-TOOL model will allow quick scanning of transport policy options by the European Commission (EC). Input and output indicators of the model will be based on policy targets of the White Paper 2011 and the Roadmap for moving to a low-carbon economy in 2050, but may also be relevant to other areas of transport policy. The ECs Impact Assessment Guidelines will serve as an important reference to define the models output variables. The HIGH-TOOL model will be largely based on equations and elasticity developed in previous or ongoing research projects. The model will serve as a pre-selection tool of policy options that will be further evaluated by more detailed models such as TRANSTOOLS and TREMOVE. High attention will be attached to obtain consistency between HIGH-TOOL and the EU 2012 Reference Scenario. The model will be introduced successively during the project in order to facilitate the participation of potential users: The prototype version will be provided at an early stage, and will be largely based on existing and previous meta-models such as EXPEDITE, SUMMA or TRANSVISIONS. This prototype will be extended continuously by substituting and/ or refining the modelling formulation and adding further functionalities. This evolution process will be carried out under involvement of users, and under consideration of results from testing and validation processes. The development of the model will be accompanied by a Scientific Advisory Board, assembling distinguished experts that represent model users and model developers. The HIGH-TOOL model will provide a web interface allowing users to assess policy options via the Internet. A carefully elaborated, reader-friendly User Guide and the organisation of a User Training Course will complement the provision of the HIGH-TOOL model.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2013.4.1 | Award Amount: 3.90M | Year: 2013

Europe is different from other large media markets such as the US or China in that information is being generated in different languages and distributed via diverse streams of localised media channels. Automatic analysis is complicated further by different content types (audio, video, text) and different channels (mainstream, social media). Thus, information can only be analysed independently for each dimension. This restricts the extractable knowledge and keeps it fragmented, which ultimately constrains the exchange of information.xLiMe proposes to extract knowledge from different media channels and languages and relate it to cross-lingual, cross-media knowledge bases. By doing this in near real-time we will provide a continuously updated and comprehensive view on knowledge diffusion across media, e.g., from European communities like Catalonia to worldwide content in English.Tools and methods developed in xLiMe will be applied in three complementary case studies and evaluated by several business clients and up to 10mio end users . We will1.\taugment more than 250 TV channels in different languages with up-to-date information from social media and news in near real-time,2.\tmonitor brands and the diffusion of opinions across languages and media, and3.\tanalyse online shop performance with regard to external cross-lingual, cross-media factors, like campaigns for brands and the emergence of public opinions.By combining speech recognition, natural language processing, machine learning and semantic technologies we will advance key open research problems, by1.\textracting machine-readable knowledge (entities, sentiment, events and opinions) from multilingual, multimedia and social media content and integrate it with cross-lingual, cross-media knowledge bases,2.\tsearching this knowledge with structured and unstructured queries in near real-time,3.\tmonitoring its provenance, consumption and diffusion and4.\tanalysing the interdependency between media exposure and behavioural patterns.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-SME-AG | Phase: SME-2013-2 | Award Amount: 2.40M | Year: 2013

In the last decade, advanced textiles materials have been developed as a result of a number of research and innovation projects addressing in particular the construction sector, which represent one of the biggest markets for textile products. Examples of advanced textiles for the construction sector comprise fabrics used for the rehabilitation of buildings, providing both strengthening and monitoring functions, geotextiles for the stabilisation and monitoring of soil structures such as railway, roadway embankments or coastal protection structures, high performance technical textiles for tensile structures used for covering large areas such as stadiums or exhibition areas, and textiles used in advanced roofing systems. However, despite of the above benefits, many building practitioners are unfamiliar with the behaviour and the characteristics of these materials. The lack of information about the use and the properties of these materials from the design and construction community limits their capability of achieving the highest possible standards in quality assurance and control construction projects. For these high performance materials the current design code or regulation may or may not be applicable: in general new codes or specifications or guidelines for their use or testing procedures are required to be developed for the purpose of design, construction and testing purpose. The overall objective of the MULTITEXCO project is to scientifically and technologically characterise the latest achievements in technical textile sector for the development of Guideline and Pre-normative research enabling future standards at EU level aiming at supporting the SMEs involved in the construction sector to fully exploit the new generation of multifunctional technical textiles.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2012-1.1.24. | Award Amount: 23.40M | Year: 2013

Research accelerators are facing important challenges that must be addressed in the years to come: existing infrastructures are stretched to all performance frontiers, new world-class facilities on the ESFRI roadmap are starting or nearing completion, and strategic decisions are needed for future accelerators and major upgrades in Europe. While current projects concentrate on their specific objectives, EuCARD-2 brings a global view to accelerator research, coordinating a consortium of 40 accelerator laboratories, technology institutes, universities and industry to jointly address common challenges. By promoting complementary expertise, cross-disciplinary fertilisation and a wider sharing of knowledge and technologies throughout academia and with industry, EuCARD-2 significantly enhances multidisciplinary R&D for European accelerators. This new project will actively contribute to the development of a European Research Area in accelerator science by effectively implementing a distributed accelerator laboratory in Europe. Transnational access will be granted to state-of-the-art test facilities, and joint R&D effort will build upon and exceed that of the ongoing EuCARD project. Researchers will concentrate on a few well-focused themes with very ambitious deliverables: 20 T accelerator magnets, innovative materials for collimation of extreme beams, new high-gradient high-efficiency accelerating systems, and emerging acceleration technologies based on lasers and plasmas. EuCARD-2 will include six networks on strategic topics to reinforce synergies between communities active at all frontiers, extending the scope towards innovation and societal applications. The networks concentrate on extreme beam performance, novel accelerator concepts with outstanding potential, energy efficiency and accelerator applications in the fields of medicine, industry, environment and energy. One network will oversee the whole project to proactively catalyze links to industry and the innovation potential.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: Fission-2010-1.1.2 | Award Amount: 2.00M | Year: 2011

Solid/liquid chemical equilibrium hypotheses (sorption, solubility, solid-solution formation) are key concepts in the assessment of nuclear waste safety. For radionuclides at trace concentrations this corresponds to constant solution concentrations, or solid/liquid distribution ratios, if environmental conditions remain constant. However, these concepts do not account for irreversible incorporation of radionuclides in the solid phases. Indeed, there is often a gradual and very slow transition from simple adsorption processes to incorporation of trace elements in the surface structure of solid phases. For certain tetravalent actinides apparent solubility equilibrium applies to only the surface without bulk phase equilibrium. This can lead to very large uncertainty in solubility values and derived thermodynamic constants. Equilibrium concepts are characterized by a dynamic state of equal forward and backward reaction rates, under conditions where phase compositions remain constant. Most of the problems arise from a lack of understanding of the dynamics of slow processes close to equilibrium, specifically in the coupling of sorption with other surface equilibrium reactions such as dissolution/precipitation, recrystallisation, isotopic exchange and with the bulk phase equilibrium. The project intends to assess the effect of surface properties on apparent solubility as well as the kinetics of incorporation of radionuclides in the structure of a solid phase, and the associated reaction mechanisms for various solids in a systematic manner, using isotope exchange under close-to-equilibrium conditions. The project results will impact strongly (1) the use/misuse of solubility data for thermodynamics; (2) the understanding of affinity/rate relations close to equilibrium; (3) the inclusion of irreversibility in models on the long-term mobility of radionuclides; and (4) the coupling of radionuclide chemistry with main element chemistry in the repository environment.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2009.2.1 | Award Amount: 7.62M | Year: 2011

The ACTIVE project exploits ICT and other engineering methods and technologies for the design and development of an integrated redundant robotic platform for neurosurgery. A light and agile redundant robotic cell with 20 degrees-of-freedom (DoFs) and an advanced processing unit for pre- and intra-operative control will operate both autonomously and cooperatively with surgical staff on the brain, a loosely structured environment. As the patient will not be considered rigidly fixed to the operating table and/or to the robot, the system will push the boundaries of the state of the art in the fields of robotics and control for the accuracy and bandwidth required by the challenging and complex surgical scenario.\n\nTwo cooperating robots will interact with the brain that will deform for the tool contact, blood pressure, breathing and deliquoration. Human factors are considered by allowing easy interaction with the users through a novel haptic interface for tele-manipulation and by a collaborative control mode (hands-on). Force and video feedback signals will be provided to surgeons. Active constraints will limit and direct tool tip position, force and speed preventing damage to eloquent areas, defined on realistic tissue models updated on-the-field through sensors information. The active constraints will be updated (displaced) in real time in response to the feedback from tool-tissue interactions and any additional constraints arising from a complex shared workspace. The overarching control architecture of ACTIVE will negotiate the requirements and references of the two slave robots.\n\nThe operative room represents the epitome of a dynamic and unstructured volatile environment, crowded with people and instruments. The workspace will thus be monitored by environmental cameras, and machine learning techniques will be used for the safe workspace sharing. Decisions about collision avoidance and downgrading to a safe state will be taken autonomously, the movement of the head of the patient will be filtered by a bespoke active head frame, while fast and unpredictable patient motion will be compensated by a real-time cooperative control system. Cognitive skills will help to identify the target location in the brain and constrain robotic motions by means of on-field observations.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2007.1.1 | Award Amount: 23.39M | Year: 2008

Todays network architectures are stifling innovation, restricting it mostly to the application level while the need for structural change is increasingly evident. The absence of adequate facilities to design, optimize and interoperate new networks currently forces a convergence to an architecture that is suboptimal for many applications and that cannot support innovations within itself, the Internet.\n4WARD overcomes this impasse through a set of radical architectural approaches built on our strong mobile and wireless background.. We improve our ability to design inter-operable and complementary families of network architectures. We enable the co-existence of multiple networks on common platforms through carrier-grade virtualization for networking resources. We enhance the utility of networks by making them self-managing. We increase their robustness and efficiency by leveraging diversity. Finally we improve application support by a new information-centric paradigm in place of the old host-centric approach. These solutions will embrace the full range of technologies, from fibre backbones to wireless and sensor networks.\nThe 4WARD results will allow new markets to appear, redefining business roles and creating new economic models. We will establish the Future Internet Forum as a leading standards body, enabling these new markets and opening them for old and new players alike, increasing opportunities for competition and cooperation and creating new products and services.\nThese goals can only be achieved by gathering a strong, industry-led consortium of the leading operators, vendors, SME, and research organisations, with the determination, skills, and critical mass to create cross-industry consensus and to drive standardisation. The project is designed for multiple phases; the first one will establish the core concepts and technologies and last for two years. The planned effort of about 2200 person months corresponds to the strategic importance of this endeavour.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2009.1.2 | Award Amount: 4.02M | Year: 2010

In order to participate effectively in the development activities, FLOSS community members need to understand who is working on what in the community and how their work affects other community members. Current approaches focus on managing information integration, but not active interaction (coordination) between information sources and sinks.The aim of the ALERT project is to develop methods and tools that improve FLOSS coordination by maintaining awareness of community activities through real-time, personalized, context-aware notification. ALERT will create an active collaboration platform, i.e. a virtual actor would interact with other developers, process and recognize various kinds of interactions, suggest actions on the basis of these and remember and bring past interactions into the developers attention, thus enabling developers to work better together.ALERT aims to:- Efficient modeling of the more reactive coordination in FLOSS development that will improve the awareness of the group work and the responsiveness of individuals;- Efficient management of the awareness of team members that will enable interesting parties to be notified based on their interest/expertise as soon as something relevant happens without overloading them, interfering with and slowing down their work.- Efficient management of information relevant for FLOSS teams, including the semantic integration of information and its flow between all stakeholders that will support better understanding of the situations which a developer should react on.- Personalized and task-based access to information, by allowing developers to focus on activities to be performed to achieve a specific shared task and/or by including information about the presence and activities of other developers in the FLOSS.- Pilot, evaluate and impact the ALERT system in three important FLOSS communities (OW2, KDE and Morfeo) and disseminate the results in other FLOSS and relevant research communities.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: AAT.2012.1.4-2. | Award Amount: 30.14M | Year: 2012

Future aero engines will need to be more efficient and contribute to the reduction on environmental impact of air transportation. They must reach some standards of performance by reducing emissions and creating some savings on operation costs. EIMG consortium has launched since several years some initiatives to develop future engines in the frame of the European Committee research programmes. Within different project such as DREAM, VITAL, NEWAC or LEMCOTEC, EIMG is ensuring the development of innovative technologies in order to further reduce the fuel burn, emissions and noise. In order to ensure the technological breakthrough, future aero-engines will have higher overall pressure ratios (OPR) to increase thermal efficiency and will have higher bypass ratios (BPR) to increase propulsive efficiency. These lead to smaller and hotter high pressure cores. As core engine technologies have been addressed in the previous project, E-BREAK project will ensure the mandatory evolution of sub-systems. It is indeed required for enabling integration of engine with new core technologies to develop adequate technologies for sub-systems. E-BREAK will aim to adapt sub-systems to new constraints of temperature and pressure. The overall picture of these initiatives bring all technology bricks to a TRL level ensuring the possibility to integrate them in a new aero engines generation before 2020. In its 2020 vision, ACARE aims to reduce by 50% per passenger kilometer CO2 emissions with an engine contribution targeting a decrease by 15 to 20% of the SFC. NOX emissions would have to be reduced by 80 % and efforts need to be made on other emissions. E-BREAK will be an enabler of the future UHOPR integrated engine development, completing efforts done in previous or in on-going Level 2 programs.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA | Phase: ICT-2007.3.1 | Award Amount: 584.32K | Year: 2008

The proposed Support Action S-PULSE aims to prepare Superconducting Electronics (SE) for the technology generation beyond the CMOS scaling limits (beyond CMOS). Scaling laws in CMOS technology indicate that some concepts cannot be simply extrapolated, and new physical effects that have been negligible up to now, have to be taken into account in the future. Due to the total different physical base in SE, it never had a scaling law, and quantum limits define the ultimate speed. This provides already demonstrated logic operation speed above 100 GHz with typically power dissipation of 1 aJ per logic operation with a 1 m feature size metal based process. The European activities in SE are currently coordinated by the non-profit Society FLUXONICS e.V., a SCENET initiative under FP6 for a dynamic technology platform in SE. As a major outcome of this network, a circuit foundry for SE was established, a cell library was made available and a first roadmap was drawn up in the field. S-PULSE supports joint efforts of European academic and industrial groups in the superconducting technologies field. The action is to strengthen the vital link between research and development on the one \nhand and the industrial view on the other hand, bring together industrial expectations and visionary extrapolation and current status of technology, intensify the exchange of knowledge and ideas, take charge of education, and win public interest. The overall strategy of S-PULSE is to broaden the FLUXONICS network and to promote the formation of a European Technology Platform (ETP) to develop and implement a Strategic Research Agenda in the field of ultra-low power superconducting electronics down to the nano-scale domain. With the view on the formation of an industrial guided ETP in the field of SE, the SA is expected to strengthen the competitiveness of the European nanoelectronics industry and to make SE technologies ready to compete with other technologies in the world markets.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CPCSA | Phase: INFRA-2010-1.2.3 | Award Amount: 6.26M | Year: 2010

Biodiversity science brings information science and technologies to bear on the data and information generated by the study of organisms, their genes, and their interactions. ViBRANT will help focus the collective output of biodiversity science, making it more transparent, accountable, and accessible. Mobilising these data will address global environmental challenges, contribute to sustainable development, and promote the conservation of biological diversity. Through a platform of web based informatics tools and services we have built a successful data-publishing framework (Scratchpads) that allows distributed groups of scientists to create their own virtual research communities supporting biodiversity science. The infrastructure is highly user-oriented, focusing on the needs of research networks through a flexible and scalable system architecture, offering adaptable user interfaces for the development of various services. In just 28 months the Scratchpads have been adopted by over 120 communities in more than 60 countries, embracing over 1,500 users. ViBRANT will distribute the management, hardware infrastructure and software development of this system and connect with the broader landscape of biodiversity initiatives including PESI, Biodiversity Heritage Library (Europe), GBIF and EoL. The system will also inform the design of the LifeWatch Service Centre and is aligned with the ELIXIR and EMBRC objectives, all part of the ESFRI roadmap. ViBRANT will extend the userbase, reaching out to new multidisciplinary communities including citizen scientists by offering an enhanced suite of services and functionality.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: AAT.2011.1.4-2. | Award Amount: 67.80M | Year: 2011

The main objective of the LEMCOTEC project will be the improvement of core-engine thermal efficiency by increasing the overall pressure ratio (OPR) to up to 70 leading to a further reduction of CO2. Since NOx increases with OPR, combustion technologies have to be further developed, at the same time, to at least compensate for this effect. The project will attain and exceed the ACARE targets for 2020 and will be going beyond the CO2 reductions to be achieved by on-going FP6 and FP7 programmes including Clean Sky: 1.) CO2: minus 50% per passenger kilometre by 2020, with an engine contribution of 15 to 20%, 2.) NOx: minus 80% by 2020 and 3.) Reduce other emissions: soot, CO, UHC, SOx, particulates. The major technical subjects to be addressed by the project are: 1.) Innovative compressor for the ultra-high pressure ratio cycle (OPR 70) and associated thermal management technologies, 2.) Combustor-turbine interaction for higher turbine efficiency & ultra-high OPR cycles, 3.) Low NOx combustion systems for ultra-high OPR cycles, 4.) Advanced structures to enable high OPR engines & integration with heat exchangers, 5.) Reduced cooling requirements and stiffer structures for turbo-machinery efficiency, 6.) HP/IP compressor stability control. The first four subjects will enable the engine industry to extend their design space beyond the overall pressure ratio of 50, which is the practical limit in the latest engines. Rig testing is required to validate the respective designs as well as the simulation tools to be developed. The last two subjects have already been researched on the last two subjects by NEWAC. The technology developed in NEWAC (mainly component and / or breadboard validation in a laboratory environment) will be driven further in LEMCOTEC for UHPR core engines. These technologies will be validated at a higher readiness level of up to TRL 5 (component and / or breadboard validation in a relevant environment) for ultra-high OPR core-engines.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA | Phase: ICT-2011.4.1 | Award Amount: 742.43K | Year: 2012

Linked Data has established itself as the de facto means for the publication of structured data over the Web, enjoying amazing growth in terms of the number of organizations committing to use its core principles for exposing and interlinking data sets for seamless exchange, integration, and reuse. More and more ICT ventures offer innovative data management services on top of Linked (Open) Data, creating a demand for data practitioners possessing skills and detailed knowledge in this area. Ensuring the availability of such expertise will prove crucial if European businesses are to reap the full benefits of these advanced data management technologies, and the know-how accumulated over the past years by researchers, technology enthusiasts and early adopters in various European Member States. EUCLID will contribute to this goal by providing a comprehensive educational curriculum, supported by multi-modal learning materials and highly visible eLearning distribution channels, tailored to the real needs of data practitioners. Building upon the experience of the consortium accumulated in over 20 Linked Data projects with over 40 companies and public offices in more than 10 countries, complemented by feedback from more than 20 training events, and an in-depth analysis of the community discourse through mailing lists, discussion forums, Twitter, and the blogosphere, the curriculum will focus on techniques and software to integrate, query, and visualize Linked Data, as core areas in which practitioners state to require most assistance. The curriculum will be realized as living learning materials on a community Web site, and will be evaluated, refined, and extended in a webinar series, face-to-face training, and through continuous community feedback and contributions coordinated by a designated community manager. A significant share of the materials will consist of examples referring to real-world data sets and application scenarios, code snippets and demos that developers can run on their machines, as well as best practices and how-tos. In its final form, the curriculum will be delivered as an eBook series distributed via iTunes U, complemented by the materials collected on the community Web site. By providing these key knowledge-transfer components, EUCLID will not only promote the industrial uptake of Linked Data best practices and technologies, but, perhaps more importantly, will contribute to their further development and consolidation and support the sustainability of the community - all essential aspects given the novelty of the field and the rapid pace at which it has recently advanced.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2011.4.2 | Award Amount: 4.75M | Year: 2012

The goal of the X-LIKE project is to develop technology to monitor and aggregate knowledge that is currently spread across global mainstream and social media, and to enable cross-lingual services for publishers, media monitoring and business intelligence.In terms of research contributions, the aim is to combine scientific insights from several scientific areas to contribute in the area of cross-lingual text understanding. By combining modern computational linguistics, machine learning, text mining and semantic technologies we plan to deal with the following two key open research problems:- to extract and integrate formal knowledge from multilingual texts with cross-lingual knowledge bases, and- to adapt linguistic techniques and crowdsourcing to deal with irregularities in informal language used primarily in social media.As an interlingua, knowledge resources from Linked Open Data cloud (http://linkeddata.org/) will be used with special focus on general common sense knowledge base CycKB (http://www.cyc.com/). For the languages where no required linguistic resources will be available, we will use a probabilistic interlingua representation trained from a comparable corpus drawn from the Wikipedia.The solution will be applied on two case studies, both from the area of news. For the Bloomberg case study the domain will be financial news, while for the Slovenian Press Agency we will deal with general news. The technology developed in the project will be used to introduce cross-lingual and information from social media in services for publishers and end-users in the area of summarization, contextualization, personalization, and plagiarism detection. Special attention will be paid to analysing news reporting bias from multilingual sources. The developed technology will be language-agnostic, while within the project we will specifically address English, German, Spanish, and Chinese as major world languages and Catalan and Slovenian as minority languages.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: Fission-2013-5.1.1 | Award Amount: 1.50M | Year: 2014

For a vast amount of applications in the medical, industrial, research and other sectors, a good understanding of radiation protection (RP) is fundamental in order to protect workers, the public and the environment from the potential risks of ionising radiation. Within this perspective, building and maintaining an advanced level of competence in RP, assuring sufficient well-trained personnel and organising an adequate knowledge management, is crucial. Effective education and training (E&T) is a critical element in these matters, helping to prevent the decline in expertise and to meet future demands. ENETRAP III adds new and innovative topics to existing E&T approaches in RP. It will further develop the European reference training scheme with additional specialized modules for Radiation Protection Experts working in medical, waste management and NPP. It will implement the ECVET principles and will establish targeted assistance from regulators that will play a crucial role in the endorsement of the proposed courses and learning objectives. ENETRAP III will also introduce a train-the-trainer strategy. All organised pilot sessions will be open to young and more experienced students and professionals. In this way, ENETRAP III aims to contribute to increasing the attractiveness of nuclear careers and to lifelong learning activities. A web-based platform containing all relevant information about E&T in RP will facilitate an efficient knowledge transfer and capacity building in Europe and beyond. ENETRAP III will also propose guidance for implementing E&T for Radiation Protection Experts and Officers, hereby providing extremely important assistance to all Member States who are expected to transpose the Euratom BSS requirements into their national legislations. Moreover, ENETRAP III will demonstrate the practical feasibility of earlier developed concepts for mutual recognition and thus provide leading examples in Europe demonstrating effective borderless mobility.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: GC.NMP.2013-1 | Award Amount: 11.49M | Year: 2013

Li-ion technologies initiated in the 90 at a fast development pace thanks mainly to emerging ICTs with more than 20 GWh sold in 2010. Soon, it appeared as a credible technology for electrical vehicles as it could provide average energy densities of about 140 Wh/kg. However and since then,major breakthroughs have been expected to reach higher storage levels of 250 Wh/kg on battery system level with an acceptable lifetime of 3000 cycles in order to develop an affordable economical business plan for car batteries. MAT4BAT builds-up its EVs battery strategy on advanced materials and pilot line processes, proposing three novel concepts of cells initiating from a state-of-the art combination of cell materials (NMC/Carbonate liquid electrolyte/Graphite). MAT4BAT will address all critical ageing mechanisms associated to this technology and having direct impacts on product lifetime & safety by implementing two work programs for Battery Assessment (#1) and Battery Technologies (#2). Program #1 will set a framework to define critical charging modalities for a battery system during practical use and associated testing tools & methods for relevant functional performance & lifetime assessment. Within this framework, the program #2 will implement three generations of cells with a focus on electrolytes which will be steadily transformed from Liquid to Gel to All-Solid state electrolytes in order to promote substantial gain in cell lifetime and safety by preventing degradations and hazards and improving energy density with a separator-free cell (all-solid state electrolyte). 100 state-of-the-art commercial cells will be assessed to define normal and critical charge/discharge conditions of testing with appropriate testing protocols. Besides,materials increments will be screened out on coin-cells prior a benchmarking of most promising materials at full cells level. Eventually,(10-40 A.h) prototypes will be produced to validate MAT4BAT best technologies against quantified objectives.


Scientists from imec (partner in Solliance and EnergyVille), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), and Zentrum für Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Württemberg (Centre for Solar Energy and Hydrogen Research, ZSW), today announced that they have fabricated a thin-film solar module stack made up of perovskite and Copper Indium Gallium Selenide (CIGS) with a conversion efficiency of 17.8 percent. For the first time, this tandem module surpasses the highest efficiencies of separate perovskite and CIGS modules.


News Article | April 6, 2016
Site: www.nature.com

It is the elephant in the room for dark-matter research: a claimed detection that is hard to believe, impossible to confirm and surprisingly difficult to explain away. Now, four instruments that will use the same type of detector as the collaboration behind the claim are in the works or poised to go online. Within three years, the experiments will be able to either confirm the existence of dark matter — or rule the claim out once and for all, say the physicists who work on them. “This will get resolved,” says Frank Calaprice of Princeton University in New Jersey, who leads one of the efforts. The original claim comes from the DAMA collaboration, whose detector sits in a laboratory deep under the Gran Sasso Massif, east of Rome. For more than a decade, it has reported overwhelming evidence1 for dark matter, an invisible substance thought to bind galaxies together through its gravitational attraction. The first of the new detectors to go online, in South Korea, is due to start taking data in a few weeks. The others will follow over the next few years in Spain, Australia and, again, Gran Sasso. All will use sodium iodide crystals to detect dark matter, which no full-scale experiment apart from DAMA’s has done previously. Scientists have substantial evidence that dark matter exists and is at least five times as abundant as ordinary matter. But its nature remains a mystery. The leading hypothesis is that at least some of its mass is composed of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), which on Earth should occasionally bump into an atomic nucleus. DAMA’s sodium iodide crystals should produce a flash of light if this happens in the detector. And although natural radioactivity also produces such flashes, DAMA’s claim to have detected WIMPs, first made in 1998, rests on the fact that the number of flashes produced per day has varied with the seasons. This, they say, is exactly what is expected if the signal is produced by WIMPs that rain down on Earth as the Solar System moves through the Milky Way’s dark-matter halo2. In this scenario, the number of particles crossing Earth should peak when the planet’s orbital motion lines up with that of the Sun, in early June, and should hit a low when its motion works against the Sun’s, in early December. There is one big problem. “If it’s really dark matter, many other experiments should have seen it already,” says Thomas Schwetz-Mangold, a theoretical physicist at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology in Germany — and none has. But at the same time, all attempts to find weaknesses in the DAMA experiment, such as environmental effects that the researchers had not taken into account, have failed. “The modulation signal is there,” says Kaixuan Ni at the University of California, San Diego, who works on a dark-matter experiment called XENON1T. “But how to interpret that signal — whether it’s from dark matter or something else — is not clear.” No other full-scale experiment has used sodium iodide in its detector, although the Korea Invisible Mass Search (KIMS), in South Korea, used caesium iodide. So the possibility remains that dark matter interacts with sodium in a different way to other elements. “Not until someone has turned on a detector made of the same material will you grow convinced that nothing is there,” says Juan Collar at the University of Chicago, Illinois, who has worked on several dark-matter experiments. Many have found it challenging to grow sodium iodide crystals with the required purity. Contamination by potassium, which has a naturally occurring radioactive isotope, is a particular problem. But now three dark-matter-hunting teams — KIMS; DM-Ice, run from Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut; and ANAIS, at the University of Zaragoza, Spain — have each obtained crystals with about twice the level of background radioactivity of DAMA’s. That is pure enough to test its results, they say. The KIMS and DM-Ice teams have built a sodium iodide detector together at Yangyang Underground Laboratory, 160 kilometres east of Seoul. This instrument uses an ‘active veto’ sensor that will enable it to separate the dark-matter signal from the noise better than DAMA does, says Yeongduk Kim, the director of South Korea’s Center for Underground Physics in Daejeon, which manages KIMS. ANAIS is building a similar detector in the Canfranc Underground Laboratory in the Spanish Pyrenees. Together, KIMS/DM-Ice and ANAIS will have about 200 kilograms of sodium iodide, and they will pool their data. That is comparable to DAMA’s 250 kilograms, enabling them to catch a similar number of WIMPs, they say. Even though the newer detectors will have higher levels of background noise, it should still be possible to either falsify or reproduce the very large DAMA signal, says Reina Maruyama of Yale, who leads DM-Ice. But Calaprice argues that high purity is more important than mass. He and his collaborators have developed a technique to lower contamination, and in January announced that they were the first to obtain crystals purer than DAMA’s. He expects to reduce the background levels further, to one-tenth of DAMA’s. The project, SABRE (Sodium-iodide with Active Background Rejection), will put one detector at Gran Sasso and the other at the Stawell Underground Physics Laboratory, which is being built in a gold mine in Victoria, Australia. SABRE will also use a sensor to pull out the dark-matter signal from noise, and will have a total mass of 50 kilograms. SABRE should complete its research and development stage in about a year, and will build its detectors soon after that, says Calaprice. It will then make its technology available to other labs — something that DAMA did not do. And having twin detectors in both the Northern and Southern hemispheres could clarify whether environmental effects could have mimicked dark matter’s seasonality in DAMA’s results — if the signal is from WIMPs, then both detectors should see peaks at the same time. DAMA will wait at least until 2017 to release its latest results, says spokesperson Rita Bernabei of the University of Rome Tor Vergata. She is not holding her breath about the upcoming sodium iodide detectors. “Our results have already been verified in countless cross-checks in 14 annual cycles, so we have no reason to get excited about what others may do,” she says. If other experiments do not see the annual modulation, she adds, her collaboration will conclude that they do not yet have sufficient sensitivity. Could the teams prove DAMA right? “I was unwilling to believe the DAMA results or even take them seriously at first,” says Katherine Freese, a theoretical astroparticle physicist at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, who with her collaborators first proposed the seasonal modulation technique used by DAMA2. But, as DAMA’s data have accumulated, and no other explanation for their signal has arisen, Freese is now excited by the possibility that dark matter may have been discovered after all. The fact that many have tried and failed to repeat DAMA’s experiment shows that it is not easy, says Elisabetta Barberio at the University of Melbourne, who leads the Australian arm of SABRE. “The more one looks into their experiment, the more one realizes that it is very well done.”


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CPCSA | Phase: INFRA-2010-1.2.1 | Award Amount: 70.14M | Year: 2010

Scientific research is no longer conducted within national boundaries and is becoming increasing dependent on the large-scale analysis of data, generated from instruments or computer simulations housed in trans-national facilities, by using e Infrastructure (distributed computing and storage resources linked by high-performance networks).\nThe 48 month EGI-InSPIRE project will continue the transition to a sustainable pan-European e-Infrastructure started in EGEE-III. It will sustain support for Grids of high-performance and high-throughput computing resources, while seeking to integrate new Distributed Computing Infrastructures (DCIs), i.e. Clouds, SuperComputing, Desktop Grids, etc., as they are required by the European user community. It will establish a central coordinating organisation, EGI.eu, and support the staff throughout Europe necessary to integrate and interoperate individual national grid infrastructures. EGI.eu will provide a coordinating hub for European DCIs, working to bring existing technologies into a single integrated persistent production infrastructure for researchers within the European Research Area.\nEGI-InSPIRE will collect requirements and provide user-support for the current and new (e.g. ESFRI) users. Support will also be given for the current heavy users as they move their critical services and tools from a central support model to ones driven by their own individual communities. The project will define, verify and integrate within the Unified Middleware Distribution, the middleware from external providers needed to access the e-Infrastructure. The operational tools will be extended by the project to support a national operational deployment model, include new DCI technologies in the production infrastructure and the associated accounting information to help define EGIs future revenue model.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CPCSA | Phase: INFRA-2007-1.2-03 | Award Amount: 49.02M | Year: 2008

A globally distributed computing Grid now plays an essential role for large-scale, data intensive science in many fields of research. The concept has been proven viable through the Enabling Grids for E-sciencE project (EGEE and EGEE-II, 2004-2008) and its related projects. EGEE-II is consolidating the operations and middleware of this Grid for use by a wide range of scientific communities, such as astrophysics, computational chemistry, earth and life sciences, fusion and particle physics. Strong quality assurance, training and outreach programmes contribute to the success of this production Grid infrastructure. \nBuilt on the pan-European network GANT2, EGEE has become a unique and powerful resource for European science, allowing researchers in all regions to collaborate on common challenges. Worldwide collaborations have extended its reach to the benefit of European science.\nThe proposed EGEE-III project has two clear objectives that are essential for European research infrastructures: to expand, optimize and simplify the use of Europes largest production Grid by continuous operation of the infrastructure, support for more user communities, and addition of further computational and data resources; to prepare the migration of the existing Grid from a project-based model to a sustainable federated infrastructure based on National Grid Initiatives. \nBy strengthening interoperable, open source middleware, EGEE-III will actively contribute to Grid standards, and work closely with businesses to ensure commercial uptake of the Grid, which is a key to sustainability. \nFederating its partners on a national or regional basis, EGEE-III will have a structuring effect on the European Research Area. In particular, EGEE-III will ensure that the European Grid does not fragment into incompatible infrastructures of varying maturity. EGEE-III will provide a world class, coherent and reliable European Grid, ensuring Europe remains at the forefront of scientific excellence.


News Article | December 14, 2016
Site: www.businesswire.com

EGGENSTEIN-LEOPOLDSHAFEN, Germany--(BUSINESS WIRE)--amcure, a biopharmaceutical company developing first-in-class cancer therapeutics, today announced the closing of a Series B financing round amounting to a total of EUR 6 million. The financing comes from a consortium of existing investors and shareholders headed by LBBW Venture Capital, with participation from the KfW, MBG Mittelstaendische Beteiligungsgesellschaft Baden-Wuerttemberg, S-Kap Unternehmensbeteiligungs GmbH & Co. KG and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) as well as private investors. The funding will be used to continue and accelerate the clinical development of amcure’s lead product candidate, AMC303, for treating metastasizing solid tumors. AMC303 has been developed to target CD44v6, a key extracellular molecule in molecular pathways of several receptor-tyrosine-kinases. This approach provides a potential novel mechanism for the treatment of patients with advanced and solid tumors that have already begun to spread throughout the body. Additionally, amcure expanded its advisory board (“Beirat”) by appointing Dr. Bruno Osterwalder, who brings in additional industry and disease expertise. Dr. Osterwalder is a board-certified hematologist and oncologist with a background of 15 years of academic and clinical practice in internal medicine, hematology and oncology (Swiss Board Certifications). He subsequently spent 26 years in global drug development and strategic portfolio management in oncology and immuno-oncology drug development at F. Hoffmann-La Roche and Merck Serono. He is also a member of several professional societies such as ASCO, AACR, ASH, ECCO and ESMO. “Our lead candidate, AMC303, has recently entered a Phase I/Ib clinical study, therefore this funding comes at a time when the company is taking meaningful steps forward towards achieving a better treatment for patients with advanced solid tumors. Today’s financing brings the total amount of capital raised from investors by amcure to EUR 10 million,” said Dr. Klaus Dembowsky, CEO of amcure. “amcure has made significant progress towards bringing a new and potentially ground-breaking treatment option to patients with cancer metastasis, therefore we are enthusiastic about renewing and expanding our investment into the firm,” added Dr. Harald Poth, Senior Investment Manager at LBBW Venture Capital. “We are equally pleased with Dr. Osterwalder’s decision to join the advisory board of amcure. His expertise in oncology drug development from the lab all the way to pivotal trials will be extremely valuable as amcure enters the next stage of corporate development.” amcure uses a novel approach by targeting one specific co-receptor, CD44v6, thus blocking three relevant oncological pathways (VEGF/VEGF-R2, HGF/c-Met and MSP/RON) which in turn diminish the means for tumor growth and metastases in patients. This unique approach could bring specific advantages over current treatment options as it offers a higher specificity and potential efficacy. amcure initiated a Phase I/Ib trial with its lead compound, AMC303, with treatment of the first patient at the end of October. amcure’s lead compound, AMC303, has been developed as a potential treatment for patients with advanced and metastatic epithelial tumors, e.g. pancreatic cancer, head and neck cancer, gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer and lung cancer. AMC303 has a high specificity for inhibiting CD44v6, a co-receptor required for signaling through multiple cellular pathways (c-Met, VEGFR-2, RON) involved in tumor growth, angiogenesis and the development and regression of metastases. AMC303 has demonstrated strong effects in various in vitro and in vivo assays. amcure GmbH is a spin-off from the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology established in 2012. The company develops peptide-based compounds for the treatment of highly metastatic forms of cancer. amcure’s most advanced development candidate, AMC303, has entered clinical development and has demonstrated in in vivo proof-of-concept studies a high efficacy against different types of epithelial cancers. amcure is sponsored by a grant from the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research.


News Article | December 14, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

For the energy transition to be successful, it will also be important to secure heat supply of the housing stock by sustainable technologies. About half of the apartments in Germany is located in apartment buildings. However, backfitting with modern building shells or heat pumps lags behind. The cooperation project "LowEx-Bestand" coordinated by KIT and Fraunhofer ISE is aimed at developing commercially viable concepts and demonstrating their operation quality. It is funded with about EUR 5.3 million by the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy. "The two most important keys to reaching a nearly climate-neutral housing stock are thermal insulation and low-carbon dioxide heating technology," emphasizes project head Professor Hans-Martin Henning, Holder of the Chair for Technical Energy Systems of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) and Coordinator of the Business Area of Building Energy Technology of the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg. "At the same time, the measures have to be economically efficient." The cooperation project "LowEx-Bestand" focuses on the further development and demonstration of measures to reduce energy consumption of existing apartment houses and is aimed at developing new, viable solutions in close cooperation with industry partners. As regards the energy saving potential, past activities mostly focused on technology rather than on building-specific framework conditions and compliance of new technology with the building in need of refurbishment. This is where the project "LowEx-Bestand" starts. So far, complexity of construction and refurbishment processes has prevented wide implementation of new solutions. The cooperation project is now aimed at finding user-compatible refurbishment approaches that improve building quality and enhance and facilitate workflows. Heat pumps are already widely used to supply many single- and two-family houses with heat with low carbon dioxide emissions. However, heat pumps are hardly applied in apartment houses, although they are among the heating technologies that contribute most to a significant reduction of the emission of climate gases in the supply of room heat and hot water, in particular when power from renewable sources is used. Use of heat pumps in apartment houses, however, is associated with several challenges that will be addressed under "LowEx-Bestand," in particular in the area of hot water production, legionella protection, and use of alternative heat sources, i.e. geothermal heat or heat from outside air. In this connection, gas-driven heat pumps that are driven by natural gas instead of electricity are a promising alternative. Compared to pure gas boilers, they are associated with reduced specific carbon dioxide emissions. Gas-driven heat pumps require a smaller heat source than electric heat pumps, which is a big advantage in buildings in urban regions. These buildings mostly are connected to the gas grid. For this reason, gas-driven heat pumps will be evaluated as another technical option for existing apartment houses. In the area of thermal insulation, "LowEx-Bestand" will focus on refurbishment solutions that affect the inhabitants to the smallest possible extent. For this, pre-fabricated facade elements will be developed and used. They do not only contain the thermal insulation, but also heating and ventilation components. As a result, construction work inside the apartments is reduced. At the same time, a high degree of pre-fabrication promises to increase economic efficiency of refurbishment. Under the "LowEx-Bestand" cooperation project, research institutes, technology companies, and the housing sector cooperate closely in the areas of thermal insulation and heat pump. New building energy concepts are developed, implemented, demonstrated, and evaluated with the help of measurements. The project is aimed at further developing new concepts in the area of energy-oriented refurbishment of the building shell and use of heat pumps for existing apartment houses, at enhancing their economic efficiency, securing the operation quality, and contributing to an accelerated introduction and commercialization on the market. In this way, the project will make a significant contribution to reaching the climate policy objectives envisaged in Germany in the area of heat supply of buildings. The cooperation project has a budget of EUR 6.4 million, of which EUR 5.3 million are funded by the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi). The cooperation project is headed by the Professor for Technical Energy Systems of the KIT Department of Mechanical Engineering, Professor Hans-Martin Henning. Other research partners are the KIT Institute for Industrial Production (IIP) of the KIT Department of Economics (Professor Wolf Fichtner), the Building Science Group (fbta) of the KIT Department of Architecture (Professor Andreas Wagner), and several groups of the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (ISE) in Freiburg. Temperature conditioning of rooms on comfortable level cannot only be achieved by locally high temperatures reached by burning fossil fuels. Sustainable systems rather work with low temperature differences between the heating medium and room temperature. In this way, also regenerative energy sources, such as ambient heat in combination with heat pumps, can be used much better. The term LowEx (Low Exergy) stands for systems needing a small amount of "valuable" energy, so-called exergy. Exergy means the usable part of total energy of a system that can perform work and does not exist in the form of diffuse heat. The "LowEx-Bestand" cooperation project is part of a large-scale project alliance covering several technology projects for the further development of systems and devices in cooperation with manufacturers. The cooperation project of KIT and Fraunhofer ISE also covers several demonstration projects in the area of thermal insulation and the use of heat pumps. These projects are planned to be carried out in existing apartment houses in cooperation with the housing sector. They include measurements and their evaluations as well as processing of the results for users and the interested public. The Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE was established in Freiburg im Breisgau in 1981. With a staff of about 1100, Fraunhofer ISE is the largest solar energy research institute in Europe. It develops technological fundamentals for efficient and environmentally friendly energy supply in industrialized as well as in threshold and developing countries. In the areas of energy production, energy efficiency, energy distribution, and energy storage, it contributes to a wide application of new technologies. For further information, please contact: Marion Hopf, Fraunhofer ISE Press and Public Relations, Phone: +49 761 4588-5448 E-Mail: marion.hopf@ise.fraunhofer.de More about building energy technology of Fraunhofer ISE: https:/ More about the KIT Energy Center: http://www. For further information, please contact: Kosta Schinarakis, KIT Science Scout, Phone: +49 721 608 41956, Fax: +49 721 608 43658, Email: schinarakis@kit.edu Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) pools its three core tasks of research, higher education, and innovation in a mission. With about 9,300 employees and 25,000 students, KIT is one of the big institutions of research and higher education in natural sciences and engineering in Europe. KIT - the Research University in the Helmholtz Association Since 2010, the KIT has been certified as a family-friendly university. This press release is available on the internet at http://www. .


News Article | December 14, 2016
Site: phys.org

"The two most important keys to reaching a nearly climate-neutral housing stock are thermal insulation and low-carbon dioxide heating technology," emphasizes project head Professor Hans-Martin Henning, Holder of the Chair for Technical Energy Systems of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) and Coordinator of the Business Area of Building Energy Technology of the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg. "At the same time, the measures have to be economically efficient." The cooperation project "LowEx-Bestand" focuses on the further development and demonstration of measures to reduce energy consumption of existing apartment houses and is aimed at developing new, viable solutions in close cooperation with industry partners. As regards the energy saving potential, past activities mostly focused on technology rather than on building-specific framework conditions and compliance of new technology with the building in need of refurbishment. This is where the project "LowEx-Bestand" starts. So far, complexity of construction and refurbishment processes has prevented wide implementation of new solutions. The cooperation project is now aimed at finding user-compatible refurbishment approaches that improve building quality and enhance and facilitate workflows. Heat pumps are already widely used to supply many single- and two-family houses with heat with low carbon dioxide emissions. However, heat pumps are hardly applied in apartment houses, although they are among the heating technologies that contribute most to a significant reduction of the emission of climate gases in the supply of room heat and hot water, in particular when power from renewable sources is used. Use of heat pumps in apartment houses, however, is associated with several challenges that will be addressed under "LowEx-Bestand," in particular in the area of hot water production, legionella protection, and use of alternative heat sources, i.e. geothermal heat or heat from outside air. In this connection, gas-driven heat pumps that are driven by natural gas instead of electricity are a promising alternative. Compared to pure gas boilers, they are associated with reduced specific carbon dioxide emissions. Gas-driven heat pumps require a smaller heat source than electric heat pumps, which is a big advantage in buildings in urban regions. These buildings mostly are connected to the gas grid. For this reason, gas-driven heat pumps will be evaluated as another technical option for existing apartment houses. In the area of thermal insulation, "LowEx-Bestand" will focus on refurbishment solutions that affect the inhabitants to the smallest possible extent. For this, pre-fabricated facade elements will be developed and used. They do not only contain the thermal insulation, but also heating and ventilation components. As a result, construction work inside the apartments is reduced. At the same time, a high degree of pre-fabrication promises to increase economic efficiency of refurbishment. Under the "LowEx-Bestand" cooperation project, research institutes, technology companies, and the housing sector cooperate closely in the areas of thermal insulation and heat pump. New building energy concepts are developed, implemented, demonstrated, and evaluated with the help of measurements. The project is aimed at further developing new concepts in the area of energy-oriented refurbishment of the building shell and use of heat pumps for existing apartment houses, at enhancing their economic efficiency, securing the operation quality, and contributing to an accelerated introduction and commercialization on the market. In this way, the project will make a significant contribution to reaching the climate policy objectives envisaged in Germany in the area of heat supply of buildings. The cooperation project has a budget of EUR 6.4 million, of which EUR 5.3 million are funded by the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi). The cooperation project is headed by the Professor for Technical Energy Systems of the KIT Department of Mechanical Engineering, Professor Hans-Martin Henning. Other research partners are the KIT Institute for Industrial Production (IIP) of the KIT Department of Economics (Professor Wolf Fichtner), the Building Science Group (fbta) of the KIT Department of Architecture (Professor Andreas Wagner), and several groups of the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (ISE) in Freiburg. Temperature conditioning of rooms on comfortable level cannot only be achieved by locally high temperatures reached by burning fossil fuels. Sustainable systems rather work with low temperature differences between the heating medium and room temperature. In this way, also regenerative energy sources, such as ambient heat in combination with heat pumps, can be used much better. The term LowEx (Low Exergy) stands for systems needing a small amount of "valuable" energy, so-called exergy. Exergy means the usable part of total energy of a system that can perform work and does not exist in the form of diffuse heat. The "LowEx-Bestand" cooperation project is part of a large-scale project alliance covering several technology projects for the further development of systems and devices in cooperation with manufacturers. The cooperation project of KIT and Fraunhofer ISE also covers several demonstration projects in the area of thermal insulation and the use of heat pumps. These projects are planned to be carried out in existing apartment houses in cooperation with the housing sector. They include measurements and their evaluations as well as processing of the results for users and the interested public. Explore further: The flexible grid involves its users


News Article | March 2, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

While his childhood friends built things, Erik was always more intrigued by how and why things break. Prof. Dr. Erik Bitzek has consistently followed this passion for materials, their structures, and their breaking points. This Ludwigsburg Native never minded if his observations were drawn from stones in his mineral collection, his favorite chocolate, or steel. After studying physics in Stuttgart, Bitzek started his doctorate at the Max Planck Institute for Metals Research (now MPI for Intelligent Systems), turning this vocation into a profession. Now he has received a coveted ERC consolidator scholarship worth two million euros from the European Research Council (ERC) -- to explore even more intensively why things break apart. With his latest research project 'microKIc -- Microscopic origins of fracture toughness' at the Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg (FAU), Bitzek aims to describe the interactions between cracks and material defects, and investigate the factors influencing breakage and destruction. "We do not know enough about the breaking processes in metals, in intermetallic compounds, or in semiconductors, to make theoretical predictions about the breaking strength of these materials," explains Bitzek. However, it is so important to understand these processes precisely - it is a matter of life and death! For example -- in the construction and transport business, for the construction of components and machines, or the design of reactor pressure vessels -- resistance to the spread of cracks is an essential property of the materials used, such as steel. How do fracture processes - which start on the smallest atomic scale long before we can see a crack with the eye - depend on microstructure, temperature or loading rate? These are questions the FAU scientist will investigate during his project. Starting from simulations with several millions of atoms, he will develop micromechanical models for breaking strength and compare these with fracture tests carried out directly in the scanning electron microscope. When materials are subjected to a load, cracks are the usual consequence. These do not spread two-dimensionally but always three-dimensionally. Therefore, investigating the early stages of crack formation in 3-D models, and with different simulation methods for the individual length scales, promises particularly realistic results. They are intended to give researchers a comprehensive understanding of the microscopic processes at the tip of the breaking ridge. This helps materials scientists to then develop novel, fail-safe materials and further improve the design guidelines for safety-relevant structures and components. The fact that Erik Bitzek is doing outstanding work in this field of research is easy to underline by glancing at his previous career. Before taking up a professorship for materials science (simulation and material properties) at the Chair of Materials Science (General Material Properties) in Erlangen, he was contributing substantially to the establishment of the new Institute for Reliability Components and systems at the Karlsruhe University of Technology (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT)). After completing his doctorate in mechanical engineering at the KIT, he researched at the Paul Scherrer Institute in Switzerland, at the Ohio State University in Columbus, Ohio, and at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Bitzek has been a board member of the research training group "GRK1896 - in situ microscopy with electrons, x-rays and raster probes" and he has been responsible for the Elite Master's Program 'Advanced Materials and Processes' (MAP) since 2013. In addition, he was awarded the EAM Starting Grant in 2013 by the FAU's Cluster of Excellence 'Engineering of Advanced Materials' (EAM) in order to launch individual projects and improve his chances for the acquisition of funding within the national and international framework - an investment that has now paid off. One thing, of course, is diminishing with his increasing success: similarities between comic fan Erik Bitzek and his favorite cartoon character, Gaston Lagaffe. Unlike the quirky anti-heroine of André Franquin's pen, chaos and destruction are now found mainly in Bitzek's computer and not in his immediate environment. "But I still find it fascinating when something breaks down in real life," laughs Bitzek.


News Article | November 28, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Topics range from medical imaging to analysis of authority and trust in US politics and society; €87 million in funding for an initial 4.5 years The Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation) is establishing 20 new Research Training Groups (RTGs) to further support early career researchers in Germany. They include three International Research Training Groups (IRTGs) with partners in the UK, New Zealand and Austria. This was decided by the responsible Grants Committee during its autumn session in Bonn. The Research Training Groups will receive funding of around 87 million euros for an initial period of four and a half years. In addition to the 20 new collaborations, the Grants Committee approved the extension of seven Research Training Groups for another four and a half years. This funding instrument enables doctoral researchers to complete their theses in a structured research and qualification programme at a high academic level. In total the DFG is currently funding 206 Research Training Groups, including 41 International Research Training Groups; the 20 new groups will commence their work in 2017. The new Research Training Groups in detail (in alphabetical order by their host universities, including the name of the applicant universities): Sketches, abstracts, notes, records, excerpts, essays, articles and glosses: all these 'small forms' of writing are an essential part of the practice of research, teaching, art and the media. The Research Training Group "The Literary and Epistemic History of Small Forms" intends to study their emergence and development, with which they are also involved in the success of prose, from antiquity to the present day. The group will also seek to understand how processes of understanding are controlled, reflected and channelled in specific media using these small forms. (Host university: Humboldt University of Berlin, Spokesperson: Professor Dr. Joseph Vogl) Imaging techniques such as ultrasound, X-rays and CT scans are well known. Medical findings are established on the basis of the image data produced in technically and mathematically complex processes. However, physicians' diagnoses are normally made on the basis of qualitative arguments, which do not make full use of the information content of image data and in particular the potential of imaging methods. The "BIOQIC - BIOphysical Quantitative Imaging Towards Clinical Diagnosis" Research Training Group will therefore study biophysical quantitative medical imaging to further develop these quantitative methods and apply them in clinical pilot studies to obtain more information from the imaging process. (Host universities: Humboldt University of Berlin and Free University of Berlin / Charité - University Hospital Berlin, Spokesperson: Professor Dr. Ingolf Sack) The Research Training Group "World Politics: The Emergence of Political Arenas and Modes of Observation in World Society" is concerned with the emergence of world politics as a type of politics in its own right. From the perspective of the theory of global society, the group aims to investigate the extent to which the emergence of world politics represents both a consequence and a precondition of the constitution of modern states. Researchers specialising in political science, sociology, history and law will collaborate to address this question. (Host university: University of Bielefeld, Spokesperson: Professor Dr. Mathias Albert) Perception, the authorship of action, emotions, and social and linguistic understanding are central cognitive phenomena. The Research Training Group "Situated Cognition - New Concepts in Investigating Core Mental Phenomena" will combine the philosophy of the mind and cognition with cognition sciences, which closely interact with cognitive neurosciences. The main aim of the group is to identify deficits in existing concepts of the human mind and further develop these concepts such as to give more attention to more recent developments in cognition sciences that are not yet adequately reflected in philosophical theory formation. (Host university: University of Bochum, Spokesperson: Professor Dr. Albert Newen; Additional applicant university: University of Osnabrück) Short-term dynamic loads such as impacts, detonations or earthquakes can cause structures to collapse. The aim of the Research Training Group "Mineral-Bonded Composites for Enhanced Structural Impact Safety" is to make existing buildings and structures more resilient through the addition of thin-layer reinforcements. With the help of new mineral-bonded materials known as composites, the researchers aim to improve the safety of people and the infrastructure essential to their lives. (Host university: Technical University of Dresden, Spokesperson: Professor Dr.-Ing. Viktor Mechtcherine) According to the World Health Organization, more than 422 million people worldwide suffer from diabetes, with approximately 3.7 million mortalities per year. In Germany, experts estimate the number of sufferers at 8 to 10 million. The German-British Research Training Group "Immunological and Cellular Strategies in Metabolic Disease (ICSMD)" aims to achieve a better understanding of the pathophysiology of type 1 and type 2 diabetes and develop strategies to halt the progress of the disease or even discover a cure. (Host university: Technical University of Dresden, Spokesperson: Professor Dr. Stefan R. Bornstein, Cooperation partner: King's College London, Great Britain) The German-Austrian Research Training Group "Resonant Self-World Relations in Ancient and Modern Socio-Religious Practices" will investigate ritual practices which generate, determine or express meaningful relations between people and the world - to other people, things, nature, self, heaven and God or the gods. The nature of these world relations, in turn, says much about a given culture and the social or gender positions which characterise it. The establishment of the group has been approved by the DFG's Grants Committee on Research Training Groups. The Austrian Science Fund (FWF) will reach a decision on co-funding at its next meeting. (Host university: University of Erfurt, Spokesperson: Professor Dr. Jörg Rüpke, Cooperation partner: University of Graz, Austria) The Research Training Group "Configurations of Cinema" understands film as a medium in constant transformation. In three working areas, 'formations', 'usages' and 'localisations', the group intends to analyse the genealogy and transformation of a wide variety of configurations of film, also in regard to the shift from cinemas to portable digital devices. The researchers will thus explore new modes of writing the history of a medium that is subject to constant change and examine film's defining features. (Host university: Goethe University of Frankfurt am Main, Spokesperson: Professor Dr. Vinzenz Hediger) How are authority and trust formed in US politics? How does this happen in American society, in religion and culture? The Research Training Group "Authority and Trust in American Culture, Society, History and Politics" intends to answer these questions. The chosen object of analysis is the USA because, due to its early democratization, egalitarian-libertarian political culture, ethnocultural heterogeneity and international hegemony, the country offers particularly fundamental insights into the problems of authority and trust in the modern age. (Host university: University of Heidelberg, Spokesperson: Professor Dr. Manfred Berg) The Research Training Group "Tip- and Laser-Based 3D-Nanofabrication in Extended Macroscopic Working Areas" will develop manufacturing methods for two-dimensional and three-dimensional structures on a nanometre scale using tip-based and laser-based techniques. The research work will primarily be based on nanopositioning and nanomeasuring machines, allowing structuring and measuring to take place on the same machine. With the aid of this equipment the researchers intend to give particular attention to larger and uneven surfaces, such as optical lenses. (Host university: Technical University of Ilmenau, Spokesperson: Professor Dr.-Ing. Eberhard Manske) Batteries are seen as key components of future technologies such as electric vehicles and energy supplies. The Research Training Group "SIMET - Simulation Mechano-Electro-Thermal Processes in Lithium-Ion Batteries" will work on numerical simulation methods for lithium-ion batteries. The researchers will address the problem in a multi-scale approach in several different orders of magnitude. As well as individual particles, they will simulate the electrode pair and the complete cell. (Host university: Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Spokesperson: Professor Dr.-Ing. Thomas Wetzel) Patients with chronic diseases of the brain are normally treated with medication, but this is frequently associated with side effects. Neuroimplants, on the other hand, allow localised therapy, but must satisfy many requirements. The Research Training Group "Materials for Brain (M4B): Thin Film Functional Materials for Minimally Invasive Therapy of Brain Diseases" intends to study the use of nanoscale, therapeutically active coatings for implants of this type. Its aim is to achieve the controlled release of substances into the brain by means of the coating. (Host university: University of Kiel, Spokesperson: Professor Dr. Christine Selhuber-Unkel) We do not know enough about the reaction of lake ecosystems to environmental changes to be able to predict reliably whether they actually return to their original state following renaturation measures. Taking the example of Lake Constance, the Research Training Group "R3 - Responses to Biotic and Abiotic Changes, Resilience and Reversibility of Lake Ecosystems" aims to better understand the reactions of lake ecosystems to environmental changes, their resilience - the resistance of an ecosystem to disturbances - and their reversibility, in other words the ability to return to an original state following disturbance. (Host university: University of Constance, Spokesperson: Professor Dr. Frank Peeters) For many mathematical questions, approximation and dimension reduction are the most important tools for achieving simplified representation and therefore saving computing time. The Research Training Group "Mathematical Complexity Reduction (CoRe)" will approach complexity reduction in a more general sense and will also investigate when problems can be made easier to solve through embedding in higher dimensional spaces ('liftings'). The group also intends to systematically examine the influence of the costs of data collection. (Host university: University of Magdeburg, Spokesperson: Professor Dr. Sebastian Sager) One of the basic requirements for the economic success of a business is the efficient use of resources. In an increasingly networked world, several decision-makers are often involved in resource management and the amount of data available is growing. The Research Training Group "Advanced Optimization in a Networked Economy (AdONE)", based in the fields of operations research and management science, aims to develop models and processes and transfer these into software solutions designed to enable efficient use of resources through intelligent planning and control. (Host university: Technical University of Munich, Spokesperson: Professor Dr. Stefan Minner) Rapidly increasing antibiotic resistance and the growth of so-called lifestyle diseases confront humanity with enormous challenges. In the Research Training Group "Evolutionary Processes in Adaptation and Disease (RTG EvoPAD)", doctoral researchers in biology, medicine and the philosophy of science will therefore investigate adaptations and diseases by drawing on modern evolutionary research and approaches in the philosophy of science, in order to better understand them. (Host university: University of Münster, Spokesperson: Professor Dr. Joachim Kurtz) The development of metropolises prior to the age of industrialisation and globalisation has not, so far, been the subject of sufficient research. The "Pre-Modern Metropolitanism" Research Training Group intends to close this gap by investigating the establishment, impact and evolution of major urban centres from Ancient Greece and Rome to the dawn of the industrial age. (Host university: University of Regensburg, Spokesperson: Professor Dr. Jörg Oberste) Until now there have been few if any approaches to the improvement of robots that work with easily modifiable materials or handle soft tissue. In a German-New Zealand Research Training Group, doctoral researchers will investigate "Soft Tissue Robotics - Simulation-Driven Concepts and Design for Control and Automation for Robotic Devices Interacting with Soft Tissues". The aim is to further develop simulation techniques and sensors in order to enable new regulation and control technology for robots that interact with soft materials. (Host university: University of Stuttgart, Spokesperson: Professor Oliver Röhrle, Ph.D., Cooperation partner: University of Auckland, New Zealand) For many tumours there are no means of prevention, which is why they are usually diagnosed in advanced stages. It is also difficult to develop efficient therapies for tumours because there are genomic differences not only between different tumours (intertumoral) but also within a single tumour (intratumoral), which contributes to therapy resistance. The Research Training Group "Heterogeneity and Evolution in Solid Tumors (HEIST): Molecular Characterization and Therapeutic Consequences" aims to understand intra- and intertumoral heterogeneity, the evolutionary history of a tumour and the genes responsible for it in order to improve the treatment of tumours even in advanced stages. (Host university: University of Ulm, Spokesperson: Professor Dr. Thomas Seufferlein) Aberrations in what is known as the ubiquitin system in the body contribute to the development of a wide range of diseases such as cancer, neurodegenerative diseases and infectious diseases. The aim of the Research Training Group "Understanding Ubiquitylation: From Molecular Mechanisms To Disease" is therefore to understand the biochemical and pathogenic mechanisms which underlie diseases associated with the ubiquitin system. (Host university: University of Würzburg, Spokesperson: Professor Dr. Alexander Buchberger) Further information will also be provided by the spokespersons of the Research Training Groups. More details about the funding programme and the funded Research Training Groups is available at: http://www.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: SGA-RIA | Phase: FETFLAGSHIP | Award Amount: 89.00M | Year: 2016

This project is the second in the series of EC-financed parts of the Graphene Flagship. The Graphene Flagship is a 10 year research and innovation endeavour with a total project cost of 1,000,000,000 euros, funded jointly by the European Commission and member states and associated countries. The first part of the Flagship was a 30-month Collaborative Project, Coordination and Support Action (CP-CSA) under the 7th framework program (2013-2016), while this and the following parts are implemented as Core Projects under the Horizon 2020 framework. The mission of the Graphene Flagship is to take graphene and related layered materials from a state of raw potential to a point where they can revolutionise multiple industries. This will bring a new dimension to future technology a faster, thinner, stronger, flexible, and broadband revolution. Our program will put Europe firmly at the heart of the process, with a manifold return on the EU investment, both in terms of technological innovation and economic growth. To realise this vision, we have brought together a larger European consortium with about 150 partners in 23 countries. The partners represent academia, research institutes and industries, which work closely together in 15 technical work packages and five supporting work packages covering the entire value chain from materials to components and systems. As time progresses, the centre of gravity of the Flagship moves towards applications, which is reflected in the increasing importance of the higher - system - levels of the value chain. In this first core project the main focus is on components and initial system level tasks. The first core project is divided into 4 divisions, which in turn comprise 3 to 5 work packages on related topics. A fifth, external division acts as a link to the parts of the Flagship that are funded by the member states and associated countries, or by other funding sources. This creates a collaborative framework for the entire Flagship.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENERGY.2013.7.2.3 | Award Amount: 62.80M | Year: 2014

A group of eight Transmission System Operators with a generator company, manufacturers and research organisations, propose 5 demonstration projects to remove, in 4 years, several barriers which prevent large-scale penetration of renewable electricity production in the European transmission network. The full scale demonstrations led by industry aim at proving the benefits of novel technologies coupled with innovative system integration approaches: - A scaled down model of generators connected to a HVDC link is used within a new testing facility to validate novel control strategies to improve the interaction between HVDC links and wind turbine generators - The implementation of a full scale, hardware-in-the-loop test setup in collaboration with worldwide market leaders of HVDC-VSC technology explores the interactions of HVDC VSC multiterminal control systems to validate their interoperable operations - Strategies to upgrade existing HVDC interconnectors are validated with the help of innovative components, architecture and system integration performances, to ensure higher RES penetration and more efficient cross border exchanges. - Full scale experiments and pilot projects at real life scale of both installation and operation of AC overhead line repowering technologies are carried out to show how existing corridors can see their existing capacity increase within affordable investments. - The technical feasibility of integrating DC superconducting links within an AC meshed network (using MgB2 as the critical material) will be tested at prototype scale, thus proving that significant performance improvements have been reached to enable commercialization before 2030 The experimental results will be integrated into European impact analyses to show the scalability of the solutions: routes for replication will be provided with benefits for the pan European transmission network and the European electricity market as soon as 2018, in line with the SET plan objectives


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2007.2.2 | Award Amount: 25.84M | Year: 2009

The European robotics industry plays a key role in maintaining our continents industrial base. The robotics industry is strong, but fragmented and dispersed. In the future, cutting-edge technology resulting from top-level research will be the decisive factor for success. Europe not only has a powerful robotics industry, but can also boast superb research. By drawing on these resources, ECHORD aims at producing new knowledge through advancing the state of the art in selected research foci and developing novel technology from which new products can be derived. Within ECHORD, opportunities for knowledge advancement and technology transfer between academia and industry will be created across the whole continent. This will be achieved through the solicitation of focused, small-size RTD projects, so-called experiments, which can be rapidly negotiated, funded and executed. Via these experiments, ECHORD will bring about a large-scale introduction of robotic equipment into research institutions. This is expected to result in both tangible and measurable out-comes in terms of the accelerated development of technologies, as well as the deployment of robotics technology into new scenarios for the direct application of research results. For ECHORD, three such scenarios have been defined: human-robot co-working, hyper flexible cells, and cognitive factories. The foremost purpose of the scenarios is to define an environment that is both scientifically challenging to research institutions and commercially relevant to robot manufacturers.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: ENV.2009.3.1.5.2 | Award Amount: 2.60M | Year: 2010

The project will develop 1) sustainability indicators for buildings, 2) understanding about the needed performance levels considering new and existing buildings, different building types and local requirements, 3) methods for the benchmarking of sustainable buildings (SB) and 4) recommendations for the effective use of benchmarking systems as instruments of steering and in building processes. The work will make use of the existing knowledge of SB assessment and rating systems. However, the project recognises that there are still unsolved issues and areas with no common understanding. These include: a) the integration of social and economic issues with SB assessment, b) consideration of certain environmental aspects as land use, c) defining appropriate performance levels considering both minimal levels and advanced targets, d) consideration of local conditions, different building types, and both new and existing buildings when selecting performance levels, d) selection of benchmarking criteria to be easily adopted in different parts of Europe, e) effective mobilisation of the benchmarking system, f) effective making use of the system in building processes and in building regulation and steering. The work will be divided into 8 work packages: WP1 ensures the effective work progress and the good communication between project members and between the project and the Commission; WP2 establishes the common starting point for the project; WP3 analyses the potential of SB benchmarking systems as an instrument of steering and when used in different phases of building projects, WP4 develops and selects sustainability indicators that describe the environmental, social and economic performance of buildings. WP4 will focus on the development of data validity and reliability for each key indicator. WP5 defines performance levels and benchmarking criteria, WP6 makes recommendations for effective exploitation, WP7 pilots the system, and WP8 disseminates the outcomes with help of the project NETWORK GROUP and with help of powerful organisations of building professionals.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INFRADEV-04-2016 | Award Amount: 9.95M | Year: 2017

The EOSCpilot project will support the first phase in the development of the European Open Science Cloud (EOSC) as described in the EC Communication on European Cloud Initiatives [2016]. It will establish the governance framework for the EOSC and contribute to the development of European open science policy and best practice; It will develop a number of pilots that integrate services and infrastructures to demonstrate interoperability in a number of scientific domains; and It will engage with a broad range of stakeholders, crossing borders and communities, to build the trust and skills required for adoption of an open approach to scientific research . These actions will build on and leverage already available resources and capabilities from research infrastructure and e-infrastructure organisations to maximise their use across the research community. The EOSCpilot project will address some of the key reasons why European research is not yet fully tapping into the potential of data. In particular, it will: reduce fragmentation between data infrastructures by working across scientific and economic domains, countries and governance models, and improve interoperability between data infrastructures by demonstrating how data and resources can be shared even when they are large and complex and in varied formats, In this way, the EOSC pilot project will improve the ability to reuse data resources and provide an important step towards building a dependable open-data research environment where data from publicly funded research is always open and there are clear incentives and rewards for the sharing of data and resources.


News Article | November 28, 2016
Site: www.cemag.us

Graphene, a two-dimensional form of carbon in sheets just one atom in thick, has been the subject of widespread research, in large part because of its unique combination of strength, electrical conductivity, and chemical stability. But despite many years of study, some of graphene’s fundamental properties are still not well-understood, including the way it behaves when something slides along its surface. Now, using powerful computer simulations, researchers at MIT and elsewhere have made significant strides in understanding that process, including why the friction varies as the object sliding on it moves forward, instead of remaining constant as it does with most other known materials. The findings are presented in the journal Nature, in a paper by Ju Li, professor of nuclear science and engineering and of materials science and engineering at MIT, and seven others at MIT, the University of Pennsylvania, and universities in China and Germany. Graphite, a bulk material composed of many layers of graphene, is a well-known solid lubricant. (In other words, like oil, it can be added in between contacting materials to reduce friction.) Recent research suggests that even one or a few layers of graphene can also provide effective lubrication. This may be used in small-scale thermal and electrical contacts and other nanoscale devices. In such cases, an understanding of the friction between two pieces of graphene, or between graphene and another material, is important for maintaining a good electrical, thermal, and mechanical connection. Researchers had previously found that while one layer of graphene on a surface reduces friction, having a few more was even better. However, the reason for this was not well-explained before, Li says. “There is this broad notion in tribology that friction depends on the true contact area,” Li says — that is, the area where two materials are really in contact, down to the atomic level. The “true” contact area is often substantially smaller than it would otherwise appear to be if observed at larger size scales. Determining the true contact area is important for understanding not only the degree of friction between the pieces, but also other characteristics such as the electrical conduction or heat transfer. For example, explains co-author Robert Carpick of the University of Pennsylvania, “When two parts in a machine make contact, like two teeth of steel gears, the actual amount of steel in contact is much smaller than it appears, because the gear teeth are rough, and contact only occurs at the topmost protruding points on the surfaces. If the surfaces were polished to be flatter so that twice as much area was in contact, the friction would then be twice as high. In other words, the friction force doubles if the true area of direct contact doubles.” But it turns out that the situation is even more complex than scientists had thought. Li and his colleagues found that there are also other aspects of the contact that influence how friction force gets transferred across it. “We call this the quality of contact, as opposed to the quantity of contact measured by the ‘true contact’ area,” Li explains. Experimental observations had shown that when a nanoscale object slides along a single layer of graphene, the friction force actually increases at first, before eventually leveling off. This effect lessens and the leveled-off friction force decreases when sliding on more and more graphene sheets. This phenomenon was also seen in other layered materials including molybdenum disulfide. Previous attempts to explain this variation in friction, not seen in anything other than these two-dimensional materials, had fallen short. To determine the quality of contact, it is necessary to know the exact position of each atom on each of the two surfaces. The quality of contact depends on how well-aligned the atomic configurations are in the two surfaces in contact, and on the synchrony of these alignments. According to the computer simulations, these factors turned out to be more important than the traditional measure in explaining the materials’ frictional behavior, according to Li. “You cannot explain the increase in friction” as the material begins to slide “by just the contact area,” Li says. “Most of the change in friction is actually due to change in the quality of contact, not the true contact area.” The researchers found that the act of sliding causes graphene atoms to make better contact with the object sliding along it; this increase in the quality of contact leads to the increase in friction as sliding proceeds and eventually levels off. The effect is strong for a single layer of graphene because the graphene is so flexible that the atoms can move to locations of better contact with the tip. A number of factors can affect the quality of contact, including rigidity of the surfaces, slight curvatures, and gas molecules that get in between the two solid layers, Li says. But by understanding the way the process works, engineers can now take specific steps to alter that frictional behavior to match a particular intended use of the material. For example, “prewrinkling” of the graphene material can give it more flexibility and improve the quality of contact. “We can use that to vary the friction by a factor of three, while the true contact area barely changes,” he says. “In other words, it’s not just the material itself” that determines how it slides, but also its boundary condition — including whether it is loose and wrinkled or flat and stretched tight, he says. And these principles apply not just to graphene but also to other two-dimensional materials, such as molybdenum disulfide, boron nitride, or other single-atom or single-molecule-thick materials. “Potentially, a moving mechanical contact could be used as a way to make very good power switches in small electronic devices,” Li says. But that is still some ways off; while graphene is a promising material being widely studied, “we’re still waiting to see graphene electronics and 2-D electronics take off. It’s an emerging field.” “Researchers have studied the unique frictional behavior of graphene for many years, but the complex mechanisms underlying these observations are still not fully understood,” says Ashlie Martini, an associate professor of engineering at the University of California at Merced, who was not involved in this work. “This paper tackles the challenge head on and provides new insights into the origins of friction on graphene that I anticipate will be applicable to two-dimensional materials in general.” Martini adds, “The authors of the paper correctly suggest that their work could be used as a foundation for ‘tuning’ friction on graphene. Actually implementing this tuning has the potential for significant impact, and an exciting next step based on this research would be to implement the proposed tuning as a first step toward controllable friction in scientific and engineering applications.” Besides Li and Carpick, the research team included former MIT and University of Pennsylvania visiting student Suzhi Li, now a Humboldt Research Fellow in Germany; Qunyang Li at Tsinghua University in China; Xin Liu at the University of Pennsylvania and now at Intel; Peter Gumbsch at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology in Germany; and Xiangdong Ding and Jun Sun at Xi’an Jiaotong University in China. The work was supported by the National Science Foundation.


News Article | November 23, 2016
Site: news.mit.edu

Graphene, a two-dimensional form of carbon sheets just one atom thick, has been the subject of widespread research, in large part because of its unique combination of strength, electrical conductivity, and chemical stability. But despite many years of study, some of graphene’s fundamental properties are still not well-understood, including the way it behaves when something slides along its surface. Now, using powerful computer simulations, researchers at MIT and elsewhere have made significant strides in understanding that process, including why the friction varies as the object sliding on it moves forward, instead of remaining constant as it does with most other known materials. The findings are presented this week in the journal Nature, in a paper by Ju Li, professor of nuclear science and engineering and of materials science and engineering at MIT, and seven others at MIT, the University of Pennsylvania, and universities in China and Germany. Graphite, a bulk material composed of many layers of graphene, is a well-known solid lubricant. (In other words, like oil, it can be added in between contacting materials to reduce friction.) Recent research suggests that even one or a few layers of graphene can also provide effective lubrication. This may be used in small-scale thermal and electrical contacts and other nanoscale devices. In such cases, an understanding of the friction between two pieces of graphene, or between graphene and another material, is important for maintaining a good electrical, thermal, and mechanical connection. Researchers had previously found that while one layer of graphene on a surface reduces friction, having a few more was even better. However, the reason for this was not well-explained before, Li says. “There is this broad notion in tribology that friction depends on the true contact area,” Li says — that is, the area where two materials are really in contact, down to the atomic level. The “true” contact area is often substantially smaller than it would otherwise appear to be if observed at larger size scales. Determining the true contact area is important for understanding not only the degree of friction between the pieces, but also other characteristics such as the electrical conduction or heat transfer. For example, explains co-author Robert Carpick of the University of Pennsylvania, “When two parts in a machine make contact, like two teeth of steel gears, the actual amount of steel in contact is much smaller than it appears, because the gear teeth are rough, and contact only occurs at the topmost protruding points on the surfaces. If the surfaces were polished to be flatter so that twice as much area was in contact, the friction would then be twice as high. In other words, the friction force doubles if the true area of direct contact doubles.” But it turns out that the situation is even more complex than scientists had thought. Li and his colleagues found that there are also other aspects of the contact that influence how friction force gets transferred across it. “We call this the quality of contact, as opposed to the quantity of contact measured by the ‘true contact’ area,” Li explains. Experimental observations had shown that when a nanoscale object slides along a single layer of graphene, the friction force actually increases at first, before eventually leveling off. This effect lessens and the leveled-off friction force decreases when sliding on more and more graphene sheets. This phenomenon was also seen in other layered materials including molybdenum disulfide. Previous attempts to explain this variation in friction, not seen in anything other than these two-dimensional materials, had fallen short. To determine the quality of contact, it is necessary to know the exact position of each atom on each of the two surfaces. The quality of contact depends on how well-aligned the atomic configurations are in the two surfaces in contact, and on the synchrony of these alignments. According to the computer simulations, these factors turned out to be more important than the traditional measure in explaining the materials’ frictional behavior, according to Li. “You cannot explain the increase in friction” as the material begins to slide “by just the contact area,” Li says. “Most of the change in friction is actually due to change in the quality of contact, not the true contact area.” The researchers found that the act of sliding causes graphene atoms to make better contact with the object sliding along it; this increase in the quality of contact leads to the increase in friction as sliding proceeds and eventually levels off. The effect is strong for a single layer of graphene because the graphene is so flexible that the atoms can move to locations of better contact with the tip. A number of factors can affect the quality of contact, including rigidity of the surfaces, slight curvatures, and gas molecules that get in between the two solid layers, Li says. But by understanding the way the process works, engineers can now take specific steps to alter that frictional behavior to match a particular intended use of the material. For example, “prewrinkling” of the graphene material can give it more flexibility and improve the quality of contact. “We can use that to vary the friction by a factor of three, while the true contact area barely changes,” he says. “In other words, it’s not just the material itself” that determines how it slides, but also its boundary condition — including whether it is loose and wrinkled or flat and stretched tight, he says. And these principles apply not just to graphene but also to other two-dimensional materials, such as molybdenum disulfide, boron nitride, or other single-atom or single-molecule-thick materials. “Potentially, a moving mechanical contact could be used as a way to make very good power switches in small electronic devices,” Li says. But that is still some ways off; while graphene is a promising material being widely studied, “we’re still waiting to see graphene electronics and 2-D electronics take off. It’s an emerging field.” “Researchers have studied the unique frictional behavior of graphene for many years, but the complex mechanisms underlying these observations are still not fully understood,” says Ashlie Martini, an associate professor of engineering at the University of California at Merced, who was not involved in this work. “This paper tackles the challenge head on and provides new insights into the origins of friction on graphene that I anticipate will be applicable to two-dimensional materials in general.” Martini adds: “The authors of the paper correctly suggest that their work could be used as a foundation for ‘tuning’ friction on graphene. Actually implementing this tuning has the potential for significant impact, and an exciting next step based on this research would be to implement the proposed tuning as a first step toward controllable friction in scientific and engineering applications.” Besides Li and Carpick, the research team included former MIT and University of Pennsylvania visiting student Suzhi Li, now a Humboldt Research Fellow in Germany; Qunyang Li at Tsinghua University in China; Xin Liu at the University of Pennsylvania and now at Intel; Peter Gumbsch at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology in Germany; and Xiangdong Ding and Jun Sun at Xi’an Jiaotong University in China. The work was supported by the National Science Foundation.


Home > Press > Uncovering the secrets of friction on graphene: Sliding on flexible graphene surfaces has been uncharted territory until now Abstract: Graphene, a two-dimensional form of carbon in sheets just one atom in thick, has been the subject of widespread research, in large part because of its unique combination of strength, electrical conductivity, and chemical stability. But despite many years of study, some of graphene's fundamental properties are still not well-understood, including the way it behaves when something slides along its surface. Now, using powerful computer simulations, researchers at MIT and elsewhere have made significant strides in understanding that process, including why the friction varies as the object sliding on it moves forward, instead of remaining constant as it does with most other known materials. The findings are presented this week in the journal Nature, in a paper by Ju Li, professor of nuclear science and engineering and of materials science and engineering at MIT, and seven others at MIT, the University of Pennsylvania, and universities in China and Germany. Graphite, a bulk material composed of many layers of graphene, is a well-known solid lubricant. (In other words, like oil, it can be added in between contacting materials to reduce friction.) Recent research suggests that even one or a few layers of graphene can also provide effective lubrication. This may be used in small-scale thermal and electrical contacts and other nanoscale devices. In such cases, an understanding of the friction between two pieces of graphene, or between graphene and another material, is important for maintaining a good electrical, thermal, and mechanical connection. Researchers had previously found that while one layer of graphene on a surface reduces friction, having a few more was even better. However, the reason for this was not well-explained before, Li says. "There is this broad notion in tribology that friction depends on the true contact area," Li says -- that is, the area where two materials are really in contact, down to the atomic level. The "true" contact area is often substantially smaller than it would otherwise appear to be if observed at larger size scales. Determining the true contact area is important for understanding not only the degree of friction between the pieces, but also other characteristics such as the electrical conduction or heat transfer. For example, explains co-author Robert Carpick of the University of Pennsylvania, "When two parts in a machine make contact, like two teeth of steel gears, the actual amount of steel in contact is much smaller than it appears, because the gear teeth are rough, and contact only occurs at the topmost protruding points on the surfaces. If the surfaces were polished to be flatter so that twice as much area was in contact, the friction would then be twice as high. In other words, the friction force doubles if the true area of direct contact doubles." But it turns out that the situation is even more complex than scientists had thought. Li and his colleagues found that there are also other aspects of the contact that influence how friction force gets transferred across it. "We call this the quality of contact, as opposed to the quantity of contact measured by the 'true contact' area," Li explains. Experimental observations had shown that when a nanoscale object slides along a single layer of graphene, the friction force actually increases at first, before eventually leveling off. This effect lessens and the leveled-off friction force decreases when sliding on more and more graphene sheets. This phenomenon was also seen in other layered materials including molybdenum disulfide. Previous attempts to explain this variation in friction, not seen in anything other than these two-dimensional materials, had fallen short. To determine the quality of contact, it is necessary to know the exact position of each atom on each of the two surfaces. The quality of contact depends on how well-aligned the atomic configurations are in the two surfaces in contact, and on the synchrony of these alignments. According to the computer simulations, these factors turned out to be more important than the traditional measure in explaining the materials' frictional behavior, according to Li. "You cannot explain the increase in friction" as the material begins to slide "by just the contact area," Li says. "Most of the change in friction is actually due to change in the quality of contact, not the true contact area." The researchers found that the act of sliding causes graphene atoms to make better contact with the object sliding along it; this increase in the quality of contact leads to the increase in friction as sliding proceeds and eventually levels off. The effect is strong for a single layer of graphene because the graphene is so flexible that the atoms can move to locations of better contact with the tip. A number of factors can affect the quality of contact, including rigidity of the surfaces, slight curvatures, and gas molecules that get in between the two solid layers, Li says. But by understanding the way the process works, engineers can now take specific steps to alter that frictional behavior to match a particular intended use of the material. For example, "prewrinkling" of the graphene material can give it more flexibility and improve the quality of contact. "We can use that to vary the friction by a factor of three, while the true contact area barely changes," he says. "In other words, it's not just the material itself" that determines how it slides, but also its boundary condition -- including whether it is loose and wrinkled or flat and stretched tight, he says. And these principles apply not just to graphene but also to other two-dimensional materials, such as molybdenum disulfide, boron nitride, or other single-atom or single-molecule-thick materials. "Potentially, a moving mechanical contact could be used as a way to make very good power switches in small electronic devices," Li says. But that is still some ways off; while graphene is a promising material being widely studied, "we're still waiting to see graphene electronics and 2-D electronics take off. It's an emerging field." ### Besides Li and Carpick, the research team included former MIT and University of Pennsylvania visiting student Suzhi Li, now a Humboldt Research Fellow in Germany; Qunyang Li at Tsinghua University in China; Xin Liu at the University of Pennsylvania and now at Intel; Peter Gumbsch at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology in Germany; and Xiangdong Ding and Jun Sun at Xi'an Jiaotong University in China. The work was supported by the National Science Foundation. For more information, please click If you have a comment, please us. Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.


News Article | November 23, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

CAMBRIDGE, Mass. -- Graphene, a two-dimensional form of carbon in sheets just one atom in thick, has been the subject of widespread research, in large part because of its unique combination of strength, electrical conductivity, and chemical stability. But despite many years of study, some of graphene's fundamental properties are still not well-understood, including the way it behaves when something slides along its surface. Now, using powerful computer simulations, researchers at MIT and elsewhere have made significant strides in understanding that process, including why the friction varies as the object sliding on it moves forward, instead of remaining constant as it does with most other known materials. The findings are presented this week in the journal Nature, in a paper by Ju Li, professor of nuclear science and engineering and of materials science and engineering at MIT, and seven others at MIT, the University of Pennsylvania, and universities in China and Germany. Graphite, a bulk material composed of many layers of graphene, is a well-known solid lubricant. (In other words, like oil, it can be added in between contacting materials to reduce friction.) Recent research suggests that even one or a few layers of graphene can also provide effective lubrication. This may be used in small-scale thermal and electrical contacts and other nanoscale devices. In such cases, an understanding of the friction between two pieces of graphene, or between graphene and another material, is important for maintaining a good electrical, thermal, and mechanical connection. Researchers had previously found that while one layer of graphene on a surface reduces friction, having a few more was even better. However, the reason for this was not well-explained before, Li says. "There is this broad notion in tribology that friction depends on the true contact area," Li says -- that is, the area where two materials are really in contact, down to the atomic level. The "true" contact area is often substantially smaller than it would otherwise appear to be if observed at larger size scales. Determining the true contact area is important for understanding not only the degree of friction between the pieces, but also other characteristics such as the electrical conduction or heat transfer. For example, explains co-author Robert Carpick of the University of Pennsylvania, "When two parts in a machine make contact, like two teeth of steel gears, the actual amount of steel in contact is much smaller than it appears, because the gear teeth are rough, and contact only occurs at the topmost protruding points on the surfaces. If the surfaces were polished to be flatter so that twice as much area was in contact, the friction would then be twice as high. In other words, the friction force doubles if the true area of direct contact doubles." But it turns out that the situation is even more complex than scientists had thought. Li and his colleagues found that there are also other aspects of the contact that influence how friction force gets transferred across it. "We call this the quality of contact, as opposed to the quantity of contact measured by the 'true contact' area," Li explains. Experimental observations had shown that when a nanoscale object slides along a single layer of graphene, the friction force actually increases at first, before eventually leveling off. This effect lessens and the leveled-off friction force decreases when sliding on more and more graphene sheets. This phenomenon was also seen in other layered materials including molybdenum disulfide. Previous attempts to explain this variation in friction, not seen in anything other than these two-dimensional materials, had fallen short. To determine the quality of contact, it is necessary to know the exact position of each atom on each of the two surfaces. The quality of contact depends on how well-aligned the atomic configurations are in the two surfaces in contact, and on the synchrony of these alignments. According to the computer simulations, these factors turned out to be more important than the traditional measure in explaining the materials' frictional behavior, according to Li. "You cannot explain the increase in friction" as the material begins to slide "by just the contact area," Li says. "Most of the change in friction is actually due to change in the quality of contact, not the true contact area." The researchers found that the act of sliding causes graphene atoms to make better contact with the object sliding along it; this increase in the quality of contact leads to the increase in friction as sliding proceeds and eventually levels off. The effect is strong for a single layer of graphene because the graphene is so flexible that the atoms can move to locations of better contact with the tip. A number of factors can affect the quality of contact, including rigidity of the surfaces, slight curvatures, and gas molecules that get in between the two solid layers, Li says. But by understanding the way the process works, engineers can now take specific steps to alter that frictional behavior to match a particular intended use of the material. For example, "prewrinkling" of the graphene material can give it more flexibility and improve the quality of contact. "We can use that to vary the friction by a factor of three, while the true contact area barely changes," he says. "In other words, it's not just the material itself" that determines how it slides, but also its boundary condition -- including whether it is loose and wrinkled or flat and stretched tight, he says. And these principles apply not just to graphene but also to other two-dimensional materials, such as molybdenum disulfide, boron nitride, or other single-atom or single-molecule-thick materials. "Potentially, a moving mechanical contact could be used as a way to make very good power switches in small electronic devices," Li says. But that is still some ways off; while graphene is a promising material being widely studied, "we're still waiting to see graphene electronics and 2-D electronics take off. It's an emerging field." Besides Li and Carpick, the research team included former MIT and University of Pennsylvania visiting student Suzhi Li, now a Humboldt Research Fellow in Germany; Qunyang Li at Tsinghua University in China; Xin Liu at the University of Pennsylvania and now at Intel; Peter Gumbsch at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology in Germany; and Xiangdong Ding and Jun Sun at Xi'an Jiaotong University in China. The work was supported by the National Science Foundation.


News Article | December 8, 2016
Site: www.spie.org

Achieving efficient sunlight collection over an entire day is a demanding task for stationary devices. The problem becomes even more complex when the harvested photons have to be absorbed within layers limited to a few hundreds of nanometers (or less) in thickness. This optical challenge can be addressed by a light in-coupling element that operates over a broad angular and spectral range, and that is also capable of trapping the collected light to maximize photon-to-electron conversion efficiency. Solutions developed in the silicon photovoltaic (PV) industry that rely on microscale pyramidal texturization of the absorber for light trapping are not suited to systems made of thin layers. In contrast, experimental nanophotonic approaches employing, for example, planar photonic crystals and diffraction gratings or plasmonic structures have been successfully implemented within or next to the active layer of thin-film solar cells.1, 2 An alternative route consists of integrating a light-harvesting, polymer-based coating onto the planar thin-film stack that does not affect charge-collection properties and could enable fully flexible devices.3 In this context, biomimetic structures—mostly subwavelength and inspired by moth eyes—exhibit broadband omnidirectional anti-reflection (AR) but lack the light-trapping contribution.4 For this reason, we have replicated structures that decorate plant surfaces to produce a light-harvesting layer that combines all the previously mentioned attributes.5 More specifically, we have focused on rose petal epidermal cells, which are densely packed and convexly shaped, and display a height and width of few tens of microns (see Figure 1). Figure 1. Schematic illustration of the replica approach based on plant epidermal cells. Yellow arrows show light in-coupling, which is enhanced in the solar cell as a result of its bioinspired microstructured coating. KIT: Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. The structures that we have replicated improve light management in two ways. First, the high packing factor and aspect ratio (i.e., the ratio of the length of the vertical axis to the base diameter) of the cells confer excellent AR properties, regardless of the wavelength or the angle of incidence (AOI). The main light-collection effect of the conical microstructures is fully described by the principles of ray optics and originates from the ability of the reflected light to bounce back onto a neighboring epidermal cell. Shallow nanocorrugation on the surface of the epidermal cells assists the light in-coupling mechanism to a lesser extent. Second, each epidermal cell acts as a microlens that broadens the distribution of the light-propagation angle. Thus, the optical path length is enhanced in the underlying solar cell, which results in a higher photon absorption probability and device efficiency. Before testing our method in operating PV devices, we first analyzed the optical properties of replicas obtained from different plant species. We realized this step by pouring transparent polymer directly onto the biosurfaces, resulting in an exact copy of the micro/nanostructures over a few square centimeters. We determined that the aspect ratio of the epidermal cells was the essential parameter for achieving low reflection at high AOI (see Figure 2). In fact, the integrated front-side reflection could be kept as low as 7% for an AOI of 80° by using an aspect ratio of 0.6, as found in rose petals. Figure 2. (a) Reduced reflection losses on the replica-coated surface (left) compared to the uncoated one (right). (b) Measured overall (diffuse +direct) reflection spectra of a flat resist layer and of the rose structure stacked on a black absorber for a moderate (20°) and a high (80°) angle of incidence (AOI). Owing to its remarkable AR properties, we selected the rose petal replica and imprinted it into a transparent polymer layer positioned atop a substrate comprising state-of-the-art organic solar cells. The latter were based either on PTB7-Th:PC BM-type or on PDTP-DFBT:PC BM-type polymer active layers absorbing up to 800 and 900nm, respectively. Notably, we measured a relative efficiency enhancement (with respect to an unpatterned device) of up to 13% under normal incidence, which we attribute solely to the optical effects. The most important benefits were captured for high AOI (see Figure 3). Indeed, we demonstrated a short-circuit current density enhancement of 44% at AOI =80°, that is, more than 3× higher than that obtained at AOI =0°. Figure 3. (a) Diagram of a solar cell integrating the rose structure shown with the light distribution in the glass substrate (measured by confocal laser scanning microscopy). (b) Measured overall reflection spectra of the organic solar cell with the rose structure and without (‘flat resist’) for AOIs of 20°and 80°. (c) Cosine-corrected short-circuit current density plotted as a function of the AOI for the two configurations investigated. ITO: Indium tin oxide. ZnO: Zinc oxide. PTB7-Th:PC BM: Polymer blend. MoO : Molybdenum trioxide. Ag: Silver. In summary, we have shown that plant epidermal cell replicas can be used as efficient light-harvesting elements that satisfy both the spectral and angular requirements imposed by PV. As these structures can be imprinted via a one-step process in a variety of materials and subsequent to solar cell fabrication, our approach is cost-effective, versatile, and can easily be applied to any PV technology. The plant replica structures can also be exploited for improving light management in other technologies. For example, they can be applied to organic LED substrates to enhance their light-extraction efficiency. Recent reports have shown that structural disorder can strongly impact the optical properties of photonic biostructures as well as artificial and complex light-harvesting designs.6, 7 Consequently, we are now conducting a numerical analysis of the various types of disorders encountered in rose epidermal cells, which will enable us to fine-tune our plant selection criteria. R.H. and A.M. acknowledge financial support from the Karlsruhe School of Optics and Photonics. A.M., A.S., and A.C. thank the Federal Ministry of Education and Research for funding under contract 03EK3504 (Project TAURUS), and G.G. acknowledges the support of the Helmholtz Postdoctoral Program (FE.5370.0169.0008). The authors thank Martin Theuring (NEXT ENERGY – EWE Research Centre for Energy Technology), Raphael Schmager and Benjamin Fritz (Light Technology Institute, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, KIT), Hendrik Hölscher (Institute for Microstructure Technology, KIT), and Joachim Daumann (Botanischer Garten Karlsruhe). The experiments were performed using facilities at the Light Technology Institute, the Institute for Microstructure Technology, and the Zoological Institute at KIT. Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) Ruben Hünig is pursuing his PhD at the Light Technology Institute (LTI) at KIT on light-management structures for thin-film solar cells. His work currently focuses on plant surfaces as light-harvesting elements. Adrian Mertens studied physics at KIT and is now doing his PhD at the LTI and the Material Research Centre for Energy Systems at KIT. The main focus of his work is the investigation of angle-dependent absorption in organic single and tandem solar cells as well as the impact of scattering layers on the performance of such devices. Michael Hetterich is coordinator of the Thin-Film Photovoltaics Group at the LTI and the Institute of Applied Physics at KIT. His current research activities focus on the development and investigation of novel solar cell absorber materials as well as device modeling and optimization. Uli Lemmer received a diploma degree from the RWTH Aachen University, Germany, in 1990 and his PhD from the University of Marburg, Germany, in 1995. In 2002, he was appointed a full professor and director of the LTI. Alexander Colsmann heads the Organic Photovoltaics Group at the LTI and the Material Research Centre for Energy Systems at KIT. His further research interests include solar cells for building integration, perovskite solar cells, organic LEDs, printed electronics, printable electrodes, charge carrier transport, and electrical doping of organic semiconductors. Guillaume Gomard is the group leader for the ‘Nanophotonics’ activities at the LTI. His current research encompasses the analysis of disordered photonic crystals, scattering stochastic ensembles, and hierarchical bio-inspired photonic structures and their implementation within optoelectronic devices for enhanced efficiencies. 1. C. Trompoukis, I. Abdo, R. Cariou, I. Cosme, W. Chen, O. Deparis, A. Dmitriev, et al., Photonic nanostructures for advanced light trapping in thin crystalline silicon solar cells, Phys. Status Solidi A 212, p. 140-155, 2015. doi:10.1002/pssa.201431180 4. J. W. Leem, X.-Y. Guan, M. Choi, J. S. Yu, Broadband and omnidirectional highly-transparent coverglasses coated with biomimetic moth-eye nanopatterned polymer films for solar photovoltaic system applications, Sol. Energ. Mater. Sol. Cells 134, p. 45-53, 2015. doi:10.1016/j.solmat.2014.11.025 6. R. H. Siddique, G. Gomard, H. Hölscher, The role of random nanostructures for the omnidirectional anti-reflection properties of the glasswing butterfly, Nat. Commun. 6, p. 6909, 2015. doi:10.1038/ncomms7909 7. L. C. Andreani, A. Bozzola, P. Kowalczewski, M. Liscidini, Photonic light trapping and electrical transport in thin-film silicon solar cells, Sol. Energ. Mater. Sol. Cells 135, p. 78-92, 2015. doi:10.1016/j.solmat.2014.10.012


Nienhaus G.U.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Nienhaus G.U.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2012

Like the battery bunny: The novel photoswitchable fluorescent protein rsEGFP can be cycled between its fluorescent and nonfluorescent states more than a thousand times and is, therefore, a superb marker for high-resolution RESOLFT imaging (RESOLFT=reversible saturable optical fluorescence transition) and data storage applications. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Shang L.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Dong S.,CAS Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry | Nienhaus G.U.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Nienhaus G.U.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign
Nano Today | Year: 2011

Recent advances in nanotechnology have given rise to a new class of fluorescent labels, fluorescent metal nanoclusters, e.g., Au and Ag. These nanoclusters are of significant interest because they provide the missing link between atomic and nanoparticle behavior in metals. Composed of a few to a hundred atoms, their sizes are comparable to the Fermi wavelength of electrons, resulting in molecule-like properties including discrete electronic states and size-dependent fluorescence. Fluorescent metal nanoclusters have an attractive set of features, such as ultrasmall size, good biocompatibility and excellent photostability, making them ideal fluorescent labels for biological applications. In this review, we summarize synthesis strategies of water-soluble fluorescent metal nanoclusters and their optical properties, highlight recent advances in their application for ultrasensitive biological detection and fluorescent biological imaging, and finally discuss current challenges for their potential biomedical applications. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Hartmann P.,Justus Liebig University | Bender C.L.,Justus Liebig University | Vracar M.,Justus Liebig University | Vracar M.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | And 4 more authors.
Nature Materials | Year: 2013

In the search for room-temperature batteries with high energy densities, rechargeable metal-air (more precisely metal-oxygen) batteries are considered as particularly attractive owing to the simplicity of the underlying cell reaction at first glance. Atmospheric oxygen is used to form oxides during discharging, which - ideally - decompose reversibly during charging. Much work has been focused on aprotic Li-O2 cells (mostly with carbonate-based electrolytes and Li2O2 as a potential discharge product), where large overpotentials are observed and a complex cell chemistry is found. In fact, recent studies evidence that Li-O2 cells suffer from irreversible electrolyte decomposition during cycling. Here we report on a Na-O2 cell reversibly discharging/charging at very low overpotentials (< 200 mV) and current densities as high as 0.2 mA cm-2 using a pure carbon cathode without an added catalyst. Crystalline sodium superoxide (NaO2) forms in a one-electron transfer step as a solid discharge product. This work demonstrates that substitution of lithium by sodium may offer an unexpected route towards rechargeable metal-air batteries. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Nienhaus K.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Ulrich Nienhaus G.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Ulrich Nienhaus G.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2014

Fluorescent proteins (FPs) from the GFP family have become indispensable as marker tools for imaging live cells, tissues and entire organisms. A wide variety of these proteins have been isolated from natural sources and engineered to optimize their properties as genetically encoded markers. Here we review recent developments in this field. A special focus is placed on photoactivatable FPs, for which the fluorescence emission can be controlled by light irradiation at specific wavelengths. They enable regional optical marking in pulse-chase experiments on live cells and tissues, and they are essential marker tools for live-cell optical imaging with super-resolution. Photoconvertible FPs, which can be activated irreversibly via a photo-induced chemical reaction that either turns on their emission or changes their emission wavelength, are excellent markers for localization-based super-resolution microscopy (e.g., PALM). Patterned illumination microscopy (e.g., RESOLFT), however, requires markers that can be reversibly photoactivated many times. Photoswitchable FPs can be toggled repeatedly between a fluorescent and a non-fluorescent state by means of a light-induced chromophore isomerization coupled to a protonation reaction. We discuss the mechanistic origins of the effect and illustrate how photoswitchable FPs are employed in RESOLFT imaging. For this purpose, special FP variants with low switching fatigue have been introduced in recent years. Despite nearly two decades of FP engineering by many laboratories, there is still room for further improvement of these important markers for live cell imaging. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Frings P.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Nierste U.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Wiebusch M.,Durham University
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2015

The precision of the CP phases 2β and 2βs determined from the mixing-induced CP asymmetries in Bd→J/ψKS and Bs→J/ψφ, respectively, is limited by the unknown long-distance contribution of a penguin diagram involving up quarks. The penguin contribution is expected to be comparable in size to the precision of the LHCb and Belle II experiments and, therefore, limits the sensitivity of the measured quantities to new physics. We analyze the infrared QCD structure of this contribution and find that all soft and collinear divergences either cancel between different diagrams or factorize into matrix elements of local four-quark operators up to terms suppressed by ΛQCD/mψ, where mψ denotes the J/ψ mass. Our results, which are based on an operator product expansion, allow us to calculate the penguin-to-tree ratio P/T in terms of the matrix elements of these operators and to constrain the penguin contribution to the phase 2β as |Δφd|≤0.68°. The penguin contribution to 2βs is bounded as |Δφs0|≤0.97°, |Δφs|≤1.22°, and |Δφs|≤0.99° for the case of longitudinal, parallel, and perpendicular φ and J/ψ polarizations, respectively. Further, we place bounds on |Δφd| for Bd→ψ(2S)KS and the polarization amplitudes in Bd→J/ψK∗. In our approach, it is further possible to constrain P/T for decays in which P/T is Cabibbo unsuppressed, and we derive upper limits on the penguin contribution to the mixing-induced CP asymmetries in Bd→J/ψπ0, Bd→J/ψρ0, Bs→J/ψKS, and Bs→J/ψK∗. For all studied decay modes, we also constrain the sizes of the direct CP asymmetries. © 2015 American Physical Society.


Shang L.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Nienhaus G.U.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Nienhaus G.U.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign
Materials Today | Year: 2013

Semiconductor quantum dots and metal nanoclusters are fluorescent nanoparticles with diameters in the few-nanometer range. In recent years, they have captured a great deal of attention as experimental tools in the life sciences for diverse applications including imaging, bioassays and therapy. It is crucially important to understand how these small nanoparticles behave in complex biological environments, especially in view of their potential for biomedical applications. In this review, we shall highlight recent advances in exploring the behavior of fluorescent nanoparticles at the nano-bio interface, including their interactions with proteins and cells, their intracellular stability as well as their in vivo behavior. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Roostalu U.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Roostalu U.,King's College London | Strahle U.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
Developmental Cell | Year: 2012

Muscle cells have a remarkable capability to repair plasma membrane lesions. Mutations in dysferlin (dysf) are known to elicit a progressive myopathy in humans, probably due to impaired sarcolemmal repair. We show here that loss of Dysf and annexin A6 (Anxa6) function lead to myopathy in zebrafish. By use of high-resolution imaging of myofibers in intact animals, we reveal sequential phases in sarcolemmal repair. Initially, membrane vesicles enriched in Dysf together with cytoplasmic Anxa6 form a tight patch at the lesion independently of one another. In the subsequent steps, annexin A2a (Anxa2a) followed by annexin A1a (Anxa1a) accumulate at the patch; the recruitment of these annexins depends on Dysf and Anxa6. Thus, sarcolemmal repair relies on the ordered assembly of a protein-membrane scaffold. Moreover, we provide several lines of evidence that the membrane for sarcolemmal repair is derived from a specialized plasma membrane compartment. Video Abstract: Intravital imaging in zebrafish enabled Roostalu and Strahle to visualize myofiber damage responses in a living vertebrate. Focusing on muscle membrane repair, the authors find that resealing the sarcolemma after damage relies on annexin A6 and dysferlin recruitment, which initiates an ordered process that ultimately involves diverse other annexins. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Campanario F.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Sapeta S.,Durham University
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2012

We use the LoopSim and VBFNLO packages to investigate a merged sample of partonic events that is accurate at NLO in QCD simultaneously for the WZ and WZ + jet production processes. In certain regions of phase space such a procedure is expected to account for the dominant part of the NNLO QCD corrections to the WZ production process. For a number of commonly used experimental observables, we find that these corrections are substantial, in the 30-100% range and in some cases their inclusion can reduce scale uncertainties by a factor of two. As in the underlying VBFNLO calculations, we include the leptonic decays of the vector bosons and all off-shell and finite-width effects. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Aschmann J.,University of Bremen | Sinnhuber B.-M.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2013

Very short-lived substances (VSLS) still represent a major factor of uncertainty in the quantification of stratospheric bromine loading. One of the major obstacles for short-lived source gases in contributing to the stratosphere is generally thought to be loss of inorganic bromine (Bry) in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) due to dehydration. We use sensitivity calculations with a three-dimensional chemistry transport model comprising a consistent parametrization of convective transport and a comprehensive chemistry scheme to investigate the associated processes. The model considers the two most important bromine VSLS, bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH 2Br2). The organic bromine source gases as well as the resulting profile of inorganic bromine in the model are consistent with available observations. In contrast to its organic precursors, Bry is assumed to have a significant sorption capacity regarding sedimenting liquid or frozen particles thus the fraction of intact source gases during their ascent through the TTL is a critical factor. We find that source gas injection is the dominant pathway into the stratosphere, about 50% of CHBr3 and 94% of CH 2Br2 is able to overcome the cold point tropopause at approximately 17 km altitude, modulated by the interannual variability of the vertical transport efficiency. In fact, our sensitivity calculations indicate that the extent of source gas injection of CHBr3 is highly sensitive to the strength of convection and large-scale ascent; in contrast, modifying the photolysis or the destruction via OH yields a significantly smaller response. In principle, the same applies as well to CH2Br2, though it is considerably less responsive due to its longer lifetime. The next important aspect we identified is that the partitioning of available Bry from short-lived sources is clearly shifted away from HBr, according to our current state of knowledge the only member of the Bry family which is efficiently adsorbed on ice particles. This effect is caused by very efficient heterogeneous reactions on ice surfaces which reduce the HBr/Bry fraction below 15% at the tropical tropopause. Under these circumstances there is no significant loss of Bry due to dehydration in the model, VSLS contribute fully to stratospheric bromine. In addition, we conduct several sensitivity calculations to test the robustness of this result. If heterogeneous chemistry is ignored, the HBr/Bry fraction exceeds 50% and about 10% of bromine from VSLS is scavenged. Dehydration plays a minor role for Bry removal under the assumption that HOBr is efficiently adsorbed on ice as well since the heterogeneous reactions alter the partitioning equilibrium of Bry in favor of HOBr. In this case, up to 12% of bromine from VSLS is removed. Even in the extreme and unrealistic case that adsorbed species on ice particles are instantaneously removed the maximum loss of bromine does not exceed 25%. Assuming 6 parts per trillion by volume (pptv) of bromine short-lived source gases in convective updrafts, a value that is supported by observational data, we find a most likely contribution of VSLS to stratospheric bromine in the range of 4.5-6 pptv. © Author(s) 2013.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: Fission-2011-2.2.1 | Award Amount: 5.65M | Year: 2011

This project will support the ESNII (European Sustainable Nuclear Industrial Initiative) roadmap and the Strategic Research Agenda and the Deployment Strategy of SNETP (Sustainable Nuclear Energy Technology Platform) on the enhancement of Sodium-cooled Fast neutron Reactors (SFR) safety, especially towards a higher resistance to severe accidents. In the initiation phase of SFR core disruptive accidents, it is essential to investigate the impact of new core designs that may disperse core debris and minimize risks of core compaction. The available codes today have been developed in the 80s. The objective is to develop a new European simulation code, ASTEC-Na, with improved physical models, accounting for results of recent LWR research, with modern software architecture and high flexibility to account for innovative reactor designs. It will be based on the ASTEC European code system, developed by IRSN and GRS for severe accidents in water-cooled reactors. This will allow to capitalize the state-of-the-art knowledge on SFR severe accidents. The code will evaluate the consequences of fuel pin failure conditions on materials relocation and primary system loads, and the source term produced by the migration inside the reactor of activated fission products and aerosols that may be released to the environment. The project will gather partners with strong experience on SFR safety and/or on ASTEC code. Specific SFR physical models will be developed, on the basis of outputs of the CP-ESFR FP7 project. After the elaboration of general specifications and of a validation matrix, the models will be developed, implemented into the code, validated vs. experiments (like past CABRI ones) and benchmarked with other codes. The further extension of ASTEC-Na to cover other parts of the SFR severe accidents (transition phase, fires) and to LFR will be investigated. An Education programme will include workshops as well as the secondment of young researchers in other organizations.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH-2007-2.1.2-5 | Award Amount: 3.83M | Year: 2009

Background. Parkinson Disease is the second most common progressive neurodegenerative disorder. The selective degeneration of subsets of midbrain dopaminergic neurons is believed to be the primary cause for disruption of the ability to control movements. Objective. We propose to apply a highly interdisciplinary approach to construct complex networks consisting of protein coding genes, non-protein-coding genes and cis-regulatory elements within dopaminergic neurons in the brain across three chordate organisms (Mouse, Zebrafish and Ciona) to identify and compare gene regulatory networks in these neurons. This will be achieved by: Expression profiling of genes on single dopaminergic neurons via laser microdissection and transgenic lines in Mouse, Ciona and Zebrafish HT-Sequencing of microCAGE assays on dopaminergic neurons, providing TSS usage and transcript discovery Microscopy HTS of cis-regulatory elements siRNA and morpholino network perturbation experiments Innovative systems biology approaches to decipher and define molecular networks Data generated by microCAGE and microarray will define a set of key genes in dopaminergic neurons, in which cis-regulatory elements will be predicted and screened utilizing HTS in zebrafish. The data will aid network reconstruction, which will be validated by perturbation experiments. This project relies also on the availability of data produced through the many existing collaborations among consortium partners such as FP6 funded TRANSCODE project as well as the international Fantom3 consortium. Potential impact: The prevalence of PD in Europe today is ~2 million people. Within the next 50 years, the number is expected to rise to 5 million. Thus, the burden placed by dementia on the working-age population will rise dramatically. No treatments are known to slow the progression of the disease. Deciphering the basic networks of dopaminergic neurons will generate novel diagnostic and therapeutic candidates.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2007.1.4 | Award Amount: 17.93M | Year: 2008

The TAS3 (Trusted Architecture for Securely Shared Services) proposes an Integrated Project that will develop and implement an architecture with trusted services to manage and process distributed personal information. \nThis architecture will be dependable, robust but at the same time also cost-effective and reliable. The personal information that will be processed and managed can consist of any type of information that is owned by or refers to people. \nThe proposed architecture therefore has to be generic and cross-domain applicable. TAS3 will focus an instantiation of this architecture in the employability and e-health sector allowing users and service providers in these two sectors to manage the lifelong generated personal employability and e-health information of the individuals involved. \nThe personal information includes in this case to the interests, current and previous activities, and future objectives, where the service providers will then be able to use these preferences to propose career paths that are compatible with the workers objectives. This process-view on lifelong employability of people perfectly fits in the decision number 1672/2006/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 October 2006 establishing a Community Programme for Employment and Social Solidarity \nThe healthcare sector is another context in which the TAS3 architecture can be instantiated. In this case, the patient could be offered advanced services based on the health parameters (weight, body temperature, glucose level for diabetes patients, etc.) that are input by the patient himself. Processing the medical record of a patient is not included in the scope of this project because this would introduce too many privacy and data protection issues that are typical for treating medical and patient information. It is however clear that the TAS3 architecture could also be deployed in the healthcare sector.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2009.8.7 | Award Amount: 4.32M | Year: 2011

The present project, FOCUS, will build a novel generation of biologically inspired molecular devices (MDs) based on the developments of new photonic tools. These photonic tools will use Plasmon Polariton and two-photon technology, enabling focused light spots with a diameter around 10 nm. FOCUS will also develop new light sensitive molecules that will be selectively activated by our new photonic tools. These new technological innovations will provide a way to control activation of single light sensitive molecules and will allow the investigation of molecular computation in a biological environment and with an unprecedented resolution. On the basis of these investigations and by using the developed new tools, FOCUS will design and test new MDs for amplification and information processing. FOCUS will: i - provide new photonic devices to control single molecules; ii lay out the basis for understanding molecular computation in biological systems; iii - provide proofs of concept and suggestions for designing new molecular artificial computing systems; iv- build prototypes of these new MDs. FOCUS has formed a highly interdisciplinary consortium composed of nanotechnologists able to fabricate the new photonic devices - i.e. Enzo Di Fabrizio (IIT), Alpan Bek (METU) and Marco Lazzarino (CBM), chemists able to develop the photoswitches and assemble the MDs i.e. Pau Gorostiza (IBEC) and Ljiljana Fruk (KIT) and biologists able to understand molecular mechanisms i.e. Vincent Torre (SISSA) and Fabio Benfenati (IIT). The two companies RappOptoElectronic and NT-MDT Europe BV will transform the new tools and devices into marketable products.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2009.8.2 | Award Amount: 7.14M | Year: 2010

The SOLID concept is to develop small solid-state hybrid systems capable of performing elementary processing and communication of quantum information. This involves design, fabrication and investigation of combinations of qubits, oscillators, cavities, and transmission lines, creating hybrid devices interfacing different types of qubits for quantum data storage, qubit interconversion, and communication. The SOLID main idea is to implement small solid-state pure and hybrid QIP systems on common platforms based on fixed or tunable microwave cavities and optical nanophotonic cavities. Various types of solid-state qubits will be connected to these hubs: Josephson junction circuits, quantum dots and NV centres in diamond. The approach can immediately be extended to connecting different types of solid-state qubits in hybrid devices, opening up new avenues for processing, storage and communication. The SOLID objectives are to design, fabricate, characterise, combine, and operate solid-state quantum-coherent registers with 3-8 qubits. Major SOLID challenges involve: Scalability of quantum registers; Implementation and scalability of hybrid devices; Design and implementation of quantum interfaces; Control of quantum states; High-fidelity readout of quantum information; Implementation of algorithms and protocols. The SOLID software goal is to achieve maximal use of the available hardware for universal gate operation, control of multi-qubit entanglement, benchmark algorithms and protocols, implementation of teleportation and elementary error correction, and testing of elementary control via quantum feedback. An important SOLID goal is also to create opportunities for application-oriented research through the increased reliability, scalability and interconnection of components. The SOLID applied objectives are to develop the solid-state core-technologies: Microwave engineering; Photonics; Materials science; Control of the dynamics of small, entangled quantum systems


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2010-ITN | Award Amount: 5.09M | Year: 2011

Background and motivation: The combination of cloud computing, service-orientation, and on-demand application delivery is bringing about a paradigm shift in our ways of computer usage. As the software industry moves closer to service-based application engineering and cloud-based application delivery, the traditional models, methodologies, and technologies for developing and offering software applications are becoming increasingly challenged. Emerging questions and research challenges form a vibrant new field with tremendous industrial innovation potential in which Europe needs to establish excelling research. Timely and focused education of future researchers in this area is therefore essential. Major objectives: The RELATE Initial Training Network aims to establish a network of international academic and industrial partners for a joint research training effort in the area of engineering and provisioning service-based cloud applications. The training is intended to not only shape high-level academic researchers, but also educate next generation experts and innovators in the European software industry. Through an integrative and multidisciplinary research approach, RELATE aims to promote the advancement of the state of the art in the related areas of model-driven engineering and formal methods, service-based mash-ups and application integration, security, performance, and trust in service-based cloud applications, and quality management and business model innovation. Consortium: The RELATE Initial Training Network joins organisations with internationally recognised research activities in the area of engineering and provisioning of service-based applications. At its core, the network consists of five academic organisations and two companies from Germany, Greece, France, UK and Czech Republic, and is complemented by six additional industrial and academic associated partners from Germany, Greece, and France.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: NOE | Phase: ICT-2007.3.5 | Award Amount: 5.23M | Year: 2008

Today Biophotonics is an emerging multidisciplinary research area, embracing all light-based technologies applied to the life sciences and medicine. Enhancing diagnosis, therapy and follow-up care, Biophotonics drives the trend towards personalized medicine and plays a crucial role in limiting health-care costs and appropriately addressing the accelerating challenges associated with population aging and the consequent increase in age-related diseases. Its economic and socio-political importance is reflected in the enormous annual growth rates of industries in this field.\nAs a Network of Excellence, PHOTONICS4LIFE aims to provide a coherent framework for research in the strongly fragmented field of Biophotonics in Europe. One of the challenging tasks of PHOTONICS4LIFE is therefore to map and to overview the research and technological developments across these various subdisciplines with their manifold but not sufficiently explored interdependences.\nPHOTONICS4LIFE targets to bridge the gaps between the different research communities ranging from Physics and Engineering via Chemistry and Physical Chemistry to Biology and Medicine for the analysis of cell processes, for non- and minimally-invasive diagnosis and therapy and for point-of-care diagnostics.\nPHOTONICS4LIFE aims to link the expertise of research institutes towards the SMEs and large companies in order to foster Biophotonics research and to strengthen the economical competitiveness of Europe in the global Biophotonics market.\nPHOTONICS4LIFE is composed of partners standing on the forefront of Biophotonics research and covering together the broadness of fields including the related ethical issues. The partners will work towards a durable integration, provide a critical mass that will act as a nucleus for integrated fundamental and applied Biophotonics research across Europe and reach out to the international scene. With its objectives, PHOTONICS4LIFE is aimed directly at improving the quality of life.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH-2007-2.1.2-5 | Award Amount: 3.97M | Year: 2009

NeuroXsys will generate regulatory maps and models of the human X chromosome based on evolutionary conservation, with special attention to genes and regions implicated in X-linked neurological diseases. Vertebrate chromosomes are subdivided into domains of genomic regulatory blocks (GRBs) and NeuroXsys aims to map all GRBs on the X chromosome through bioinformatic approaches, extract gene regulatory sequences, and model their activity through transgenic reporter assays in the zebrafish juvenile and adult brain. One of the major deliverables of this project will be the publication of an online database that achieves correlation of disease genes ordered with respect to their regulatory regions and their experimentally and bioinformatically assessed function. NeuroXsys will seek to identify human disease mutations in neural gene regulatory elements. Implicated elements will be studied as regulators at single cell resolution in the zebrafish and mouse brain, defining expression patterns driven by the normal and mutant human regulatory DNA sequences. NeuroXsys will generate a regulatory map of a human chromosome.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: HEALTH-2009-2.1.1-1 | Award Amount: 15.31M | Year: 2010

In recent years, the zebrafish has emerged as a new vertebrate model organism for biomedical research which offers a unique combination of traits: a short generation time, small size and efficient breeding procedures make it the best choice among vertebrates for forward genetic screening and small-molecule screens, including toxicology, while the transparent embryo and larva offers unique opportunities for imaging of cell movement and gene expression in a developing organism. Building on recent advances in the zebrafish field, we will conduct high-throughput phenotyping of at least a thousand regulatory genes relevant for common human diseases, by behavioural assays (for viable mutants), 3D / 4D imaging and expression profiling (including high-throughput sequencing). We will include mutants generated by TILLING and by the new zinc finger nuclease method, as well as mutants from earlier forward-genetics screens. A phenotyping effort of this scale has never been undertaken before in any vertebrate organism. Complementing the study of mutants relevant for neurological disorders, we will produce an atlas of gene expression in the brain, the most comprehensive one in a vertebrate. We will further perform a genome-wide characterisation of regulatory elements of potential disease genes by a combination of bioinformatics and transgenics. Small-molecule screening for mutant rescue or disease-relevant processes will identify candidate drugs and provide insights into gene function. Our increasing knowledge on the regulators and their interactions with regulatory targets will be integrated with knowledge at cellular and organismic level. By capitalising on the virtues of the zebrafish system, this systems biology approach to the regulome will gain unique knowledge complementing ongoing work in mammalian systems, and provide important new stimuli for biomedical research.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: JTI-CP-FCH | Phase: SP1-JTI-FCH.2012.3.2 | Award Amount: 7.36M | Year: 2013

This project aims at improving the robustness, manufacturability, efficiency and cost of Fuel Cells state-of-the-art SOFC stacks so as to reach market entry requirements. We propose a focused project addressing the key issues that have manifested themselves in the course of the ongoing product development efforts at Topsoe Fuel Cell A/S (TOFC). The key issues are the mechanical robustness of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), and the delicate interplay between cell properties